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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC. Ma i; A PAPER FOR THE PEOPLE. OFFICIAL REPORTER FOR TJIE North Carolina Board of Agriculture AND Board of Immigration and StatiMics : ALSO REPORTS The State Grange, Patrons of Hns'dry; State Agricultural society ; North Carolina Teachers Association, etc., etc., etc., etc. PUBLISHED Every Wednesday Afternoon BY ll. A. SHOT WELL and J. W. DOWD. t" Front Room, Second Floor, Mah ler's Building, opposite Market. TERMS : $2.00 a Year; $1.15 for Sis Months. During the months of March and April, 1879, any subscriber paying Z cash, will be credited with two years subscription from the date ot payment But this offer will not apply to past dues, nor will it be allowed after the expira tion of the two mouths named. Rates of Advertising: Time 1 2 we'kiw'ks 1 inch, S inches 5 inches 4 inches 4 ol. M Col. 1 col. $1 00 2 3 00 3 30 5 00 8 00 $175 S 50 4 60 5 SO 7 50 12 00 12 00i20 00 3 w'ks 4 w'ks,1 3 mos -2 7o!$7 00 5 00 00 1 00 15 00 $4 25 4 50 5 00 6 50 10 CO 16 00 26 10;32 00,66 00 7 50 18 GO 1 12 00.23 00 18 OoLs 00 6 mos. 12 00 16 00 26 00 12 mos 18 00 28 00 38 CO 30 00 48 00 16 00 5S CO 70 00 150 CO 123 150 00 25 per cent advance on the above rates will be charged for double column advertisements. JOB PRINTING Of every description executed with Neatness and Celerity, A I LOW KATES. Seasonable Notes for the Gar den, Flower Garden and Farm. no. 1. t -p ...1:1,1 e m.. .rroi. raircnuu, 01 tnu vnuucu School, is also a successful flovver and market gardener, near this city. His observations have the weight ofjiis practical experience for years, and ought to be of value to our readers. Hear him : The season for deciding to have a good garden and making good resolutions in that direction lias arrived. We will rush at the work and hastily plow up the ground which we call our garden, or dig it up with a spade or hoe, put- mi a very little manure per haps ; sow a few seeds out of yel low papers, which we have bought at the grocery store; and then turn in the hens to make the seeds come up. This we call gardening! Now, what is worth doing at all, I submit, should be well done. The garden should receive as much or more attention than the faim crops. Be determined to make it pay better than any part of the farm, and make it the one place from which you expect to draw mostof the luxuries to be had upon a fa.1111 ; and the place next to the fireside where you will pass your pleasantest hours. This is the right spirit Let us now glance at the methods of gardening. Plow or spade, and harrow tin r oughly two or three times over ; for most vegetables the soil must be very fine. No plant can grow well in a soil that is baked up in small clods. Harrow and rake as soon as plowed. Do not leave any soil exposed to the sun till the fur row is drv. One half dav will so harden the lumps that they cannot be easily broken up. Manure lib erally: put something in if you ex pect to draw anything out. " Nothing from nothing," is an axiom in nature as well as in mathematics. Use only well de composed stable manure. Never put chip manure on the garden; the fungus that it will generate is injurious to most plants. Sow only a few varieties of seeds. Take no more ground than can be thor oughly tended. And see if your ideas of a vegetable garden do not undergo a radical change. It is not too late to put out an Asparagus bed; get roots one or two years old, from some reliable dealer, and ask him to give full di rections for planting and cultiva ting. Strawberries may still be set anv time this month. Only three or four varieties are success ful here. The Wilson, Col. Chen ev, Monarch andSeth Bovden. Beets mav still be sown. Onlv two varieties are worth anything for the table here Early Egyptian and Yellow Sugar. Beans, (snap shorts), only two of these varieties, the German Black Wax. ami the Cabbage Snap, as it is called in this locality, are worth the trouble to grow. The latter is quite a distinct varie ty, and no doubt the best snap known. It is peculiar to this locali ty. I have never known it adver tised bv any seedsman. The pole snap, or cornfield snap, as it is called, is found in great va riety here. The white and the Southern Prolific are the best. These varieties are very late and iast till killed by the frost. Of the Butter Beans, the small Lima or Siera is the onlv variety that mf mi will pay to grow. I find this bean succeeds best to have the rows eight feet apart, atd the poles two feet in the row, and the rows to run north and south. This ar rangement gives alternate light and shade so the vines will bear through the entire season. The Winningstadt and Large York Cabbage are the best early varieties for our climate. Put out the plants at once. You will find it cheaper to buy your early plants than to attempt to raise them from seed. Adam's Early Corn, (not the extra early), is the only variety of sugar corn I would recommend for roasting ears. It is rather late to sow the Car rot and Parsnip. Celery seed may still be sown. This is the most difficult plant to grow. The plan which I have practiced ior several years and which has always proved successful with this and other small seeds, is to cover the seeds with very fine well decomposed chip manure, or some fine substance that will not break or form a crust. I sow in di ills one inch drop, and fill up the drills over the seed with the chip manure, and then roll or tread down firm. Then ir dry weather keep the plants thorough- lv cultivated, so the soil will be loofce and moist, or the sun will burn up the plants. Transplant in July a. d August. Celery is a very expensive crop. Colhtrds for summer planting should now be sown. Also the Late Cabbage seed. Sow on mod erately rich soil. We usually sow our late cabbage too late in the season, so that the hot sun burns up the tender plants. Sow now a id the plants will stand through the hot summer in the seed bed and be ready for transplanting in August. No matter if the plants do grow tall and shed moieof their leaves, put them in good soil and they will certainly head. This fact would have been worth many dol lars to me, had I known it when 1 first commenced business here. And you see I tell it now much against my own interest for I grow p'ants for sale. Cucumbers and other series are too easily grown to need any in structions. In a future article 1 will tell how to destroy the insects that pester the melon family. The Egg-Plant is a luxury that few can appreciate. Send for a few plan is and try them. These with the Pepper and Tomato, should not be put out till all dan ger of frost is over. The Trophy and Acme are the best varieties of the tomato. The above list em braces about all the plants that need attention a. this time. And now we will see about a Flower Garden. This will interest the la dies, and that man is hard-hearted who will not gratify the taste of his wife and daughters by provid ing a suitable piece of ground, and a reasonable amount of flower seeds, bulbs and plants, with which to ornament it. It will not cost much, a few seeds of the Aster, Balsoms, Dianthus Pinks, also bulbs of the Dahlia, Tuberose, Gladiolus Cala dinims, c., and plants of Verbenas, Pansy, Petunia. Add to this a few home plants. You have then about you the sure marks of good taste and refinement. C. B. Faikchild. Raleigh, March 24th, 18T0. For the Fakmek and Mecha ic. Cotton Culture. PR. SALMON S CRITICISMS REVIEW ED BY MK. I). P. M EACH A M. friend was to bring out the truth only on this subject as he claims, we feel sure that the facts show that he has not put the finishing touch on the job. As regards making a more profit able use of our co'ton seed than is as vet jrenerally done, we heartily commend the concluding sections of Dr. Salmon's article to the care ful consideration of any and aU enterprising spirits as affording the finest opening, with the bright est prospects of a profitable invest ment for capital, now open in all this country. And I cheerfully bid him God speed in his efforts to more fully impress capitalists with the impor tance of this opening for good in vestment. D. P. Meaciiam. Will You Bear it iu Mind? (concluded.) Our friend's remarks upon the length of time required for the va rious parts of the cotton plants to undergo decay, and his suggesting the same length of time as that re quired by barnyard manure, affords the most striking proof that he knows from experience just noth ing about it, particularly so, when the only proof upon which he re lies to sustain such a position, is that farm yard manure is valuable in all countries ! Now to undertake to prore that one plant, solid as dry wood, will undergo decay as quick as a mass of matter which has already passed through one half of the process, by saying "that all countries acknowl edge the value of the half decayed mass or farm yard manure" is poor logic; it begs one half the question, and "takes the other half for grauted." The position he occupies on the subject of washing would lead us to conclude that his information on that point has been obtained more from the coloquial schools of the present age than the school of ex perience, for keeping in view the kind of lands to which our article alluded (rolling or hilly) we have only to enquire if the roots of plants, which he contends will not wash away until the soil itself goes are not brought to the surface by every plowing which the land re ceives ? The answer to this ques- For the Fakmek and Meghmc. Just a Word. Messrs. Siiotwellaxd Dovvd: Gentlemen: Permit me to ex press my high gratification at find ing vou in control of the Fakmek an d Mechanic, and the hope that you will be sustained and encour aged by a liberal patronage. Hap pily for our people, aud for the future of our State, the old fogy idea that farmers should blind their eyes to all suggestions found in papers or journals devoted to their vocation, lest they might be misled into book farming, is rapidly y ield ing. The lawyer has to read the physician has to read the manu facturer has to read the banker has to read the merchant has to read that they may keep inform ed as to their respective interests. The farmer who has a wider and more comprehensive field than any or all of these, has been taught to ignore all improvement, all ideas of advancement. But I say he is fast coming to a proper apprecia tion of the fact that his, as well as other vocations, requires the in vigorating power of brains. We have in our State nearly one hun dred papers they of course aie sustained chiefly by our agricultu ral population, and only three of these are devoted to the interests of this class. I am satisfied that the circulation of the Farmer and Mechanic will reach an unprece dented extent within the next The am of tnis journal is to benefit, the State bv advertising her advantages and resources, to the end that these boundless capacities may be employed developed, and made profitable. There are many items worthy of publication in all sections of the S ate, but of which we busilv en craved in our Haleitzh office mav never hear, unless our friends, and those who would as sist in the work, shall furnish us an account of them. So, too, in regard to farming, mining and general intelligence. We wish to make this paper one of the leading vehicles of communi cation between our working people in all branches of industrv. This can be onlv accomplished by frequent exchange and inter change of thoughts, inquiries, pro posals, experiments, etc., etc., with relation to the everv-div mi mi affairs of life and business. Edi tors are sometimts accused of "kn wing everything' but, foi one editor, we frankly confess vv would rather have one sensible, practical communication from a wide-awake farmer, manufacturer, or other business man, than many yards of eloquent rhetorical edito rial. Many think with us. Moreover we shall be glad to have our friends send us clippings from other journals containing informa tion wnieh they may deem inter esting or instructive. It is some times difficult for the Editor t remember that "many men are of many minds" and that articles which he would enjoy, might seem very dull reading to iiis next dooi neighbor. If our Patrons will send us the results of their investiga tions, or selections of favorite ar ticles, no doubt we shall derive much benefit therefrom. MM there is every varU-'v froui the rich black land in the world, (an.i -for jute ami rice) t t ' . loam so e.veeliei t eariv Fish are atuni! .m and the sea and sound vw , hea1, mullet, herr.n , drum, flounder. sj.n. .. hoglish. pinti-h. trout dozn varieties f , ;i .., the fresh water yields ' ';', 1 turgeon, pickerel. ,.;' :' robhms, eiinh. white v ey ed pe: ch ; in fact, uv ; cd t hat there are (if; . , f fish in North ( ' , ' Fine oyters. eiams, Crabs, both soft an,: s". elit-.i ! 1 1 twelve months. Our farmers, un- tion will, we think, forever silence der our changed relations, begin to the gen tk-man's doubts on this realize the indispensable necessity point. We are as strong an advo cate of rotation as the gentleman dare to be ; but rotation alone will not remedy the evil. "Again,' says my worthy friend, "a great part of the salts and ni trogen from these plants aiv wash ed out from them before they be come detached, and this certainly finds its way directly into the soil." If my friend will look a little deep er at this subject, he will perceive that the remark is supported neither by theory, practice nor ex perience, unless he admiis of my suggestion remedying the evil, and that is to plow ali under as soon as the crop is removed. It involves a contradiction, amounting almost to an absurdity, to contend that this nitrogen, nearly all of which of being better informed in regard to everything appertaining to their interests, and I for one rejoice in tiie prospect of having at last a live, enterprising journal, that will meet their needs. I desire that they should not only read it, but that they should write for it. If each of your readers, once in four months, would write you a short article, giving his experiences, ex periments, observations; and offer suggestions, it would not only help you, but it would be of incalculable benefit to the farmers who read the piper. We need help. We are to blame that we are not further ad vanced, and I hope that renewed energy, renewed life and a more advanced spirit will mark the con duct of our farmers. Honing that rapidly escapes on the drying of the vou may soon swell your lists to leaves of the cotton plant after be ing killed by the fiist frost, will ever find its way into that soil ajrain. And to maintain that the salts are washed out by falling rains, is assuming the ashes of the plant to become available plant food before combustion, the result of decay, takes place. This is a new depar ture in the science of chemistry, unaccompanied, we think, by eith er bearing, course, or distance. However, if our friend has discov ered marks sufficient to guide him out of this dilemma we hope he will publish it, and so flood us with this new and resplendent light as to deliver us from the errors of our old ways. If the object of our Holland mmig ration. Elsewhere we allude to the Xew Berne movement to encourage 1m- migration from Holland. The foil owing letter by a committee sent to "spy out the land' as if were, will speak for itself : Editor Newrernian. Know ing that a great number of Hollan ders in Illinois, .Michigan, Indian na and Wisconsin will' be anxious to hear from us, and learn what are our impressions of A'orth Caro lina, we address a letter to you as the shortest way of reaching the largest number of those who are interested in us. We left Chicago on the Gth of February and ar rived in Newborn on "the 1st of March, being three davs on the way; we remained in Newbern a week, making acquaintaiu-es and looking at our new home, when we settled ourselves on the 8th. The present name of the place is Uavefock;it is situated on the At lantic & North Carolina Railroad about half way between Newborn and Morebeacf citv. which last i the terminus of the Road at Beau fort harbor, one of the best ports 111 the State, from which vessels of all sizes can sail direct to any part of the world. By means of inland creeks and rivers, we also have water communications with ew bern and Morehead city we bein only about 18 miles from either place. Until we can build for ourelve we are occupying S011ie houses be longing to Mr. Amos Wade, one of r nTcrs of th land of which Mr. McLean has the control, who has been most kind and liberal to us. From his lwnlif.u- u. i i Williams, who with his lovely wife is hying on the spot, we have also received much kindness and a-si---tance 111 getting set.led; indeed we have met vwth nothing but kindness, and find everything toid us by Mr. .McLean, of the country and people just as he rep resented it. Tht re are a great number of colored people hen? but they in no way interfere with anv one, and from all we can learn are generally quiet and orderly. We uere much surprised at the large frev. I would like to hrfmm on our way j t.M.u JIT. .J. , "VIII thousands, I am your well wisher. Farmer. Our friend may depend on it v e shall do our best to realize his pleas ant prognostications. Raleigh, March 30th. Editors of F. & M.: Gents: Please say to R. L. B., of Lenoir, N. C, that I hve no Prickly Comfrey, nor Artichokes for sale. I have not heretofore been favorably impressed with the Com- ubundanr ant .1 Ui) n rllfltll in f 1, .. range the woods and u ; . ' geese and swan, are f.!;i f ponds and stream-. I-, . f aie more than pleami already begun umk honing t h:ir bv !" .-! I i 1 i ; . will be lari'lv ineir i-,. .: is every pro-pvet, will !, . ; C u:ki.( M; j Ai.i.i; K. Vivk, Ai.r.i:i:r.. Hi ;. ",. Haveloek, Maivh i: 1 Plowing- il Croi:s as Mr A. t A large number of f::n ; unable to understand j,,, - Dos.sible in hot tor f ! , . : lands by plowing in t 1 . . . .1 1. . . 1 ourKw neai, etc., in a -r, (ion. The difficuhv L .. ' i.l that are shiulimm! t,, ,!,.,, sustenance from the il ;n they grow can return in ore tit t ho i I t I... .. . away in the:r grow t h. ' .;," is cleared no when it L l , 1 11 " ri plants draw nourishme.-n atmosphere as well as f;(, soil, and t his is one smi p v While the leaves are aeranii Stores of ferfilitv fi-.m. il, roots are busy sean-lm,- !.. the soil, and thus the 1 wo .! parts of plants work to( is probable that erop some W;iv nilnuno! fi.. ti r T " " - - - ' j 1 1 1 ; 1 11 1 i ' phere ; a"t least," it ha tv, satisfactorily nrood thot not, and heme from ilu: one of the most valuable various forms of plant fond: di'ii ved If thic i,,.;.,! ; ' it is certain that the le:(( from the atmosphere the .!, of organic matter, and o them so as to form t he .0, of the plant. ; and w hen u.- under the clover it eae ganic matter in t he --oil. is, in an imnortant sen-e. -, But the excellent elh ing under clover or .; j .1 r crops are not due alone to ,!. ri' fnff il i t i- . .1 , i .. : 1 e. . - - t 1 1 1 1 , Mii.uuni 1 1 o n j , ! ! great dcep-penei rat iiiLr n-.i a point, lower I ban imei ; reals, and hence t hev drav. plies of mineral food 'from - inaccessible f ct ,.,, plants; and further it i- . served that thee root.- of texture disintegrate and I oil, so that air is let ,n. some sense tin is performed b these roots decay tin y i'o;-,; siderable portion oj'or-ana etable matter, which, ..: with the mineral. ie- , compost ior better plants in. From these brief con- '!' it will readily be -a 1 . possible to manure land h; ; work 01 I if!)!. m inven crops: am parties who have crown it in Vnrti, I hn vi. .. l.,...i . Carolina. I will add it to my col- j tw?nty acres in potatoes both of . m 1 I I - - - - v lection if our farmers will be likely , are. Sre n aI1d flourishinc A 1 w-r 10 use ir. Very respectfully, C, B. Fairciiild. we The location is exactly whf were led to expect, and rho lnri tven better than was represented ; remark that it is a pra' ; h ten enough followed h bandrnen. The Hover: the best of all the plant- f. manuring, and it 1- ; -cheaply raised. A thin dp super phosphate (home j . : almost always give a h a red clover on common U:. this crop, turned uud-r its maturity and allow. '! 1 brings it into good tilth-. ; tainly affords to the fain 1 margin for profit in h crops. Boston Journal ! ist' v. G kax villi-:. The lIo;d r view says : )r. John K. located in Henderson- -r- A. Cheatham is ru-cth-g 1 ... , ioie noiise on .vioin-ne 1 ? 11 1 . M- i" ot; ccupieu ov nis son. iamin Cheatham" The ' " 1 w ill soon be completed, :u.i M tulel with a lare st( k - vmv. i. j . ,jarJ " " , 1 -1 It."..,-. '. paei novvn ine jcjhi ,o.- route to (iiecnville, N. ( former home of the Govh' r- will be absent several days Haleigh.