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AND THE MAN ' vnlo DETERMINE GOOtMUJa, OR |ADPIjOWII^^^^B LTHOUGH the plow is the' first im plement used by man in field farming, real progress in its devel opment has come only within the last fifty years. First mention of the plow in the Old Testament is by Job where he says: “The f t'ljy oxen plowing and the asses feed- V y ing beside them." In Job's time the plow was probably a crooked stick drawn by oxen, with a straight stick bound to their horns to which a grass rope was attached. This kind of implement was in use for thou sands of years afterward, and even now in Old Mexico, within a hundred miles of the border land of America, the crooked stick is still used. About a hundred and fifty years ago a plow with a wooden mold board was devised, and this held sway for fifty years, when some genius of a blacksmith put an iron edge on it, and it was then thought that the perfection of plow making had been reached. Then came the plow with the iron mold board and wooden frame. This was followed by the all-steel plow, which now reigns supreme. The aristocratic offspring of the all-steel plow Is the disk, and this Implement, in connection with the plow itself, is doing such good work that It does not seem possible that we shall see any decided improvement in this instrument for some time. Good plowing depends as much upon the kind of plow used as upon the man who directs it. A great many farmers have yet to learn that one plow will not do satisfactory work in all kinds of soil and under all conditions. Perhaps the best plow to use is the one with the chilled share and point. I think it Is a mis take to use a plow point that has to be con stantly renewed; for every time a blacksmith tinkers with it he turns out a different kind of plow, and this is one reason why there is so much poor plowing done in this country. When a man gets a plow which does the work to his entire satisfaction he should stick to it, and never permit its shape to be changed, if pos sible. With a soft point that has to be con stantly renewed this is not possible, and that is why I prefer the chilled point. Daniel Webster once essayed to be a plow maker. After years of deep thinking and experi menting, he turned out a most wonderful imple ment. It was over twelve feet long, built of wood, with an iron point, and required four yokes of oxen to pull it. It turned a furrow eighteen Inches wide, twelve inches deep, which resem bled the irrigation ditches of today. This did not last long, however, and was never used out side of Massachusetts. To do good work the plow must scour well; CHATS WITH THE AMBITIOUS FOLK By ORISON SWETT MARDEN. NEVER TOO LATE FOR SELF-IM PROVEMENT. A New York millionaire —a prince among merchants —took me over his palatial residence on Fifth avenue, every room of which was a triumph of the architect’s, of the decorator's, and of the upholsterer’s art. 1 was told that the decorations of a single sleeping room had cost SIO,OOO. On the walls were paintings which cost fabulous prices, and about the rooms were pieces of massive and costly fur niture and draperies representing a small fortune, and covering the floors were carpets on which it seemed al most sacrilege to tread. He had ex pended a fortune for physical pleas ure, comfort, luxury and display, but there was scarcely a book in the house. It was pitiful to think of the physi cal surfeit and mental starvation of the children of such a home as that. He told me that he came to the city a poor boy, with all his worldly pos sessions done up in a little red ( ban dana. “I am a millionaire,” he said, “but I want to tell you that I would give half I have today for a decent education.” One of the sad things about the neglected opportunities for self-im provement is that they put people of great natural ability at a disadvan tage among those who are their men tal inferiors. I know a pitiable case of a born nat uralist whose education was so ne glected in youth that later, when he came to know more about natural his tory than almost any man of his day, he could not write a grammatical sen tence, and could never make his ideas live in words, perpetuate them in books, because of his ignorance of evqn the rudiments of an education. Think of the suffering of this splen did man, who was conscious of pos sessing colossal scientific knowledge, and yet was absolutely unable to ex press himself grammatically! It is difficult to conceive of a greater mis fortune than always to be embar rassed and handicapped just because of the neglect oT early years. Many a girl of good natural ability spends her most productive years as a cheap clerk or in a mediocre position because she never thought it worth EXPLANATION OF THE CROWD Few Members of Big Gatherings Act and Think as They Would Do as Individuals. The most striking peculiarity pre sented by a phychological crowd, ac cording to Gustav Le Bou, is the fol lowing: Whoever be the individuals that compose it. however like or un like be their mode of life, their occu rations, their character or their in telligence. the fact that they have SEEK TO REDUCE TYPHOID Federal Authorities Take Steps to Prevent the Spread of the Too Prevalent Disease. There were 30.000 deaths from ty phoid in the United States last year and tQO,o\*o people were incapacitated i'y the disease, according to a United States health report. The necessity pointed out for precautionary meas ures to prevent such inroads in the Secure. . ‘ . ..... r .... ..V.- v , - .' ... v,'.;.’ . . .... ... • •.’.<• 's'<'//£' ’ " .v, A * f • <• •#£#%:<£ .r V . •'y "%*?•* *• that is, the soil must slip from the mold board evenly, leaving the surface bright and clean. Poor scouring is due to many causes. The mold board may be too soft to take a good polish, or it may be imperfectly ground, or slight imper fections may have been left in the surface. To test a good mold board is an easy matter. By running the fingers over the surface from the bottom to the top one can easily tell whether the plow has the right shape, and whether its surface is perfect. A plow should have a hardened edge and point—the harder the better—because upon the wearing qualities of the plow depend success or failure to a very large degree. For breaking new sod, a plow with a long, sloping share and mold board should be used, but for stubble or well-tilled ground the plow with short, steep mold board is better. The breaking plow turns the sod over evenly, and covers all growth so that it rots and forms humus in the soil. Upon the shape of the plow also depends the draft. A plow unsuited to the soil on which it is used will cause a much greater draft than is necessary, wearing out the strength of the team while to develop her mental faculties or to take advantage of opportunities within reach to fit herself for a su perior position. Thousands of girls unexpectedly thrown on their own re sources have been held down all their lives because of neglected tasks in youth, which at the time were dis missed with a careless “1 don't think it worth v.hile.” They did not think it would pay to go to the bottom of any study at school, to learn to keep accounts accurately, or fit themselves to do anything in such a way as to be able to make a living by it. They expected to marry, and never pre pared for being dependentent on themselves —a contingency against which marriage, in many instances, is no safeguard. The number of perpetual clerks is constantly being recruited by those who did not think it worth while as boys to learn to write a good hand or to master the fundamental branches of knowledge requisite in a business career. The ignorance com mon among young men and young women in factories, stores and of fices, everywhere, in fact, in this land of opportunity where youth should be U. S. BATTL ... t ...... .. I been transformed into a crowd puts them in possession of a sort of col lective mind which makes them feel, think and act in a manner quite dif ferent from that in which each indi vidual of them would feel, think and act were he in a state of isolation. There are certain ideas and feelings j which do not come into being or do not transform themselves into acts except in the case of individuals form ing a crowd. The psychological crowd is a pro visional being formed of heterogene- The United States health service is starting a campaign of education to I reduce typhoid. It is pointed out that few communities in this country hav ing a population of 2.000 or more have remained free from this disease for a year at a time. In many American cities there has occurred within the last twenty years a considerable reduction of typhoid fever. Due in a large part to improved | sanitary conditions in the cities, the typhoid rate for some entire states i has shown a material decrease. For well educated, is a pitiable thing. How often stenographers are morti fied by the use of some unfamiliar word or term, or quotation, because of the shallowness of their prepara tion! It is not enough to be able to take' dictation when ordinary letters are given, not enough to do the ordi nary routine of office work. The am bitious stenographer must be pre pared for the unusual word or expres sion, must have good reserves of knowledge to draw from in case of emergency. If she is constantly slip ping up on her grammar, or is all at sea the moment she steps out of her ordinary routine, her employer knows that her preparation is shallow, that her education is limited, and her pros pects will be limited, also. Everywhere we go we see men and women, especially from twenty-five to forty years of age, who are cramped and seriously handicapped by the lack of early training. I often receive let ters from such people, asking if it is possible for them to educate them selves so late in life. Of course it is. There are so many good correspond ence schools today, and institutions like Chautauqua, so many evening ESHIP READY FOR SEA ous elements which for a moment are combined exactly as the cells which constitute a living body form by their reunion anew being which displays characteristics very different from those possessed by each of the cells singly What really takes place Is a combi nation followed by the creation of new characteristics, just as in chemistry certain elements, when brought into dontact — bases and acids, for example —combine to form anew body pos sessing properties quite different from the country as a whole, according to available figures, the rate has been reduced about 50 per cent In the last 40- years. But the present rate is about the same as that which pre vailed in some of the other advanced nations of the world 30 years ago. In other words the United States is a generation behind the times, in re spect to the ®ductioa pi it§ typhoid rate. | China la running short of window . glass. The war In Europe is to blame. and the patience of the plowman. The more abrupt the curvature of the mold board the more pulverizing the action upon the furrow slice. The use of a colter reduces the draft materially, particularly on tough soils, clover sod and the like. Some farmers claim that the only first-class plowing that can be done is with the walking plow, but I have seen some of the best plowing done with a sulky plow. There is not much dif ference in the draft. A sulky plow carrying a man will be about as easy on a team as walking, because the friction of the mold board of the walking plow is eliminated to some extent. The draft of the walking plow depends largely upon the way in which it is set. If properly adjusted with a steady pull so that the heel or wing does not press too heavily against the soil, the plow will run easily, smoothly, and with very little attention from the plowman. I have seen the men follow the plow round after round without even touching the handle, except at the turning point. Another important thing in plowing is to have the width of the furrow* just right. If the plow' is set to take a larger land than it can turn over properly, it will leave much vegetation un covered, and the field will be ridgy. The plow should be set to exactly cut and cover all that it enters, and no more. When a plow runs properly it should set exactly level. No man is a good farmer unless he is first of all a good plow f man* Upon the skill with w r hich he plows his fields depends to a considerable extent the facility with wilich he can cultivate his crop, and, in fact, its yield. The question of deep or shallow plowing is one which must be studied by every man, and adapted to the needs of his soil and his crop. Deeply plowed soil contains moisture longer, affords better home for fertilizer and all kinds of plant food, is more easily cultivated, and is al ways to be desired. ... ... , schools, lectures, books, libraries and periodicals, that men and women who are determined to improve themselves have abundant opportunities to do so. One trouble with people who are smarting under the consciousness of deficient education is that they do not realize the immense value of util izing spare minutes. Like many boys who will not save their pennies and small change because they cannot see how a fortune could ever grow by the savipg, they cannot see how a little studying here and there each day will ever amount to a good substitute for a college education. People who feel their lack of educa tion, and who can afford the outlay, can make wonderful strides in a year by putting themselves under good tu tors, who will direct their reading and study along different lines. There is one special advantage in self-education—you can adapt the studies to your own particular needs better than you could in school or col lege. Everyone who reaches middle life without an education should first read and study along the line of his own vocation, and then broaden him self as much as possible by reading on other lines. Every well-ordered household ought to protect the time of those who de sire to study at home. At a fixed hour every evening during the long winter there should be by common consent a quiet period for mental con centration, for what is worth while in mental discipline, a quiet hour unin terrupted by the thief callers. There is a divine hunger in every normal being for self-expansion, a yearning for growth or enlargement. Beware of selling this craving of nature for self-unfoldment. There is untold wealth locked up in the long winter evenings and odd moments ahead of you. A great opportunity confronts you. What will you do with it? (Copyright, 1913, by the McClure Newspa per Syndicate.) No Longer Room at the Top. Prof. Scott Nearing says the motto, “there is plenty of room at the top” is no longer true in this country on account of the fact that in every great industry only three of every one thou sand employees have a chance to rise to the top. The professor’s statement is no doubt literally correct, but he will probably not deny that the motto still applies to those spheres of activ ity which _annot be considered under the head of industry.—Washington Herald. those of the bodies that have served to form it. Needed It. Theatrical Manager—Hi, there! What are you doing with that pistol? Discouraged to kill myself. Theatrical Manager—Hold on a min ute. If you’re bound to do it. won’t you be good enough to leave a note saying you did it for love‘of Miss Star, our leading lad\ ? It’s a dull season and every little helps. When Courage Comes. Knowledge is an antidote to fear — Knowledge, Use and Reason, with its higher aids. The child is as much in danger from a staircase, or the fire grate, or a bathtub, or a cat, as the soldier from a cannon or an ambush. Each surmounts the fear as fast as he precisely understands the peril, and learns the means of resistance i Knowledge takes the fear out of the heart, knowledge and use, which is knowledge in practice. They can cor j quer who believe they can.- Emers. WAUSAU PILOT HOW NOBEL MADE DISCOVERY Cut Finger Caused Him to Find a Way of Handling Nitroglycerin. With Safety. When that very dangerous explosive, nitroglycerin, was first invented ex traordinary precautions had to be tak en to prevent accidents while the stance was being handled, but. not withstanding this, so many disasters occurred that there seemed to be strong probabilities that its manufac ture and use would have to be pro hibited, says an English paper. After several governments had actu ally interdicted its use, how r ever, means were discovered by which this powerful explosive could be used with a minimum of danger to those who handled it. One of the methods employed was to convert the nitroglycerin into dyna mite by its absorption in the infusorial earth known as kieselguhr. This process, however, involved a reduction of the explosive power of the nitro glycerin and explosives chemists per sisted in their researches to find some substance w hich, when added to nitro glycerin, would render it safe for han dling without diminishing its explosive force. One of these chemists was Nobel. It is on record that one day while No bel was at work in his laboratory he cut his finger, and in order to stop the bleeding he painted some collodion (a liquid preparation akin to guncot ton) over the cut to form a protective artificial skin.' Having done this, he poured some of the collodion, by way of an experiment, into a vessel containing nitroglycerin, when he noticed that the tw-o sub stances mixed and formed a jellylike mass. He at once set to work to investi gate this substance, and the outcome of these experiments was blasting gel atin, a mixture containing 90 per cent of nitroglycerin and 10 per cent of soluble guncotton. Thus, as a result of a very trivial occurrence, that vio lent explosive, blasting gelatin. w*as discovered. Paderewski’s “Pupil.” Paderewski arrived in a small west ern towm about noon one day and de cided to take a walk in the afternoon. While strolling along he heard a piano, and, following the sound, came to a house on wdiich was a sign reading: “Miss Jones. Piano lessons 25 cents an hour.” Pausing to listen ha heard the young woman trying to play one of Chopin’s nocturnes, and not succeeding very well. Paderewski w r alked up to the house and knocked. Miss Jones came to the door and recognized him at once. De lighted, she invited him in and he sat down and played the nocturne as only Paderewski can, afterw T ard spending an hour in correcting her mistakes. Miss Jones thanked him and he de parted. Some months afterward he returned to the town, and again took the same walk. He soon came to the home of Miss Jones, and, looking at the sign, read: “Miss Jones. Piarjp lessons $1 an hour. (Pupil of Paderewski.)” Physician of Eminence. Dr. Richard Pearson Strong, having quelled the epidemic of typhus fever in Serbia, thereby saving countless thousands of lives, now returns to this country to resume his place as pro fessor of tropical medicine at the Harvard Medical school. He had pre vious plague experience in the Phil ippines and China. Doctor Strong was born in Fortress Monroe, Virginia, March 18, 1872. It is said that even as a child he -was attracted to medicine as a profession, and that the medical officers at the fort were his chosen friends. He graduated from the medi cal School at Johns Hopkins, winning his M. D., in 1897. Then came a year as resident house physician at the Johns Hopkins hospital. He entered the army July 23, 1898, as assistant surgeon. After his splendid work in China he was induced to attach him self to Harvard university, where he has operated along research lines. Malayan Rubber Industry. Since 1597 developments in the rub ber industry in Malay have been enor mous. In 1897 about 350 acres were planted to rubber. Year after year more jungle was cleared and the acre age increased rapidly. A tremendous development was felt in 1906. De mand for rubber the world over taxed the supply and speculators rushed to put land under cultivation. It is stated that in that year alone 150,000 acres were alienated for rubber cultivation. In 1912 there were 621,621 acres under rubber, and at the end of 1912 there were 1,055 rubber estates of over 100 acres in extent, the average yield per acre being 260 pounds. War Influences Paris Veil Styles. The war veil is the latest freak of fashion in Paris. Though quite gro tesque in appearance, it is popular in the sense that it expresses the patriot ism of the women. The two designs most frequently seen are those of a black cannon wo ven in the mesh just where it rests on the cheek, and a “beauty spot” woven to the shape of the Red Cross, but done in white on a black background. Heavy Guard for Morgan’s Place. J. P. Morgan’s estate at Glen Cove is still under guard and is likely to be until the end of'the war. Three men are on duty by day and four by night. One is on post at the bridge connect ing East island with the mainland, and not only every traveler, but every package that passes can do so only after having been subjected to his scrutiny. The others patrol the beaches. Work for Crippled Soldiers. One form which Germany’s provi sion for the employment of crippled soldiers is taking is the purchase of two large landed estates in the neigh borhood of Magdeburg, where each man will have a plot of ground for growing vegetables and fruit, which can be easily disposed of in the Magdeburg market. One estate cost $375,000, and the other about the same price. Diamond as a Talisman. The diamond, being the most pre | cious and beautiful of gems, has in numerable legends connected with it, ■ but it has always been considered the I safest of talismans Eecause it sig- I nifies purity, innocence, and joy, and | is supposed to maintain peafce. it has I come to be the engagement symbol. ' Gasoline and Salt. When cleaning spots use a little salt in the gasoline ard there vili not be the objectionable ring left on the goods when dry. Among the most useful of modern weapons is the motorcycle machine gun. One of them is here seen being helped through a rough place, and, below, dismounted and in action. Russian soldiers, taken prisoner by the Austrians in Galicia, compelled to work at road making. ETON BOYS MAKE MUNITIONS Many of the Eton boys have formed a “black brigade” and volunteered for work in England's munition factories. One of them is here seen at his task. Historic Pen Used at Wedding. One of the many aristocratic Eng lish war nurses is Lady Bangor, who is helping to look after the wounded in Egypt. Like her husband, who was a captaia in The royal artillery be fore he came into the title, and who Is now back in the service, Lady Ban gor is Irish, and was Miss Agnes Da cre Hamilton of Cornacassa, Monag han. When she was married in 1905, the register was signed with a his toric pen, namely, the quill used by the ambassadors of the powers when they signed the treaty of Vienna. The Lord Bangor of that day, being secre tary to Lord Castlereagh, secured the pen as a memento, and it is a treasure at Castle Ward, a big place, beautiful ly situated on Strangford Lough, and a mixture of Greek and Byzantine ar chitecture. The builder and his wife could not agree about the style, so a compromise was made. Convincing. “Do you think that man is insane?" asked one lawyer. “He couldn’t possibly be so,” re plied the other. “He feigned insanity too cleverly.” WIRELESS MESSAGE ON PIANO New York Man Tells of Results of Ex periments He Has Conducted for Some Time. Ernest W. Hawkins of Peekskill N. Y., sends the following interesting account of his experiments with a novel form of antennae for wireless telegraphy: “To catch the mysterious electric waves that carry our wireless mes sages through space I find that our FROM SEVEN TO THIRTEEN Said to Be Age When Spirit of Reck lessness Especially Dominates the Child. The motor development of the child from the age of seven to thirteen, says Philip Davis in his book “Street Land," is far greater than its mental development. The thirst for adventure, for dis covery, for taking chances Is the strongest characteristic of this age. BRITISH CAMP ON PERSIAN GULF Scene in a flooded infantry camp of the British forces near Balsa on th# Persian gulf. ODD AMBULANCE USED IN THE ALPS A curious ambulance is this sled mounted on an txle and bum •<' two low wheels. It is used by the Italians in the Alps to conv v the! l wounded soldiers to the military hospitals. piano works most efficiently when I connect the wires of it to my ap paratus. With its aid I can receive from the following high-powered radio stations: Brooklyn navy yard, New York Herald and Fort Totten. The signals, however, are not by any means so loud as when I use my out side antennae, which are 40 feet above the ground and 100 feet long, and con sist of four copper wire3 on spread ers, the wires being two feet apart. “I receive much of my ne-vs by aid of wireless and also the time signals The greatest risk, the more it sat isfies certain children’s unconscious calis for acts and daring and cour age. In illustration, Mr. Davis tells or discovering two boys swinging from telephone wires on which they had climbed. “You may be electrocuted,” he warned them. “That's what we want,” one of them answered grandly. Cb-operation on the part of teachers, parents, police and public service corn sent by the Arlington (Va.) vireieS station. I hold a station licens also an operator’s license, both issafj by the United States government. official call is 2 J C.” —New orl World. Birds Warn Allies. A soldier on leave tells bow bir® warn the allies of a gas attack. before the smell of the fumes can ® detected in tho trenches there is * great clamoring of birds awakens from their night perches. panies, the author says, will 60 ° e extent solve the social problem P r * sented by this spirit of reckl- 3 - 651 among young children. Just a Fancy. True to form, somebody has a*>' set the notion in circulation that cm • players are great military The theory sounds very pretty, and t® only trouble with it is that it isn : Napoleon and Frederick the Gre* were both poor chess players.—Bu® 1 ® Times.