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THE FAKJ1EH VJN D MECHANJJ-.
4:4; Organ of the State Board of Agriculture, Immigration and Statistics. Organ of the North Cirolina State Grange. CONTAINS THE OFFICIAL REPORTS OF BOTH. LDITOUIAL lOSUVS, Mai, N. A.CJkboo t, A-rl c ntr,Lutr. Pnor. V.'.Ksri, scientific contributor 1k. a. K Leloux, J ripr. C. B. D8sox. Floral ami llorti titor. C. B. r AiKt hili). S cultural writers. Issued Every Thursday morning. Eight pages: 4- columns ! Only f 2 ta?r annum, cash. Olliee opposite post-office ; 3rd floor Address Fahmkk and Mechanic Kaleigh, N. C. The Xcceunitj of specific regu lation Atfwtust InjurloiiH Adul teration. AN ADDRESS, DELIVERED BEFORE THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE AGP-IGULTURAL SOCIETY. BY Albert R. Ledoux, A.M. Ph. D. DIKL TOIL Or Till STATE LXI'KUl MLXT STATION' AND CHEMIST OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AORICULTl' HE. October 10 th, 1MT. (CONTIXFKD.) In 1850 a large manufactory which had nourished in Belgium and had kept agents in many of our sea-port towns, whose sole husiness was the manufacture and use of adulterations for drugs, was moved to tiiis country and set up in Massachusetts, 1 think where it could carrv on the nefarious work undisturbed. Essential oils are made often times of anything handy. Oil of wormwood is made to order by ad ding a few drops of the real article to a mixture of chloroform and alcohol and rosin. " Prepared chalk" is often made of ground plaster. Kaby and face powders, of white arsenic. A curious result of the act of '48 may be mentioned here. Pre viously, gum scammony a most powerful drug rarely contained over .20 per cent, of the pure arti cle. After the act went into effect it was rare to tind over '-20 per cent, of impurities. Physicians were slow to learn the difference, how ever, and gave the same doses as before with the most disastrous ef fects in manv cases. I would be drawn into relating1 too long a story if I should touch upon the adulteration of things of daily use not included under the heads of "food ' and ' medicine." Here, too, we are a prey to cheats of all kinds on account of our lack of protection. It is not through fertilizer adulterations alone that we have suffered by any means. We burn kerosinc that Xew York, Philadelphia and Baltimore will hardly allow transported through theii precincts. We buy children's play things painted with poisonous colors, which the little ones at once, baby-like, put in their mouths. We are sold poisonous soda-waters, flavoring extracts, &c, &c, &c. We buy adulterated paints and oils ; and ust soaps made from rancid grease, decidedly unhealthy, the disagreeable odor of which is concealed with power fully smelling essences. But why go any further ? Let us look for a remedy ! It lies in the power of our legislators to give us one. It need be no law requiring an outlay of money. The work of detection can be paid for by the fines collected. I have here copies of the laws of every European country against adulteration, and sometime I hope to give them a review through the papers. I will at present tresspass no further upon your valuable time than by reading a few extracts from the English act of 1875, already referred to. "An Act to make better pro vision for the sale of Food, and Drugs in a pine ct.it. Th" term 4,fod" shi!i include everv article u-scl for food or drink b mail, otiier than drugs or water. Tin ti-ini drug" shall include inedicnie for iut-rnal or e sternal u.-c. lir.-i.'Kiri'JoN ul J.N .o person shall mix, color, stain, or powder, or order, or per mit any other person to mix. color, stain, or powder, any article of food with any ingiedient or mate rial so as to render the article inju rious to health, with intent that the same may bo sold in tha state, and no person shall sell any such article so mixed, colored, stained, or powdered, under a penalty in each case not exceeding fifty pounds for the first offence ; every offence, after a conviction for a first offence, shall be a misdemeanor, for which the person, on conviction, shall be imprisoned for a period not exceed ing six months with hard labor. No person shall, except for the purpose of compounding as herein after described, mix, color, stain or powder, or order or permit any other person to mix, color, stain or powder any drug with any ingredi ent or material so as to affect inju riously the quality or potency of such drug, witli intent that the same may be sold in that state, and no person shall sell any such drug so mixed, colored, stained or pow dered, under the same penalty in each case respectively as iu the preceding section for a first and subsequent offence. Provided that no person shall be liable to be convicted under either of the two last foregoing sections of this Act in respect of the sale of any article of food, or of any drug, if he shows to the satisfaction of the justice or court before whom he is charged, that he did not know of the article of food or drug sold by him being so mixed, colored, stained, or powdered as in either of those sections mentioned, and that he could not with reasonable dili gence have obtained that knowl edge. Xo person shall sell to the preju dice of the purchaser any article of food or any drug which is not of the nature, substance, and quality of the article demanded by such purchaser, under a penalty not ex ing twenty pounds ; provided that an offence shall not be deemed to be committed under this section in the following cases ; that is to say : 1. Where any matter or ingre dient not injurious to health has been added to the food or drug be cause the same is required for the production or pr paration thereof as an article of commerce, in a state fit for carriage or consump tion, and not fraudulently to in crease the bulk, weight, or measure of the food or drug, or conceal the inferior quality thereof ; 2. Where the drug or food is a proprietary medicine, or is the sub ject of a patent in force, and is . upplied in the state required by the specification of the patent ; 3. Where the food or drug is compounded as in this Act men tioned ; 4. Where the food or drug is un avoidably mixed with some extrane ous matter in the process of collec tion or preparation. No person shall seii any com pound article of food or compound ed drug which is not composed of ingredients in accordance with the demand of the purchaser, under a penalty not exceeding twenty pounds. Provided that no person shall be guilty of any such offence, as afore said, in respect of the sale of an article of food or a drug mixed with any matter or ingredient not injurious to health, and not in tended fraudulently to increase its bulk, weight, or measure, or con ceal its in erior quality, if at the time of delivery of such article or drug he shall supply to the person receiving the same a notice, by a label distinctly and legibly written or printed on or with the article or drug, to the effect that the sin..- : mixed. o person sh:-.!i. wit!; the i:.t nt that the s-a:ne i u :i V le sold in its altered state without nlirc. ab b- i stract from aii article f fond any pait of it o as to ali ri i i j 1 1 r i : i -1 v its quality, substance, or natuie. and no person shall sell any article so altered without making dis closure of the alteration, under a penalty in each ca-e not exceeding twenty pounds. APPOINTMENT A .VP PL'TI h UK ANALYSTS, AND PilO FKPIN'.S TO OBTAIN' ANALYSIS. The Commissioners shall for their respective city, districts, counties, or boroughs, appoint one or more persons possessing competent knowledge, skill and experience, as analysts of all articles of food or drugs sold within the said city, metropolitan districts, counties, or boroughs, and shall pay to such analysts such remuneration as shall be mutually agreed upon. (7b be rontinv(iL) For the Fa rim r and Mechanic Prevention of Contagious Dis eases in Animals. DR. .SALMON s LK IT K. Broflur Farmrrxof Xorlh Carolina: The subject to which I now call your attention is one of special interest to every one of us. During the last few years we have been losing an astonishing amount of our capital from the effects of one of the contagious diseases affecting our live stock. I refer to hog cholera, so-called, which exists from time to time in nearly every pari of our State a disease which carries off its thousands and tens of thousands annually, which is nearly ruining the swine industry of tliis? Stat'1, and which, if all wed to continue its ravages undisturbed, must be of necessity one of the greatest disasters which can befall our agricultural population. Nor can we expect the bad effects of such a calamity to be felt by the farming classes alone they must extend to the merchant in his store, the banker at his desk, the lawyer and physician in their practice and, indeed, to ali classes and conditions of society. It ought not to be necessary for me to insist that the interest of the farmer is the interest of the community and of the State; and I should not have said this much were it not plain that our legislators, as well as other of our illustrious citizens, appear to forget this axiom at the very moment when thev should not. In visiting many parts of our State during the past two months, I have in some cases seen aim st the entire porcine population swept away like chaff before the wind. I have known of animals which ac tually cost over one hundred dollars each and which were of inestimable Yalne for the improvement of our stock, being lost to us in like man ner, and I have become convinced that it is not only unsafe but haz ardous to an extreme degree for our farmers to make any considerable efforts at present either for the rearing or improvement of th'S species of animals. Turning our eves northward we may see a pestilence of equally de structive powers approaching us at a scarcely perceptible rate, but ad vancing, nevertheless, as certainly as the hour-hand moves on the dial plate. Thirty years ago, contagious pleuro-pneumonia was introduced in the neighborhood of B.ooklyn, on Long Island, and the authorities of New York State, refusing to be convinced of its dargerous pecu liarities, have allowed it to remain, to multiply and establish itself, and to spread, first to adjoining parts of New Jersey, then to the moie remote parts of that Suite and to Pennsylvania, to Maryland, Dis trict of Columbia and Northern Virginia. According to statements made by Dr. ('. B. Michener, of i Pennsvlvanhi. ti e saw. of a .-ingle Ml. ro o: ;in h ! 11 ' .it e c;. n It t 1 o I - ; inmH. New II-!i!.)'-hne. .V. oi k. Ohi and M : hi;.' an : a no" in m- m- st an ni' l ' ! hail ! tie I tC;!!.'' inf'-riett r. wLrll t a: pure!;:..- d al I J: I: .-ale It now claim i! lr. one of the bvt etc nnai iav in An: l ie., or u tlie world, indeed. Prof. .Tames Law, that thi- diease already exists in more than one herd of thorough bred cattle, from which ic is liable to be carrieJ to any part of the country ; it is a'.-o claimed that a recent ontlueak in Xew Jersey was caused by a cow brought from Ohio. If all this is tru and there seems to be no reason to doubt it, it is more widely spread than the best informed of us had imagined, and the danger of its extending over the whole country is imminent indeed. To b' (((. IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT BY THE GRAND MASTER OF NORTH CAROLINA GRANGE. Masteus Office, ) X. (J. State Granok. ' J- Chaiu.otti:. An;'. ;m, IsTs. ) Bro's.L K. Winston W. T. Cobb and J. A. Harris were appointed a Committee on the Organ under the above resolution. Said committee have reported that they have made satisfactory arrangements with the Fakmlk and Mechanic, an Agricultural Journal, published in the city of Kaleigh, and do re commend the Fakmj::! and Me ciianic s the organ of our order. Patrons, It is with pleasure I announce to you that the Farm ek axd M'KcirAXic is the organ of our order. In it will be published all rej)orts and communications froi the Masters ollice and the otlice of the Executive Committee, that can be made public. Jvieh patron should not only subscribe lor it, but should send to the manager all items " that will be of general in terest to our order. Master's and Secretary's of subordinate granges will have this announcement read before their respective granges. Trusting that each of you will aid in extending the circulation of our organ and in building it up. I am, fraternally, S. B. Alexander, Master X. C. State Grange. !?"a.rm Wagons. 1 s. We have the largest stock of Farm and Freight Wagons in the Southern States, and solicit a call from all. who may be in n; et of wagons of any size. OUR ASSORTMENT comnrizes every size, from the Light est One-lloi ie to the Heaviest Six Ilorse. and the manufactures of Mitchell. 1 is A: Co.. and the Siude baker liros. a have also the We cat se!l a Good Farm Wagon for Sixty I liars, and from that price up to one hundred and twenty dollars. Call and examine before you buy, or write to us for special catalogue." OLIVER CHILLED PLOWS. This celebrated Plow is sold solely by us for this section. It is bevmid question the BEST PLOW IN USB, not only for its unequalled quality of work, but ior its remarkably light draft. Every Plow, as well as every wagon, we sell, is warranted KEVER3IBLE SUP POINTS. This invention has been adorned to all the leading plows and is vt think the most important labor and money saving device for the Parmer's use of recent discovery. r'Sml for our Catalogue, which contains prices and full descriptions. anun-ss H. M. SMITH ,1 CO., Lichmoad, Va. P. O. Box 1 nov 14-if. TUE READERS OF THIS PAPER WHO want their LIVES INSURED, y or anv kind f (i.i.i.. Iv insured aeainsf l.fkw !,.- ! oru,. diallv invited t s;-nd their applications to us. navuis nua i years' txperieuce, nitl all our losses promptly, and representing . - - . i.-.-,T ri ecu mo iltiiilrel .n i lliu .f Dollars, we can and do olfer very great inducements to our i it i rons. ftVe want Af-rlvt nn Tai.ia ,,t in every County. P. F. PESCUD & SON, General Ai.enis. Raleigu. novs lyr. WW Six Substantial Reasons Why oil .-liouM In.-ure in the it i . i 'if ' a riRL.IKLJ III A. PA. lt U-failM' It is ri ..f !h Mt ! u l;iit- in l li t uuiitr.. , un.l pat ti. djj o: rx .J. l i -a..-? it ! u.-v yMu?u:it Cott;.an Krl V I i.K l :.v .i i u-in ' m i . f th" oiu pan . lit.' t ,J it ail V.i'it t r aili JTl- lirrt" h.o . ri. hi t vttr t a'l e. r! . -in fii" 1 1 u-l-r. a:sa il ; :.a kHufn. in in .nact'iiu-.it. sa. li-eau i; li a- l i a j--rrentau f art ti ii.ti li t"' a-i nay l.iif luMiUBie C'i.i any in tLf ci unity. 4th. I'-fcau". ty oiioi!i;cul maiiai-rrrr.efit. itrati-- of i-xi'en-e to total imoin- lar b- love ihe ave ag- nt lit Companies, (."tt? ikcaii In:iiuuce K port ) .Hi. HtCiue it ho,s uclarei more dtvi dfiHis in number, an of a iarc- r aver i(:t LH-rcr-litae. Hum any ot!n r Company in ta li idled MateN. t or eau.pie: Tolify N-. In, for $rsiVm ha N-en paid lo tut- widow of a Philadelphia Merchant up"ii which twenty-three- divi den ii had oe- n d- .-lar-d, averaging fifty sever. p r cut. 11a I theve dividends i een u-ei t puroliat? :dd.tions to this l:ic, 4- ir.o.e w ould havt be-u real.i d, makiLg ihel'oiicy wonh 1, 46. 6th. lveaaeit is lii-eril in it inanapement p:- n ptinit ef l in-n: rtie b-'yoi.d a con tingency, and its rates are as low as any first class Company m th couuiry l't INCH'AI. r KATL'KES.-Milall eXp-'HSeS, absolute securitv, luge return premiums, protupt pay nu-nt of losses, :-.nd hbv-ral to the insured. J. I. WiOOKS. (Jen 1 Acent lor Western North Carolina, iStatesville, N. C. (U20. P. McNEITL, V.vii 1 Ag-nt h'or Lasteru North Carolina, I'ayetteville, .n. O. Agents Warned by both th- above Ciener il Agents, io vvo.k isi tiieir respective terri tories. Liberal contracts mad", mar 7 12m ' "lll-XRVC W VATT KP'HMOND ilUSIC p:.MPilOIUL.i, 920 Maine St., Richmond, Va. SOLE AGEKT3 FOR lv N A 1 PL Stieif. Marshall .v Smitli Pianos, y'O' r)"i )t'Ht'!.r OrjUits. oc: , 1 4-oin. 1 HE T A Y L v) li M " i ; ' F CO . WESTMINSTER, MI). : Puildersof all kinds of i:.(U.EN, SAWMILL JMCUHEKY, SHAFTING, GEARING, A N 1) P U L 1 With our seventy complete sets of Engine Patterns oi the most approved styles, including the celebrated Corliss Patent Variable Cut OIF. and Taylor Pa'ent Dry Steam Knines. we l'eel confident that we can suit the varied tastes of our patrons, as well as assure them of having a Machine well built, and one that has stood the test o! prany years. Send for circulars and mice lists to L. OKI MM, A jit. mhl4-9m MiUoe, ESTABLISHED IN 1857 THOS. S. GILLIAM, (Successor to Gilliam & Dlwlopj Ajji ic ltural and Iron WVireh -use, PETERSBURG, VIRGINIA. Offers for sale Swedes and American he flaed Iron Hand and Oval iron, Luruen's Kse si'3. it'irse SalN vc. v lull line o Af irnlrupal lmpieine ts nod Jdachiery in clu-'ingiii p irta the Virginia riov, r;:e OLIVER CHILLED PLOW, Also Spades, Shove's. Orass B'a h tc. 1 respectfully solicit orders and will till tnem I romptly and favornbly as if the present Agent for the Arlinjrto A'ntnoniated Solu ble Pnosphate, a good fertilizer l-r wheat. Aug ltf . KING OF THE SOTJfE :e: Visitors to the State Fair will d' w A to EXAMiNE- TlilS MAGXIFIOKXr VAUIP:rY OF COTTON, ON KXiiTBITlONr, JiY THE COMMISSIOXKli OF AGIUCU LTLTi-JE. AXD BY J. L. DUXX. OF DAW SON'S X HOA1 S, HALIFAX, X ( ' who is prepared to till orders for teed, at ten dollars per bushel. octlT tf. ii. ii. iiozm;k v co 8CCCKSSORS TO RI'TT 4 IIODC KS, NO. Hi WlIfB 5TKKKT, XOKKOL K, VA. NORFOLK ORNAMENTAL IRON RAIL WORKS, Dealers and manufacturers ,f u r)Ujl.t' Malleable, Wire, ami l ast iron. Oniiino-iila1 and l'lain Railiiig-s for t'-iiietries, lie -i-drees, Balcoiii-s', V-rar.d:ibs, ,ve. r..n Fn nits. Steps, Fountains, Vasos c.f ;ill siz -s and dimensions for residences and cemterv use, urnaiiieiital Architectural 'asiiiiM Tf every description, RKjf Crestius. Mutuary, Iron Settees, Swivel and Stationary ( hah s. Vault-lig-lit (iratintrs for Hoof, Floors and Cellar Doors, Ferneries. Cast Iron I..oi Guards, Aquaria Stable Fixtures, Hat-racks and Spittoons, Gold Fish Horse 1'oMs, Spiral Stair-cases, and everything ornamental made of iron. Also, wrought iron hou.-e workfoi such as anchors, girders, etc.: ship work. AGENTS FOR CHAMPION WROUGHT AND MALLEABLE FENCE COMPANY. Catalogues of any of the above wi 11 be ;Dt to any aadress, and satisfaction g-uarante"d hi every particular; siecially pric :. JLLERsjLIE FARM. THOROUGHBRED HORSES, PORE SHORTHORN CATTLE AND BERKSHIRE PIGS. For sale. Address R.J. II VNCO JK, ly. Overton, Aleni irla'j , Va. SHCCKOE MAC-'INr w); Manufacturer- , ,t . ENGINES, BOlLti Saw Mills, Grist MHIs si-.-' ing, Hangers and PulLV" Turbine V.r V J TOBACCO FACT: I:Y . WliOt'GHT IK'ON v,;i'.;; Brass and Iron CasMv Jlachiucry of Kury I -xrri.; i..n. done. s,.r.d for ilhist.;it,..i . ' ' aprl l-PJta 1 - ' """ CHAS. D. YATES, Bookseller and Statii.n..,- AMi DEALER L Ml SK' OKDHKS hy mail fr. , j . " . and Metrliaiiis ,s, jj .... ' promptly atti'iulotl to. novl-ly. til. -nl.t RUFFIN ROLES, Gonte and B M Sash, DcnrnnJ B;i J Far , Dressed Lumber OF ALL KI!-, Fl.K-i in', (V liii J"u c, v,. , ill oU .) ii 1 I j. , Ih,.s ,j , . "" Jill k l.:s of i;u! ',ti , , i.;iiiisierSf m.u I;. a , .,! Fo-T", ;;!ld i a M.- ' ,,.; Un.k !.;thi' .; i - i. p tlo! ic . MlM'KlCil i Walnut, Poplar, T.lapic a.i.; ;.. PURHrrmtE," R (Nte.-ids, Tu eaiis, V if .:, . j, s , S;it s d.v C m e i',i q ,;. '.. my own desuns, ma .e i.i i " ran e siyle-. All W...U e,,f, "t' ' ' hi-done in 1 he L ; in.iii.,f , S ATISFACTION . T. i: . . ; , Machine sboj. b-t ween Mo-x-i-. i ' :i jreti sire -t. . n ,h h.t ; j, , ' rVa ! Ll Fl IN j; i .' ' ul i bm Lai un, , THE ROAHOKE AGWCUTHL AVO I i ICS Munili';irtui-f llit- i -.-I. -hi-;,-. ; Veidon Plow, and all other Kinds l .u n.;! ; pii'iiieM s. IIEATINt; STOVKS at . ;:. . lo- prici-s. HOLLOW WARE m X,..'. ;,. , , . h. Wagons, Carts aini W'.i . i .v ... constantly on hand. liaitingo and i'uilew i; i dFl. Also a.t,rent for I'rl k ( LOLiPs i :s( ; I n !:. . inch is tin- ulst laiia.- b-r .'..:r ii tural purjiosos ever made. ; i, i especially adapted b . i ; i : . i : cotton, hein ati-oiiii-. . free of (hihiac tr ;;i all sparks. Al- Aent of STOCK & HAY SCALES. OF FOUR TONS CAPACITY, pri- - and can he pat up i-y a:,j- ordinary m chaiii . JOHN M. VOUTK. J'roj.r'i. novl-ly. Weld. n. v. ' ' E JN G I X J: S BOILERS and MACHINERY. new and si:i (; ha.i Lines' Patent Saw-Mills and Set Works, OIJTAULK (;l;iM MILLS I' LA NI (', M A C 1 1 1 N KS. bTKAM I'L'Ml'.S, liOJ LKK Ft...i'; - Mill ieai inx and furnishing a ":'' ;' sead nr en eul ir ;i'id .es r'i': i'- list of e,-oii'i lotiiu maeaaiery n. i ' our natrons. KAIIM .V HL'N l h.i. Jan 17 lv K.ennio.', . 1 T L A N T 1 C V O L N I' J JTX W. A. ANDERSON, PiiOI'IiiLTOU. (J rner Nebraska and Wi ! n-- ' a: 11; Norini ELIZABETH iORN WOBCS CHARLES Y. PiCTIT. Vi"i ' No. 2 i2. Water St.. N'-r. Ik. v Manufa;tiii es Steam Engines and Bo:l'-;- Saw and Gii.-t -Miw-, Shafting, Pulleys, Han;rr-; and CASTINGS, CASTING i.S. - A Y Special attention jiven t f i Steainboutsatid Maciiiary "I -! :i -' t Machinists and P : ' sent to any part of tlo- ,'" Uin-,li repair work i b .