Newspaper Page Text
$I)r farm. Farming- as a Business. It takes a ' smart " man to be a suecessul farmer. I am well aware that quite a different opinion is en t'.rtained by many. How often do we heai the expression, "He is only a farmer,'' or heai the business spoken of in a deprecatory manner by presumably intelligent ami other wise well informed people ! This is a great mistake, and only shows lamentable ignorance. The busi ness of fanning is a strictly honor able one, and, if rightly conducted, one of the most healthy, pleasant and profitable employments that a man can engage in. In order to be a successful farmer, however, a man must be as intelli gent, and must understand his bus iness, as he who is a successful merchant and professional man. In order to succeed in anv business a man must understand it fully in all it branches, and must also at tend to it. This is the great secret of good farming. All our most suc cessful farmers those who have made money in the business who have built up for themselves beau tiful homes who have broad, fer tile, well-tilled acres, made so by the result of their industry who have improved breeds of cattle, hogs and sheep these are they who un derstand the business, and not only understand it, but attend to it. The business is a good one, and the reason why so many farmers make a failure of it, only eking out a bare living hardly that some times and remain in debt year after year, working hard, yet having little, is because they don't under stand their business. They run it bv brute force instead of" brains. They pattern too much by others (generally after a poor example), and do not look into the why and wherefore of raising crop?. Thev are not able to tell how much ft costs them to raise a crop, or what their profit may be, if any. They are generally " too poor" to take an agricultural paper. They used the same old and clumsy tools that their fathers did before them, and are not in favor of improvements. Is it to be wondered at that such farmers are not successful.? There are many things that may be mentioned that will be of service to those who would become hotter farmers. One of the most impor tant aids is a reliable agricultural paper. Many say they '' cannot afford, to take one." I say they cannot afford to do without one. Such a paper has correspondents among the best farmers in all parts of the country men of experience, who know what they are saying and new and useful ideas on practi cal subjects are constantly kept be fore the reader. Improvements in agriculture of all kinds wherever made, are immediately brought to notice, with a thousand and one useful ideas. Another way to improve is to watch those of your neighbors who are most successful observe their management, the crops they raise, manner of tilling and handling. AVatch closely ; you can learn as much from their blunders as you can from their successes. AVhen they make a mistake, remember it, and do not do the same. Keep an account of each crop you raise, ex pense of seed, culture and market ing. Find out whether it pays you or not. Discard those that are un profitable, and adopt others that will pay. Keep an account of all your receipts and expenses. Many a dollar slips out every year on foolish expenses that would not if you made a practice of writing down all expenses. See to it that the balance is on the right side of your ledger at the end of the year. Spend your leisure hours in making improvements on the farm, or in useful reading at home, instead of sitting around in the grocery at the "corners." Try to make your home pleasant, "and the most at tractive place on earth. These are all helps towards becoming a srood armer. The Burt Oat. Editor Southern Plantation: I see in the Plantation that you request those who have raised this oat to give the result of their ex periments. I could not get seed last spring, but I was in Mr. Burt's farm in February, while he was gowing. I was sowing at the same time a very excellent variety of rust-proof oat, on much stronger land. His oats grew much taller and were ready to harvest fifteen or twenty days before mine. I think it the best oat for this country that has been introduced, and particularly for thin lands. A. F. Goldsmith. Port Deposit, Ala. Hauling- out Manure. For hind that is to be manured in I the spring, the manure may be hauled out upon it in the winter, ' piled in largo heaps, say a load in I each, then have them put in good shape, and compacted on the sides, j and then cover them up with earth ! lightlv, just enough to prevent the j manure from drying on the outside, and the escape of ammonia. When the land is to be plowed the ma nure can be spread, and time used in hauling it, if deferred till spring, is thus saved. Farmers must use t heir brains, as well as t heir hands, in successful farming by planning their work in advance. In winter their teams may be idle, or partial ly so; and their owner.- and hired help may be taking tilings easy. Now, why not haul out what ma nure is ready? "Time is money" we all know; and if any spring work can be done in winter it is so much clear gain. It is customary to do all repair ing of fences in the spring, but why not repair them in winter, when one can spare the time? The winds of winter may displace a board or rail here and there, but a few hours' labor will repair a mile of fences in the spring when it is put in good order in the fall. New fences may be built in the fall as well as in the spring. In brief, hundreds of dol lars may be saved on farms by do ing work in winter that is usually left till spring, and then but half done for the want of time. Fann ers Friend. Co. n is the Cheapest Sneak imr of food for Food, poultry, the World savs that corn is the cheapest that we can use in the main, and it is very good to fatten fowls upon young stock especially. But when we say "feed corn" we mean that this article should be fed in the riirht way. Man cannot live by bread alone," we read in the good book. So fowls cannot live upon whole corn alone, though it be never so good. When this common grain is used, it should always be crushed, or cracked, il fed dry. If in ground meal this should usually be scalded and mixed half and half with turnips and potatoes, boiled. This is a satisfying and excellent mess for daily morning use. But to throw whole corn to the poultry twice or three times a day and turn away with the idea that you have done your duty toward your stock is a very grossly mistaken opinion. Vary the feed. Give one-third cracked corn or meal, with two thirds cooked vegetables, and other sound grains as wheat, barley, oats, etc. Thus you will feed economically, judiciously and pro fitably, in the lonr run. Too Much Toll. A Kansas subscriber makes the following statement and inquiry. Having recently sent to mill a grist of clean, choice wheat for the grinding of which I paid in cash I received in return for each bushel sent twenty-four pounds of Hour, nine pounds" of bran, and five pounds of shorts, being an aggre gate return of onlv thirty-eight pounds per bushel, and showing a shrinkage of no less than twenty two pounds. Would you have the kindness to state what should have been the amount end proportions of the products received? "Choice clean wheat" should weigh sixty pounds per bushel. The shrinkage should not exceed thiee pounds. A well-constructed mill will make forty-live pounds of good family Hour out of sixty pounds of good wheat will make three pounds of shorts and nine pounds of bran. A mill less com plete in its structure shoulu make the same, or even more, in the ag gregate. Imperfect grinding or bolting will reduce the yield of Hour, but will add to the shorts and bran. Colonel J. A. Stewart, of Georgia, one of the best millers in the United States, a man fifty years in the business, informs us that, in his experience with custom mills grinding for the one -eighth part the yield of flour per meas ured bushel was from thirty six to forty two pounds, depending on condition and quality of the wheat, and upon the number and quan tity of bolting-cloth, fine or course." He adds that "the aggregate yield from sixty poiilu.s of choice whe. should never bele:s than fifty-sevc-n pounds." "Winter Management of Breeding Swine. AVe give a few general rules for the direction of the young breeder, and regret that we nave not space to assign the reason for each: FOOD. 1st. Make a kettle of corn mush every day, and cover it with boards and blankets to keep it hot. 2d. Put a bushel and a half of bran or light shorts into a kerosine barrel, add four pails of hot mush, THE FAR1IER -A.ISTD lECHAKIC one pint of salt and fill with well water. This is a breakfast for twenty-four large ows. or thirty six young sows. For young sows ahvava u.-e the shorts. 3d". After the slop give each an imal from two to four ears of dry corn, as it seem to demand. 4th. Kcpeat the prix.-e.-s at 4 o'clock r. m. and, a- .-oon as they are through put up for the night. 5th. In c-ue of quite young jugs, cook stronger short.-with the mush and feed ofteiier. Oth, If an animal is not inclined to exercise; feed coarser food and ks of it. and, pursue the same course if the animal shows weak ness in the back. If the weakness continues, give ft teaspoonful of Fpsom salts aim ginger with a little salt petre daily. 7th. The morning meal should be fed in the building where they sleep. Sth. Never feed oh the north side of the pens, nor in any place exposed to the wind. "Jth. Notice how each animal eats and drinks. DIVISION. Do not allow more than six hogs to sleep in one nest; and, if possi ble, do not feed more than that number together. 1st. It avoids "piling up" in the nest. 2d. It enables the herdsman to give his individual attention to each animal. 3d. It secures an even condition of the whole herd. PEXS. 1st. The pens should be high, so as to be ventilated without admit ting strong currents of air. 2d. They should bo large enough to provide a place for feeding and sleeping. 3d. The nest must be kept clean and dry by cleaning and changing the straw every alternate day and by keeping out the storm. 4th. It is better to floor the nest but the wind must be kept from under. oth. Keep the swine out of their nests during the day, unless the weather is intensely cold. EXEJiCISE. 1st. Turn the swine out for ex ercise at 10 o'clock a. 3i.; and un less very cold or stormy, keep them out tiif4 p. 31. 2d. The place for exercise should be well protected on the north and the west. 3d. Do not let any hog remain at the pens without taking any ex ercise. 31 ALES. 1st. Breeding males should be fed the same as sows; except in place of dry corn give all the oats they will eat. 2. Give a small yard for exercise; and ff he will not notice a sow, give him more exercise. 3d. Xever allow the male to run with sows, nor worry with a sow. 4th. In case of a very choice an imal keep some cheaper male for a trial animal. 5th. One service is sufficient. Gth. After coupling, shut the male in his pen, and see that he has a good nest. 7th. A sow, in heat, should be separated from .her mates before and after coupling. 8th. Allow twenty-one days for retain; and from eight to ten days less than four months, for the pe riod of gestation. Oth. Make a careful memoran dum of all important transactions. Driving Rats Away Without Poison. AVe know of three methods: First, the old French plan: this is follow ed chiefly in Paris by men who make it a special business. They take a deep tub, with water on the bottom and a little elevation in the middle like an island, on which is only place for just one rat to sit on. The trap is covered and has a large balance-valve, opening downward. On the middle of this valve a piece of fried pork or cheese is placed, and when the rat walks on to it to get the cheese the valve goes down, drops the rat in the water and goes back in position. A road is made from the rat-hole to the top of the tub by means of pieces of board rubbed with cheese, so as to make the walk attractive to the rats. In the course of a night, some ten, twenty, or even more rats may zo down, and if the island was "not there, they would be found most all alive in the morning quietly swimming around; but the provis ion of the little island saves the trouble of killing them, because their egotistic instinct for preservation causes them to fight for the exclusive possession of the island, on which, in the morning, the strongest rat is found in solita ry possession, all the others bein killed and drowned around hiim Second, the Xew York plan, in vented by one of the friends. The floor near the rat-hole is covered with a thin layer of a most caustic pota-a. When the rats walk on this il makes their feet sore; these thev lick with their tongues, which makfs their mouth sore, and the result is that they shun this locali ty, not alone, but aiqear to tell all the rats m the neighborhood about it. and eventually the house is en tirely abandoned by them, notwith siand the houses around are full of rats. Third, the Dutch method. This is said to be used successfully in Holland. We have, however, never tried it. A number of rats are left to themselves in a very large trap or cage, with no food whatev er: their craving hunger will cause them to light, and the weakest will be beaten by the strongest. After a short time the fight is renewed and the next weakest is the victim, and so it goes on till one strong rat is left. When this has eaten the last remaining of any of the others, it is set loose; the animal has now acquired such a taste for rat flesh that he is the terror of all ratdom, going about seeking what rat he may devour. In an incredibly short time the premises will be abandoned by all other rats, which will not come back before the cannibal rat has left or died. Manufacturer. Shrinkage. Farmers are in doubt whether to take twenty cents for their corn this fall, says the Juva l!tjisf?r, direct from the field, or rely upon getting thirty cents net spring. After corn is dry enough foi cribbing it will shrink about one fifth by the next May. Unless well protected from the" vermin they will destroy from five to ten per cent. The interest of the money from the sales this fall would be five per cent. These three items make thirty-live per cent, in shrinkage, depredations and inter est. The shrinkage on wheat is about seven per cent., and depreda tions of vermin, three per cent. ; interest live, making altogether fifteen per cent., so that eighty-five cents this fall is better than one dollar next June. The shrinkage on potatoes is light, but the loss by frost and rot are heavy, and it is better to take thirty three per cent, less in the lull than the spring. Hog Ciioleua. I have lost nine ty Fssgx hog of different ages, since September first, with what is term ed hog cholera. If it is contagious, I wish to ask your numerous cor respondents whether my hogs could have taken the disease from hogs passing over the railroad from the great hog producing States of In diana and Illinois, where the disease prevails to an alarming extent. My farm is located one mile from one of the main thoroughfares to the east from these States. My hogs, for the previous five months, had only clover and bluegrass pastures to live on. I know of no local cause for the disease, unless they contracted it by wallowing in strong sulpher water and muck, which they did to a great extent during July, August and September. The disease to my knowledge, has never been in the neighborhood or vicini ty before, and my hogs are the on ly cases up to date in this country. II. L. H. Toledo, 0. For the Farmeii and Mechanic. PROP. FAIRCHILD S OPINION. You ask how I like living in. North Carolina ? I answer very much indeed. After a five years residence hery, I am fully con firmed in my previous good opinion of the State. And I do not hesi tate to urge others to settle here, provided they seek a delightful cli mate. And wish to assist in de veloping a State for which Xature has done as much, as for anv State in the Union. What kind of peo ple do you want? I answer. Far mers, mechanics and teachers. Me chanics with capital to build facto tories, and work up the great vari ety of products, that we can pro duce from our soil and mines. We want some capital, and a great deal of energy and industry. These qualities combined and applied, will produce results five times as apparent, and remunera tive as at the North. I can speak more particularly of Farming, or rather of Gardening, as this has been mv business since eomincr here, from Binghamton, X. Y. five years ago. I am running a truck farm, near Raleigh, and grow fruit, flow ers and vegetables for the Raleigh market. We grow nearly every variety of fruit and vegetable that is named in our seed'catalogues, and most varieties of flowers, at tain their highest perfection here, so that their cultivation is a perfect deli -lit. You ask if I have been success ful. I ans.ver; Yes, and no. Not in savin n nionev for I have made a heavy outlay. But in improving the soiland by"exierimcnt, finding out how much it is capable of produc ing and by building up a delight ful home "and a pleasant business, I have lecn amply successful. Look at the result. I bought twenty acres of land, a part of it red clay a part sand and sandv loam, as poor a piece of an old worn out cotton farm as could be found in the State. The vear I bought it, the owner raised" and sold, only four small bales of cotton, from "the 20 acres. Last year the value of my sales amounted to over eighty-four bales, and not all the land was under cul tivation. And I exK-ct to improve on this in the next live years. Of course, ordinary farming will not do this. I am speaking of trucking. Still I am satisfied that all of the ordinary crops can be grown here, as successfully, as at the North. And that the land can be brought up to a very high state of productiveness. It takes time, one vear will not do it, nor two, but live or ten, and then it will com pare with the bed of land anywhere. But why come South? "Chiefly to escape the rigor of your winters, and to find employment if you are struggling against the tide of the overcrowded industries of the North. As io climates our State can give you nearly every variety, from the high temperature at the Fast, the almost perfect weather of the centre to the cooler atmosphere of the elevated regions of the West. And as for delightful scenery, our mountains are unsurpassed. The healthfulness of this climate, is worthy of remark. It is very rare that settlers com ing here experience any sickness, from a change of climate, while many who come as invalids are entirely restored to health. The summer heat is not oppressive, and we can work in the field, with more comfort than we can on a hot sum mer day at the North. The win ters vary, but the cold is never ve ry severe. Last year in December we had quite a heavy snow, so far this year there has been no snow, we have had several cold days this month, the . mercury falling one morning to 10Q above zero seldom falls below 1G we never have more than three or four cold days in suc cession, never a week at a time that the ground cannot be plowed. And very much of the time the weather is warm and delightful. As to political prejudice I know nothing of it. I have been treated as kindly by our people, as any one could wish. As an evidence of good feeling, I had a partner with me in business four years ago, who had been an officer in the Confed erate army. And at the time was the political editor, on the leading Democratic paper of the State; while I was a republican. And had been a soldier in the Federal army. Any gentleman or lady can find as good society, and receive as kind treatment, as he is worthy to re ceive, in his own home circle at the North. Of course there are many things that are different, and manvi advantages are wanted that we arel accustomed to at the North. Our school interests are improving. Our State University at Chapel Hill is well organized, with a line corps of teachers. All the large towns, especially Raleigh, have pri vate schools and seminaries of a high order. And we now have here at Raleigh a good system of graded schools, with several North ern teachers of experience. Our church privileges are very pleasant. And I believe a person coming here will be sure to like it, as well as most any place to which they could go as strangers. But if you would be homesick, to move five miles from where you now live, then do not come South. If you live near a city there, be sure and settle near a city or village here. Do not make too violent a charge in your condition and surround- lllLr' There is great pleasure in farm ing here, and the season being so long, All crops come to maturity. The winters are so mild that much farm work can be done, such as plowing, hauling manure, repairing and building fences etc. etc. More time in which to do the work, hence requir.ng a less number of hands. You will find that there is room enough for all, our State is three thousand square miles larger than New York. And while we have only a million people, New York has nearly four and a haif millions. The whole State is well watered, there are thousands of springs and small streams in every section, of free stone or lime water according to locality. As to labor here, good farm hands can be hired for eight dollars per month, and rations, which will cost three or four dollars more. The colored people are good help, provided you are with them and watch and direct them all the time Thev are very docile and obedient. And more agreeable to handle than most white help. Jaxuahy CI, I will conclude bv savin nou! iire.ii i;tnu in mo Jutnr the Old North State. I ha-.e , my lot with her for hf. ,i And I again urge those new homes, to come with u, share in the bounties th:; ,,r., store for those who are.ndu-rr and willing to work. C. l'. Fa iu n:i: Raleigh, N. C, Jan. 14th A physiologist estimates :. , there are V4ih disorders t w); the human frame is liab.-. . : there are plenty of people v. h lieve they hae every one of :, A Western New-York farnu: . credited with the riotewortir, mark that he once carefully servt d the effect of the aplii. . of stable manure which iia i 1. saved under shelter till need- j f -use, and he eonehuh d that :.. ; , of it was worth about & miui, ... two loads of tlu.t exposed in usual wasteful way ; which sea reel y t a t i n g t h e cas e t oo s t r i ; '. , Analysis of leaves and wo..d ,; that of earthly matter or ashes :: mature foliage of the elm nnii.i.: 11 per cent. ; the solid wood ; . than 2; the leaves of the w;'.: ., more than 8 per cent., it r, "; only 0.4 ; those of the beeeh per cent., the wood only (.;, ; :h of the Kuropranoak 4. Oil per ee: the wood only O.oo ; those of :. pitch pine BJ per cent., the w. -only O.o?. Kx-President Hoiisly, of the K.i:. sas Horticultural Society, sav !.. has for several years protected fr,. : trees against teeth of rabbits hv im plying with a brush to the la:r.. say two-and-one-half feet up fr.:; the ground, a mixture of one-ti.:: 1 lime and two-thirds soft soap, v;; water enough added to thin, whole boiled, and while boilin- u little Hour stirred in to make i;. wash adhesive like paste. A deputy sherilT recently - out to arrest two brothers, w ho i,.t ; farms a few miles from Waco. '1 . -as. He found them at work in th- : fields picking cotton. He told th. what his errand was. Thev star. ; at him, winked at each other, gt ly but firmly disarmed him, ani ordered him to go to work in t:; field; and there he remained, pick ing cotton for dear life, until t!i. ollicials in his own frontier coiiii heard of the incident and rescue him. Several children were feeding a pet bear with corn at Austin. Texas. An ear was dropped out ! the reach of the bear, and a lini girl handed it to him. The h sportively pulled her to him. wh a house dog, believing the child In danger sprang upon the bear. Bi u,:. then carried the child to the fur ther part of the hogshead in whi'-ii he slept and returned to fight th dog, under the impression that tie dog would hurt tnc child. A par ty of darkies tried to protect tie child from her other protectors, the little one did no escape un:.i her mother killed both the h i; and doirwith a musket. Col. Thomas J. Conger, a North ern gentleman, thus write-, to Ch Polk, in a private letter: "1 am glad to see the State is at last put ting forth an ellort to let the j -pie outside of the State know of some of the great advantages North Carolina oilers to immigration. I came down here from New York my health required it, and ha-' succeeded in jarming far bevon i my expectations. I have been" im ploycd by the American Bible So ciety at the Bible House as the salesman for a number of years, i like the State and the people. It i very strange what absurd opinion there is about the South; that life and property is unsafe etc." The N. Y. Tribune says that it must be admitted that the South has many natural advantage f: cotton manufacturing, which are not possessed by the north. The streams that run their spindles are nover frozen, and up to this time thev have never been seriously af fee ted by the drouths of summer. The climate is peculiarly adapted for the first manipulation of the delicate raw material. In th North the :tir is frequently so drv that steam has to be introduced in to the weaving-room to keep the threads moist and prevent them from breaking. Such an expedient is never necessary in the South: even in mid-summer the atmos phere is always sufficiently humid to allow the spinning and "weaving process to go on without interrup tion. Further than this, the South ern mills require less gas and le fuel than their Northern rivals, ana the original cost of the construction is invariably much smaller. Their owners derive still greater advan tages, however, from the fact that, they can buy the raw material at a reduced price, f,ad can have it de livered at their doors fresh from the fields without any charge for freight, brokerage or commission.