EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.
THE CONSTITUTION AND THE UNION OP THE STATES THEY "MUST BE PRESERVED.
RALEIGH," N. C. WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 5, 1840. .
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Letters to the Editor must come free of
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POST OFFICE, RALEIGIT, W. C.
A List of Letters remaining in the Post Office,
31st December, 1839.
A. Mary R. Anderson, W." W. Avery 3,
James Alfrfend, John A. Averitt, Joshua Allen,
John F. & W. Allen, Joh H. Arrington.
B. Albert Beachy, Martha A. Butler, James
Burke, Mary S. Bryan, Jesse Bryan, Alsa Be
'ers, John Bevers, Wesley -S. Blake, James Buf
faloe, John Buffaloe 2, Jos. Buffaloe, William
Barham, Otis Briggs, T. S. B.ckwith & Co. 2,
Stephen R. Bledsoe, Louis Boon, John A. "Back
house 2, Joseph Barlow, S. A. Baldwin, James
Boylan, Jr., G. B. Bagwell, Martha Brickill,
John Brown, W. A. Brown, Ether Ann Bridges,
John Babb, William Bell, William Blalock, B.
Buroughs, Sam'l R. Browning, Henry Benni
field, Robert Broad toot.
C. D. Culbrith, William Oliver Clark T.
L Cltnginan, Sarah Cook, Maria Cook, Wil
liam B. Cook 3, John Cope, Alexander Camp
bell, Thomas F. Christman, Mary A. CroIIey,
John Chesnutt 2. Cactanoda Costa, James D.
Cooley, James W. Chadtvick. William Carlicke.
D. Martha A. Djwd, P. W. Dowd 2, James
Dempster, William Davis, James C. Dance, Re
becca C. Dupti)', James Davis, I. Dowlhat, Ro
bert B. Daniel.
E G. W. Evans, Virginia P. Ea'on, Can
dace Ellis, Seth Everett.
F. James A. Fish 2, Tame3 G. Fletcher, I
B. Freeman 2, Mrs.. Felton, Annelizer Felton,
Mary Furgurson, Thomas Frentress, Hinton
Franklin 2, Gillum 11. Faror.
G. William C. Graves, Sesikiah Goodwin,
Henry W. Gibhs 2. William A. Graham, Edwin
Grant, John B. Green 3, Francis A. Gordon,
James Gordon, M. S. Goldsborough, General
Gredell, John Grims, Charlotte Gorflian.
II Eliza Harrest, L Hinton, Emeltne-Hun
ter, J. Mc. G. Huriter, Isoin Holden. J Hutch
ings, Berjium$fiHarrison,- CtiLuvrd I4Trt?5n,
Mathew "Hart, Alvrti Hamilton, Mary Hartsfield,
M. E. Hnp&nsTot-l Houing-on, Smth.' How
ard. Willis PffrrftoM, Jackswn Hamilton, Mary
Hdliwfl,ifHrmah Harding. Alex. M. High 2.
Walter Hubbard, J-.seph Hall, David H. Hol
larrdiSJoseph Hill, Robert Hill, Eliz M. Hill,
Thomas Howey. Anthony Hipper, G; orge W
Howard, Ransom Hinton, Wiley House, Wiles
J. Alpheus Jones, Wesley Jor.e3, Minton
Jones, Henry Jones, C. Jones, E. A. Jones,
Charlea Jones, Robert B.Jones, Mary W. Jones 2,
Louisa Jones, Mathew Jones 2, Hicksy Jonsnn,
Ransom Jonson, Simon Johnson, Margaret P.
Johnson, M. Johnson, Maria W. Johnson, Mr.
K. L A. Kyle. Mary W. Knox, William D.
Kenner, Philip Koonce, Harrison Kirkham,
Jno. Keatleyr John Keatley 2.
L. Moses Lassiter, Alfred W. Lewis 2, Cath
arine A. Lewis, "William Louhey, Simon A.
Lichtenhan, A. J. Loftis, John Layn, Mary Van
deline Lindeman, Ciaton Lea, William Leach,
William Lashley, John J. Lee, John .Little, Jane
W. Liggon, Joseph Langster, Anderson Lucas,
Littleton Leachman, Dennis Leavey, John A.
M. Edward W. Montfort 2. Caroline A. Mc
donald, Mary MiComick, Wm. McCargo, Jno.
McKinsey, Rutha Morris, Abrihan McQueen,
Geo. C. Mendenhall, Wm. J. McLay, Mary Ann
Murrell, Fany Murdin, Mrs. Miller, J. Julias
Marlia, John Merrit, Chaley Moore, John C.
Moore, Jesse Moore, Mary Mase, Ann Myatt,
Cherry Melone, William B. Meares, Alfred
Mitchel, John Mitchell.
iV. Delier Nichols, George Nance, Angus
tin Norten, David Outlaw 2, Ex-Go'nor Owen.
P. Jonathan Pruden, Jno. Primrose, Turner
Pullen, Elizabeth Pullen, Feureba Pilkinton,
Henry Phelps, George K. Pickering 2, Penel
ope L. Paine, Gill Patrick, John Pore, Lucy A.
Pullum, Mary E. Porter, Nancy Patron, Nancy
Payton, Rubin Perry, Clary Perry, William A.
Patterson, Mikel Penny William Parish.
R. Benjamin Rogers, James M. Rogers,
Ja mes W. Rogers, William S. Rogers 2, Wil
liam W. Roland 2. N. G. Rand, S. S. Reares,
James Rowland, J. "S. Randolph, Ausborne Ran
dolph, Thomas Ruffin, Mary Revels, William
Robards. Delia Revels, John Rourke, John W.
Rice. Wiley Robertson, William F. Robertson.
Sarah Jane Robertson, Robert" Rodrick, Judge
Ruffin, Mary H. Ruffin, Charles Raborn, J. Ro
gers, Jonn Rucker, Berry Richerson, Wiley
& Jas. Stephenson, N. L. B. Stithh, Jerry
Starkey, Littleberry Sauls, Robert Sneed, Adaline
L. Soloman'3, William M. Sneilings, Bnttor.
Sugg, Polly Smith, Edward Stanley, Fahius
Stanly, Re. Daniel Stratton, S m 1 B. Spruill,
r rancis a. Stuart '4., J. vvniiarn o'uart, -oie-phen
Stephenson, John Schell, J6hn Singletary,
James Shaw, William Stothart, B. Smith, Sarah
Saunders, R. T. Saunders, Phebe Spain, R. W.
Stone. S. W. Stoddard, Christopher Smith, Lucy
A. Soloman 3.
T. Wm. Trusty, R. Tyler, William Trry,
James S. Thompson, Geo. Thompson, Ahred
Towns 2, James S. Terrell, Willis J. Turner,
U. Q,ainton Utley.
jr. will iam Walls, Lunchfood Wornear,
William T. Winslow, Jas. Woodard, James
Weathers, Mary Wiikins, George West, Au
gustus H. West 3, Samuel Wallon 2, William
Walton, Hiram Woobard, Jordan Wright, Philo
White, Ann White, Emma C. White, Ruffin
Williams S. M. Wheaton, Gaston H. Wilder,
Matild Wedding, Shadrack Wedding 2, George
Waterson, John Wall, Sally Weaver, George
Weaver, Mary Washington.
Y. Mathew A.Tates, Thomas Young.
' Id3" Persons calling for any of the above Let
ters will please say they are advertised.
THOS. G. SCOTT, P. M.
Jan. 29. 273-3t.
4 TIERCES Best qualitv Rice.
1(3 Half Tierces do. ' do.
For sale by - FREEMAN & STITHS.
Jan. 29, 1840. 274-3t.
DETAL SURGE RY.-Ir. W. It. Scott
informs the public, that he has returned toihis City.
Raleigh, Jan. 29, 1840. 274 tf. -
REMEDY FOR CIMOSjER.fr &c.
ble mcdicjne, in cases of Cholera Morbus Diarahae,
and Spring and Summer Complaints of the bowels, and
Vhich has the highest testimonials in its favor, is for
sale, at tl per bottle, at the Office of the N". Caroli
na Standard,. and bv Auss. Pabks, of Hillsboro'.
Raleigh, N. C. 1840. , 27 1-tf.
REP6RT ON THE FINANCES. .
REPORT FROM THE SECRETARY OF THE
TREASURY ON THE FINANCES.
tf Treasury Department,
December 3, 1839. '
The undersigned respectfully submits to Con
gress the following report on the finances, in obe
dience to the "Act supplementary to the act 'to
establish the Treasury Department."
It is gratifying to be able to state, notwith
standing the -embarrassments of the present
year, that the revenues of the General Govern
ment have been increased, tne expenditures di
minished, and most of the Treasury notes re
Revenue and means for 1839, exclusive of trusts
and the Post Office.
The balance in the Treasury on the 1st of Janua
ry, 1839, which could be considered avaiable
for general purposes, was 82,466.961 95
The receipts from customs, the first three quar
ters, as appearing on the Register's books, are
This includes about two mil
lions and three-fourths collected
last year in Treasury notes,
but not carried on his books till
1839. From this cause the ac
tual receipts in this year will, to
that extent, appear.larger than
Receipts from lands the first
three quarters including also
some colltcttd last year in
Esiinvited receipts for the fourth
qauner from all those sour-
" ce3"" .
Receipts on some of the debts
against banks not available
1st January, 1839, but since
paid . - . f.
From he third issiie of Trea
sury notes under the act of
March 2, 1839 "
Expenditures for 1S39, exclusive of the Post Of
fice and trusts.
Civil, foreign, and miscellane
ous, for the first three quar
ters Military, for the first three quar
Naval, for thre first three quar
ters. Estimate for all during the
Funded debt for year
Redemption of Treasury notes
in the first three quarters,
interest as well as principal
This includes two millions
and three-fourths paid in for du
ties and lands last year, but not
carried on the Register's books
From this cause the expendi
tures on that account will ap-
near larsrer by that amount than
they actually have been within
Estimated amount ot notes re
deemed in the fourth quar
ter Aggregate payments
Leaving an available balance
of money in the Treasury on
the 31st of Dec. 1839, of
The funds computed to be not available, nor
applicable to public purposes, at the commence
ment and at the close of the present year, can be
seen in the table before mentioned.
Public debt and Treasury notes.
The condition of the small remains of the
funded debts has not materially altered since the
last annual report. A statement of it, with the
several payments made within the year, isjiere
Though incommoded by repeated pressures
in the money market and suspensions of specie
payment by the banks, within the last three
years, the interest and all the principal due on
that debt, as well as on the Treasury notes, have
been punctually, paid in specie whenever de
sired. Not more than one fourth of a million of the
ficst and second emissions, and two millions and
a half of the third, will probably remain out
standing nt the close of the year. The former
emissions have been for some months redeema
ble, but the (ast one does not begin to be till
March, 1840. except as previously offered in
payment of public dues. The aggregate of two
millions and three-lourths of principal is there
fore all that it is computed will be unpaid of
...... ' ...
nearly twenty millions, which were issued since
October, 1837, in consequence of indulgences
granted to the merchants on their borids, and the
banks on their deposite debts. At no one
time has the amount ol- potes bulstanding been
allowed to exceed ten millions, and the present
very reduced aggresrateT unredeemed, is . less
than "the sums still owing from, the "banks that
suspended specie payments in 1837, and from
the Pennsylvania Bank of the United-States on
its bond due in September next; and might with
ease have been paid during the presenfyear, bad
the money been received on the claims.
Exports and imports -within the, commercial
The exports durinjr lhe year ending Septem
ber 30. 1839, re computed to have been 81 18,
359,004. This js 89,872,388 more than .those
in the year 1838. '
Of the whole exports only 817,488.000 were
of foceign origin, and of the excess in .exports
over 1838, only about five. millions were domes
tic produce. 2 "; -v ..' . ' .
The imports - nurmgVihe ,sme y ear. -were 'at-
bout 8i57,609.560,rbeing4h.e very- large excess,
of 843,892.356 over those iun'ng the previous
year. This may be a solution of a-p&rtion of
the pressure in the money market. The differ
ence between the imports and exports, being
839,250,556 in favor of the "former, is larger
than in any year, except three, since 1789, and
is much larger than any difference in the valua
tion cf th same articles with the profits in the
foreign trade added. It must, therefore, except
so far as reduced by an unusual quantity of goods
consigned here from abroad,, and yet in store un
sold, be a very decisive evidence of an increas
ed indebtedness b,y this country to other nations.
And except so far us this new indented ness may
consist of slocks sold and the proceeds returned
here in merchandise, it must furnish.another
proof of one immediate cause of the present pe
The history or our commerce during the
twenty years lrom 1818 to 1838, presents a sin
gular change in the last hall ot that period,
which tends strongly to illustrate the correct
ness of these suggestions. During the first half
of it the excess of imports over exports was on
ly about seventy-five millions ol dollars, or the
proportion of near seven millions and a -half ari
nually on an average.
But during the last ten years of it the excess
was near two hundred and twelve millions, or
over twenty millions annually , and thus more
than two hundred and fifty per cent greater than
it had been. Supposing that the seven and a
half millions were composed principally of the
fair profits and difference in valuation, the ex
cess over that rate in the Jast ten years must con
stitute a debt, either mercantile. State, or corpo
rate It equals near one hundred and thirty-seven
millions before 1839. The debt thus com
puted to have been created abroad, by stocks and
otherwise, within that period, will, with the a-mount-of
previous indebtedness, form an aggre
gate quite as large as has been estimated by ma
ny from other data.
Further particulars, possessing a general in
terest and relating to this subject during the last
six yearsr are exhibited in the statement annexed.
Additional information of some importance con
cerning our exports and imports, from the com
mencement ol the Government to 1838, inclu
sive, has been prepared, and is subjoined in oth
er tables. These tables are intended to be in a
form convenient lor a reference, & are calculated.
by easy as well as extensive comparisons, to
throw new litrht on this several subjects of com
nierce and other branches of industry connected
with the finances. 1 hey exhibit not only the whol
exports and imports in each year, but the eon
sumpn'on of the latter, and the changes in the
whole aggregate value of each principal article,
whether exported or imported, and the progress
of our loreijjn trade to and lrom each State s?
parately, as far back as is practicable, and to and
from each country of much commercial import
ance abroad. A few of ihe most striking results
are condensed in a note.
Estimate of the Receipts and Expenditures
For reasons hereafter to be explained, the re
ceipts into the Treasury, the ensuing year, can
not be estimated so high as in 1839.
From the best information possessed by this
department, it is computed that the aggregate of
them, available for public purposes, will not ex
ceed 818,600, viz: from
Add to these the balance avail
able and applicable to other
purposes, which it is suppos
ed will be in the Treasury
on the first of January 1840
The efficient means in that
year will then amount, in the
If Congress should make ap
propriations to the extent de
sired by the different depart
ments, the expenditures for
1840, independent the re
demption of Treasury notes,
are estimated at
Including all the Treasury
notes to be redeemed, the ag
gregate expenditure would
This would leave a deficit in
the Treasury at the close of
the year, amounting to
But there will he due lrom the
United States Bank, in. Sep
tember next, on its fourth
bond about k
The principal now due on the
Treasurer's deposites in oth
er banks, which suspended
specie payments in 1837, is
Should all these claims be col-
. lected 1840, they would pre
vent a deficiency, and leave
an available balance in the
Treasury of nearly
It is not, however, considered prudent to rely
exclusively on the collection of tnese debts. "
O.ie mode, then, - of obviating any difficulty
from that circumstance, will be to reduce the ag
gregate of new appropriations, by postponing
same and lessening others, so that the means
probably available will be sufficient to meet all
calls upon the Treasury, and leave ia it .an ave
rage balance of about two millions.
It is believed,, for reasons enumerated hereaf
ter thai such a reduction is possible without es
sential injury to any useful object, and that this
balance is the smallest,. which is adequate to se
cure promptitude and gotfd faith in public pay
ments, so.Jieav' in amount as ours, so unexpect
ed at times in the demands for them, and so dis
perse over a wide territory. If the appropria
tions are not thus reduced, it will be wise to pro
vide seasonably in some other way for the a
mounts of the contingent deficiency, and of such
According to th? opinions of the different de
partments, as to the. Sums of. money, proper for
each and which constitute the basis :of the esti
mates submjttedlo' Congress, the new appropria
tions required" for the nxt year will equal the
sum of . 818,289.600 55
Civil foi-eiffnHnfercoarse onT
jni6QelUnebus4;gs 1,344 19
Miliiiajry services, pensions,
&c. 8,213.610 74
Naval service, 5,085,645 62
Besides these, the permanent appropriations,
which, by existing laws and the modification of
them recominended, first become chargeable ojn
tne Treasury in 1840, amount to 81.586,000.
They are, in the War Department, 81,236,000:
. ft. r A -k j - . . '
in the Navy, 8340,000: and public, debt. 810
000. The principal on Treasury notes falling
due will be about 82.750,000 more. The ap
propriations, already made and chargeable,
which will remain uncalled for at the end of the
present year, are estimated, by the different de
partments, at the further sum of 811.827,371.
though that is considered by the undersigned
as likely to be about two millions too small. "Df
these they compute that nearly 88,270,793 will
be rtquired, in order to accomplish the objects
contemplated by them. It is proposed to apply
qjo.U 14, J 1 to tne service ol the ensuing year
without -appropriation, and the residue of a-
about 8541,866, not being required in order to
accomplish these objec;s. will go to the surplus
iuiio. Li uiereiure ioijows, 11 an tne new appro
priations called for are mndo, that the whole
charge upon the Treasury in 1840, exclusive of
the Treasury notes outstanding, will amount at
least to 831,152,105, of which, as previously ob
served.it is computed that 820,000,000 will be
expended within that year for ordinary purposes,
or two millions and three-fourths more, includ
ing ihe redemption of Treasury notes. From
these statements, it must he perceived that our
condition in relation to the deposite of another in
stalment ot public money with the States remmns
much the same as at the close of the year 1833.
Consequently, the views then expressed by the
department have continued to govern its course.
Thisstate of the finances renders ft also un
necessary to submit any remarksupon lhe1m:
policy of providing for the additional deposite or
distribution of surplus not likely to occur, or for
any donation of the proceeds of the public lands,
while they are all tieeded to defray the ordinary
expences of the General Government.
Besides the further objection to some of these
measures, arising from their apparent conflict
with constitutional principles, it must be manifest,
that if the proceeds of the lands should be given
away when needed to discharge appropriations,
the derjt-iericy must be made up by the unplea
sant alternative of a iesort to loans or increased
Explanations concerning the estimates of re
The estimates of the receipts from duties and
erth.in for 1839, tor the following reasons:
lands during the next year have been made low-
: A further reduction of certain duties, amount
ing to nearly 8800,000, will take place after the
close of the present jear. It likewise happens
that, subsequent to a large importation and a fall
of prices in the articles exported, as in 1839. the
amount ol imports often declines for one or two
years. After 1825, it declined uninterruptedly
tor six years.
The contractions and expansions of our pa
per currency have at times proved another strik
ing indication of the reduction and increase in
importations. Without dwelling hereon the
intimate connection between them as caus
and effect, by means of the foreign exchanges,
and the necessity.after overtrading and overissues
by the banks, of drawing on them and adjusting
large balances in specie, it may be observed that
a diminution in the circulation of paper has
been going on tor several months. Hence a
diminution in the imports has already commenc
ed, and is confidently expected to continue for
The country is also supposed to be supplied
with foreign merchandise in greater abundance
than it was a year ago. This will lead not on
ly to a reduced demand for the iniportatiop of
more goods, but to a greater export of what is
already here, to other and better markets, and
thus, by increased drawbacks, a well as dimin
ished imports, materially lessen the nett receipts
The price of some of our principal articles of
exports being lower, the same quantity will like
wise furnish less ability to make purchases a
broad, and, where the quantity is larger, the
commercial embarrassments boththereand here
will tend to prevent buying, on either side of
the Atlantic, much beyond what is needed for
early consumption. The greatly increased lia
bilities on the part of many corporations, and
States, for the payments of interest & dividends on
their stocks ownetl by foreigners, will still more
sensibly affect the revenue. Those payments
must require millions of exports either in pro
duce or specie, which jvilf lead to no returns in
additional imports." It is. believed that within
a few years past an annual tax or drain on this
country has thus been created, equal to twelve or
thirteen millions ot dollars.
This is a new and important element, besides
overbinking and overtrading, to disturb the in
dustry, the commerce and finances of ihe Union.
Its rapid growth has ben accelerated by the d,is-;
tribution of- the surplus in deposire among the
States, tempting them in several instances to new
and unprofitable enterprises, and stimulating de
lusive hopes of still further distributions. Ls
influence for evil has .been aggravated by a few
other causes, some of them temporary in dura
tion and limned in eje tent, but others diffinett in
a degree rer considerable portions of the civi-
Jlized world, and presenting some singular ano
malies in credit, .currency and trade. But with
out enlarging on the consideration of them here,
the following conclusions may be regarded as
Should the States not speedily suspendv more
of their undertakings, wh ch are unproductive,
but, by new loans or otherwise, find mens to
employ armies of laborers in consuminraiher
than raising crops, and should prices tfcVen
tinue in rrrany cases to be unnaturally if lated b?
they have been of late years in the lacea con
tracting currency, the effect of it on otfinan
ces wiU be still more to lessen exports, (con
sequently the prosperity and revenue pOrOur
foreign trade. -It will also impede, the jatcof
the public lands, by diverting labor from he "s if
to works which'i for sme time, must be i'h'ojjy
without profit. Circumstances like thosey
withthecarcity of money and high rates of;in
terest abroad produced by them and other o ''Te
rences, not necessary to be-'now repeated. I xP
4 already diminished the income in the present
i i.-.i tii ,
The estimates for revenue from lands have
been reduced , the most in proportion, because
besides the diminution of sales, which will pro
bably be caused by the present and prospective
scarcity of money and fall of the prices of pro
duce, the amount received from them during the
present year has, as was anticipated by the. de
partment, been much increased by the temporary
fpower of the late pre-emption law
The unusual quantity of land newly advertis
ed during the year 1839, and the consequent
large receipis connected with that cause and. the
pre-emptions, are circumstances not likely io re
cur in 1840. It is believed, therefore, that the
low estimates submitted as to lands will prove,
sufficiently high, unless a graduation bill should j
pass. The effect of such a bill, judging from
reason and from analogy to the graduated prices,
under which lands are now selling, on account
of the Chickasaw Indians,. at Pontitoc, much'
more freely than elsewhere within the samel
state, wouia oe to aua considerably to the re-!
venue for a few years. , ,,pt
Explanations of the estimates as to expenditures
and vf some further reductions in them.
The estimates of expenditure for ordinary
purposes in 1840 are in the aggregate about five
millions less th an what it is computed will be
spent in 1839. This great reduction has been
proposed, although the expenses of 1839 will be
quite six millions less than those of 1838, and
those of 1833 were somewhat less than the ex
penses of the previous year.
Ihe various items of new appropriations ask
ed for are, as usual, in the amounts requested by
the different departments having charge of the dil-
lerent subjects. If any omissions or miscalcula
tions occur in them, they must, therefore, hap-
pen lrom inadvertence by those ohicers nest ac
quainted with the business within their own
But, in the present condition of the country
and the finances, it is not expected that much
necessity will arise, eitherin theopiniou of thpse
departments or of Congress'to' make important
additions to the sum3 jiow requested. On the
contrary, it is confidently hop?d that some reduc
tions from them can be effected without material
injury to any great national "interests.
It is difficult in a young, growing, and enter
prising community, to restrict publi;: expenditure
within reasonable limits. Certain exigencies
also occasionally occur Requiring extraordinary
sacrifices. When patriotism and honor demand
large pecuniary contributions, the latter are rich
ly repaid by their lejrdeocy to impart vigor and
security to the former. But, an expenditure-ot
twenty millions for ordinary purposes, though
much reduced from the 2rgregate during a few
years past, is believed b the undersined to be
more instead of less, thn sound policy ju?tifies,
while the prt-seel unusual embarrassment in
moneyed nffiirs shall continue. Indeed, strong
doubts exist, if it be not more than the real ne
cessiiies of the General Gevernment usually re'
quire. The reasons for this conclusion arc brief
ly these: It is true that such an expenditure,
equalling only a dollar and a fourth per head of
our population, is not a very large one to sustain
a Confederacy with such widely extended
duties as this. If reduced to the amount of itn
posts, which are the vvhole real burden, and if
compared with the taxes elsewhere, equalling
sometimes fifteen dollars per head, under politi
cal institutions of different forms and less fruah
ty, the pressure from that source here" would
seem to be remarkably light.
But it should be remembered that the people
of the United States are obliged to defray a large
amount of. other public expenses imposed upon
ihem by State authorities, and, at the same time
that their forms of government, amon?, various
excellencies, have been preferred particularly
for their economy. Hence the true question
with them, in respect lo expenditures, is, not how
large burdens can be borne, but how much can be
dispensed witi. It is not what is splendid, but
w,hat is useful and necessary; not how much can
be collected from them without suflerinsr, but
how much can be left with them, both of money
& power, and insure all the benefits of the sociu
As the interests and wishes of the people
formed the Government, they should control it
Considering these circumstances, & the severe
simplicity and frugality btfitting 11 republic
what amount of public expenses is necessary ?
In 1331, it was calculated that the ordinary
expenses of the General Government need not
exceed ntieert million 01 dollars. The under
signed expressed, an opinion four or five years
afterwards, that sixteen or seventeen millions
would then be sufficient; and he still believes
that, notwithstanding the continued increase o
our population and wealth, they might, with
prudence, be limited, to eighteen millions in
1840, and perhaps, after the expiration of most
of the present pensions, and the removal of the
rest 01 me inaians, oe tor some time aimm
ished still lower.
Indeed, in point of fact, so recently as 1834
and 1835, the whole yearly expenses were only
seventeen and eighteen millions, independent of
the public debt. Though the amount has since
been increased by wars, pensions,, Indian remo
vals, and other peculiar causes, deemed at the
time, in most cases, sufficient to justify the ap
propriations by larger and often unanimous votes
in Congress, yet a redgcuon has been going on
.Junnnr 1833 and 1839,. and all the ordinary ex
penditures would not in the present year, but
Year oeiow-wnai u-omerwise wouia nave wftnttftatier oMnlerence inniv,-tr;0!V9 dat
1 til 1 - ' I
nwUfobaUy,jiiamfest their powwfcurfriless accurate in Uwoosc! ves ' Suchr
rooxpnri.tne year to come. .. Jim
fbr the pension ind Indian disbursement,
exceed thesmal.. t puth last - mentioned.- ' The
whole inerease; Luve?er, has not been 'confined,
to these two it ins," nor could the whole reduc
tion safely be, which, in the opinion of the un
dersigned, sound economy appears Jo require.
In the inquiry, as to the amount of expenditure
which should be considered necessary, light
may sometimes be obtained, by adverting to the
f increase of-population and wealth. Looking to
t;, if the expenditure, independent of the pub
lic debt, 71s reasonable in magnitude during tba
firstight years of our present Governmant, the
sum $f seventeen oreigbieen millions annually
vvooW not now be greatly disproportionate, nor
probably be found either irtuch deficient or very
unnecessary. It would be nearly five limes the
Average amount about hlf a century ago while
our population, since that time, has undoubtedly
increased more than four. fold, and our wealth
and resources have pre' y increased in a ratio
still larger.' Ihe last remark, however, is a
at more or
portatrons, which h-ave.-only doubled in tbet
ast forty or fifty - years ; the foreign tonnage,
wbich.has increased but in a like ratio; ihe ex
ports, of domestic, produce, which have quadrup
ed since 192; and the whole tonnage, lnclud-
ng domestic a well as Jbrdigri, which has also
undnipled, and become more than proportion-
lly efnuient by introducing into it over eight
hundred -sVam vessels.
Other data, less accurate, but not- less sure
ndicationskof a still larger increase in wealth.
re to be foojid in the vast extension of- agricul-
ure, manufactures, the mechanic arts,, and vari-
us i:seful applications of steam, a3 well as in
pening reads md canals, building up floursih-
ngr cities enlarging our territory, diffusing prac-
ical education, and mulHolvintr by ways too
umerous for repetition, the comforts, advanta
ge., and powers of -a great and prosperous people.
But such general considerations, though bene
ficial in comparative examinations, are usually
better tests of the ability to pay than of the pro
priety of the expenses themselves. A scrutiny
nlo the principal items of the loiter, and their
mounts at this time, compared with those from
forty to, fty yipars ago, will aid much, in connec-
iun with the considerations before mentioned, in
forming a more accurate judgment on the pro
priety and necessity ot most of the present ex
penditures. It will show what branches havo
since sprung into beings and vh:it, from their
haracter, should or should not be longer con-
Some suggestions were submitted on this sub
let intlie last annual report, and its importance
must.be the excuse for adding more'on this oc
casion. The expenditures nominally connected
with foreign intercourse have increased least.
1'hose connected with the War Department
lave increased most. The civil and miscellane
ous charges continue comparatively modera.'e.
But several of our heaviest burdens, such as the
navy, the pensions, Indian disbursements, and. a
class-consisting1 of light-houses, fortifications.
roads, and improvements in harbors and rivers,
have augmented very largely since, the first
eight years of the Government. , Some of them
lave increased more than ht:y fold.
On a careful examination-it will be seen that
various vindications, more or less plausible, have
oeen maae lor tnese auuitions at cinerent periods.
but they cannot be now applicable for the contin
uance of them all.
Thus, the enlargement of our naval expenses
from Jess than half a million yearly before 1795,
to more than six millions now, was in soma de
gree justified, from.tirne to time, as an efficient
aid to foreign intercourse with semi-barbarous
people and lor the .protection of our commerce
and citizens against injustice ortapine whether
n remotest Asi a, or nearer quarters of the
globe. The. increase of pensions from only
forty or fifty thousand dollars yearlyat first, and
only eighty thousand as late as'1811, to nearly
four millions no-w .was defuned on various
grounds. . But in most cases it was considered
less as a liberal charity fchan as a payment of the
Revolutionary debt to a patriotic soldiery, who
advanced arduous services in the field rather
than money, and endufed sufferings in the esta
blishment of our liberties, which a grateful pos
terity should endeavor to remunerate. Ihe In
dian expenditures, enlarged from a few thousands
to three or four millions of dollars, have been re
garded as the most efficacious means of improv
ing permanently the condition of the aborigines.
as wisely extending the' boundaries of civiliza
tion over the new States, and, in a fiscal view, as
profitable advances of money, soon to be fully
repaid by the sales o! lands, to which the In
dian title has thus been amicably extinguished.
The other group of items, far forts, light-houses,
roads, harbors, and rivers, some entirely new.
and the whble augmented from fifty thousand
dollars to three and four millions, have, on sev
eral occasions, and to a proper extent, been con
sidered as prudent precautions for national de
fence and useful atds to the extension and securi
ty of commerce. Some expenses of smaller
magnitude may have swollen quite as last ng
these; others with less rapidity; and others still
have been, wholly created since 1797. lJart. ot
them have apparently become a permanent
charge on the Treasury, and part undoubtedly
may be, as others have been, properly discon
tinued. But,, without lime now to go into the
consideration of det tils as to any except those
four enumerated classes, it may be added that
these are, when united, nearly quadruple all the
other ordinary expenditures ; and either of those
four classes alone amounts yearly to a sum
about equal to all the other ordinary expenditure
and more than the whole of every kind except
the public debt, each year, from 1789 to 1797.
The precise periods when the greatest in
creases happened, and the ratio of them, have
not kept an uniform pace with the progress of
population and wealth. In many respects ihe
ratio has not been nearly so great .during the
last ten or twenty years as at some previous
terms. Thus, the whole expenses of the Gov
ernmeat in 1793, with the exception before men
tioned, were about three millions yearly ; and in
1818, after the lapse of a quarter of a century,
had increased, though in a period of peace, to
fifteen millions of dollars, or five fold, while our
population in that people "had .only doubled.- .
But, during the next sixteen 4r seventeen year,'
as in 1834 and 1835, the expenses had enlarged
not twenty-five per cent, while our population
had advanced at least sixty six per cent., 'Du
ring the present year, though in intermediate
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