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11 F s- a r T-- TTi PUBLISHED WEEKLY; BY Willi Am w, no RALEIfcfll, C.,WEDRSDAY, IfAUCH 27, I EDITOR AJYD PROPRIETOR , 944. PJtYJB&E I fir AdVjJtV'E. .'x 1 mm i mm 1 fERWj THE NDBTrf 'cA'ROlKiir'STANtXAR 1 S PtTBLISHEl) Wnto.fH -THREE DOLLARS PER AttN, Iff AfVANB. . Those persona who remit by Mail (rjostage pekW 'five Dollars, will be entitled to receipt ft Six. Daare, or two years' subscription to the Standi! on oopyJ two years, or two copi es one year. ' " 1 " ten - - - v:-- z-.t ..-r jw twenty" . : ': . 4 -s i The same rate for six "months- - , ' ' . . nr4-Anv person procuring and forwarding five subscribers, with the cash(15), will be eatitled to the SSaafdJ one year free of charge. - ' ' Advertisements, not exceeding fourteen lines, will be inserted one time for One Dollar, and twenryMJVc cents for each subsequent insertion ; those ojf greater length, in proportion- Court Ordert and Judidal JhiT vertisementa will ba xharged twenty-five per cent. higher thaa the above rates. A deduction of 33 1-3 percent, will be toad e to those who advertise by Xhe year. QrJ" If the number of Bjertions be not "marked, on them, tffey will be continued until orderedxnt , Letters to the Editor must coraerre of 'poitMjge, or they may not be attended to. - . . . Twenty-eighth Cong First Session. REMARKS OF Mr. WOODBURY, OF NEW HAMPSHIEE,- . In Senate, February 7 and 8, 144 Oft . trie res olution to postpone indefinitely Mj- McDu fie's bill to reduce the. present tarift " ' (CONCHJM;) , Let it not be said that I wish.X6 see the pirn fey. modern machinery and steam abandoned, where these last can be usea torww purpwse, iu w ble to compete out ruinous risks and losses, unless boh?teredp1 bv high duties and taxes. I would boy and such manufactures wherever cheapest and besl; but for numerous home wants m a new aua agri cultural country, like much of ours, why.no talte what is produced by such establish rnenla and in- iiished through the frugal aid of household life1? mpnK c sewnere. oevonq wnai mu hc iu lAmnt our own neoDle, bv bounties, into the heated atmospheres of great establishments, forced into being, often prematurely heie, by high duties, and at the expense of -other large classes? What commendation can be bestowed on these, m, country young and enterprizing, over the. bracing air of the ploughman's field, or the rosy exercise of the dairy, of the transportation of the products of both over the mountain wave; and throwing the line and harpoon in every sea.jL Most per sons point to New England as the nest illustra tion of the great profits by the protective system, But beside tho mischiets already airoded to it, what has she gained fcom it ia other respects, when all her population connected with her great cotton establishments, would not fill a singleoun itr in several if our States? Wberl the fisheries alone support greater numbers ? When many of her sons are, in their habks, almost as web-footed as the sea-fowl which fly over their heads; when, if not diverted from, agriculture, and navigation, and the fisheries, her hill-sides would, probably, have been ploughed nearer tack tope, her swamps more thoroughly drained, her manures improved, additional inventions in raking, threshing, reap ing, and sowing, sought out, or the present ones discovered sooner ; her, fisheries doubled and trrown to what thev are in England, and her ships still more and more carrying the surplus produce; nf mn.rh of the civilized world. Her population and capital would, in that event, have been as large,- if not larger, than now,-att I useful and A'mehWn; as it is now ; and, by moderate and regular- pnpfSts,'fa less tempting to inroads on oqc frugal hahiw, and on our primitive morals, flow- eaposed to smug gling and all its train of demoralararjoos. To be sure we have the flourishing vniag'.-s -mm - t that were ofirn referred to, But, m one oi tnem, a whole crop of early proprietors had lost tnerr investments; in another, the church was deserted, and the dwellings and factpty bm'ldings desolate; and in the interior, numerous other cases existed of dilapidation and ruin to early establishment8 called piematurely and unskilfully into being by the bounties of your high protecting duties. And it was melancholy to reflect that even where some establishments had prospered, and cities ckjsfred around them, it had been at the loss of ihe more remote country, draining it often of capital as re4l as enterDriseand labor: and causing decline and desertion in one place to produce business and dUs-L yiay ui auumer. " r Suppose, then, that their profits are great hv some establishments, and the wages of labor, as well as dividends on capital, high. Suppose, too, that there, in some of the vibrations of traffic prices and markets, some have yielded exorbitant profits ; yet they cannot long continue to do it steadily, without tempting (where everything is so open and free) other labor and other capital to flock to them and equalize their profits to what are made in other branches of industry. The whole business in cottons, woollens, iron, &c, on a large scale, depends so much for profits on lit tle improvements -in machinery and chemistry, &c ., that the perils and reverses at times appal the stoutest heart While, on the contfary, the large gains from machinery,, which have bdeu referted to by the chairman, are not permanenttothaVclass, bat temporary to them, though permanent and useful to the world, at large. Others soon come in and employ themr also, till the rate of profits is but little higher than in other pursuits. Hence, granting that England has not merely the labor ofj two millions, but every htty millions. oi men, in her cotton machinery alone, and that of three hundred millions of men in all her manufactures with machinery So perfect, that if not talking, it tells when a thread break, or the water-power vacillates has not France, nka, and Germany, and the United States, no less than her people, burst down the barriers of patents and the restric tions against the export of machinery, and let in all nations to the benefits of it and reduced the profits of those using it to near the standard in other pursuits, unless raised higher, for a time, by discriminating and partial duties?' Doctor Faos- tus, when he invented the type might, like any other monopolist, profit much fora while by keep ing the improvement secret, and adhering to-old prices : but. soon as the invention becomes known, or the monopoly broken down, the indfvidual gains in printinsr as well as other, business, aided by machinery, had to stand little, if any higher .i m r ' m . 1 aa 1 than those in emolovm.en.ts not so aidea. Ana profit But I would not see tnera auernpiea wrrere the state of society, capital, and skill is norlarbra- with, others in me use qi uieui, lia pray tell me, air, aa a? auestipn -of profit to-fcK.. whole ooahtiw. py aaacmaery tn-mttuiact are s. and kaads not derived freti labor. Jr there no orofit also f to the whale "Ery"kbor-sag BiapnHery, in agti- cunure ine piougn ana ine scyane-ijy raiMRg whirw-poWilrRld; ih'feabirtg, and efn Teaji- g and ctewrrg tfratm -the satoe. way J But, much more, is there not fa inc in die de vwsajid jains. and wjnds and sunshine, with which God has blessed peculiarly, and always will Wees, his cho sen race, the Ht-a of lite srt-rKthihgb1ad the coontrv in navigation beyond labor and capi- i tai nothing m rhe Acean, lakes, an jiVfesa, that cover thtee-foUrthf, of the giobe, lnr hignwas to the seaman and-merch'ah63-fing in the wnda,' which bkfw freely to wait WmlBeWviiig to tKfe country h the fisheries, bevond 4aW ftnd-ihe Vts- sel? nothing in the shore and bank treasures of i the finny tribes, growing for the. adventurer, with out pay or expense; aqd oe whaies, which, unH hired, await his cotnme- n everv sea " ' Onerim the earth to all profitable' employments, the bduh- ties of Providence naturally attract more to egri- culture, not only from its heal thfulness, but safety ana, its best guards against famine and disease, so. incident teucrowdtd raanufacturroff. In the worst! revulsions, the surplus of grain and meat can help to sustain life ; but HeitheT cottons nor wooi lens nor iron can be -eaten, Wfiea markeis fail, or L war cuts Off other supplies. r - L. In. another of the. supposed, gain hiiia country y fBe uie of aaacWnery In great manufacturing estaoitsnrnems oecomesy in trutfl, only a auestion- between the ejfpediency-of ijav- ing them used here, where dearest; leas under sfond. or lemt nerfpci and abroad, where it is thfiJ CTT ' r i -J -r I revfte: So, if Ve go to the statistics of the rate' censixs, raimilar jfWBs re denwnsfrated. fris imperfect in some respects, and conclusions somewhat dif ferent are dra wn Jjv diflerent persons.- But after rbeing reriaed tnd cxrected, the gains in manufac turing. Ihougti bign, are probably not much high er than in oiner pureuns, y we aeHici wnai is deduction they Teach near $1 60 yearly on an av erage to each persajn employed and connected with them ; whereas in agriculture, they yields out $6 of less than half, arid rrt navigation only80: IMr. Evans here denied that be had stated the learnings initnanuiaduros to be so high. - . 8 I No, sir : but the official returns, when duly re vised, state-this; and it can. be accounted frr firtly in no other way than the protection they epjoy great, even on a 20 per cent duty, and much more on one of eighty or a hundradr " . -J Mr.-Evj.Ns he re, said . a. deduction for interest on capital in manufactures Should be raade.J, - So it might be m.'all other pursuits, as 'well as this, when you tome to divide the gross produce between the capitalist and the laborer.' But happened . that the capital was larger per head in agricukute, than in .roanulaclures; it being $'235 each in the first, and $-200 only in the last, though in navigation il was higher, being $308 each. Greotiernen noay take. whichsoever horn of the' dilemma is most agreeable; and if the profits are np- higher, after the reduction of the gain by high duties, than in other pursuits, there is no advantage to the whole country by the forcing system. We pay for ail we get. But if they are higher after ktt theta the forcing is not necessary, besides its be ing partial and wasteful in order to aid them. Many, however, urge that manufactures ought tojencouraged by a costly protective system, be cause their lafcor" and business are so much more American than any other. The additional per sons it employed in this country, it war argued, increased the public prosperity .and jnaependenca. enough to cwmrbabrnce. all the evils of aq- un natural and burdensome. ar system,. .'Niyy.ir, a Allrtle affalysfs wlR expose fie;felly" ofthis as'sump- tiqr. When more v persons were tempteo. oy war dudes and privations and then 'by the high discrininatingtiiriflSi, which-Zoloavedto embark- Tn manufactures, whence camethey 'I hey were either, imabiied' foreigners, (against whoBT, how- evrvni- hwrmredho idle prejudices,) or they were AlDeTlcW5 previously engaged m agncofrure, ' eomrrurte and fisheries - ".Noavv did this change itf pursuit of ajbousand ' Americans incrense the nQmber of Aneiicnos be-1 fore existing? 1 k.tvas sitll but a ibooaBfyittiA thej new emnlpvment. And, did the cnarrge make i their labor and capital any more American, than it had been bf-fbre, bv going from egrieuJture to - manufactures? So, if a portion of oa present mantrfactfrrers under the lower duties ahouW quit these foe the plough, the eounter, or, the deck, where they or their fethrs befoilboced-would thw hr this 'restoration, cease- to tfe American, r-lb rndnsrry eewse to be" American? By no- J j f ' r . AS mm- means. - And the pvehrdicea exciWby partisans jaga'mst the foreign or pauper labor of-Europe, in order to eolor rne trum as io. tae jctitw m ncf (but Which it is perceived has no concern ivkh it,' as after and Safore the change, the la))br of the same persona is ju asAmerican and just as little Eurppean as it-was before,) is a prejudice whicli is to operate only when beheficial to them, and never when hostile la 'tkeir.leteresis. They aev- et reject the pauper laooroj joropej u n gtatea here and- works at tower wages in their establishments ; ut they invkr if"4iitber and hunt for it m Canada They never reject it, if itcomes here fn the shape of new improvements in their machinery otfcdyes ; but they send agents across the Untic to, buy an! import it In fine, they never reiect. bat discriminate in favor of it, as compared 'with other articles, if it comes here as . mmm, mT 9 mmf W m - . . Vk f m i Amw a raw material useiar io mauuiaoture' rinie' beggarly'Wzart'm. Naples, iaay labor to collect sags for paparand- tfjs alinvejl for the rrtanufacturar tbjencpurage tt By a taw rainer irran prohibitory duty, aMrnaRj the community jjay a hio-h rtne rm the oarnrv marmractorea irwtH in. Tlia convict fhorer6f Nw- HoMknd, end the dve of Moracco, "mav shear cheap wool and it tpi ft-pe. r at a oiltance of dutv, ta be used by the m.aantactttrers, while yrose .woo use the woflens made from it niust p-y&high Jsrx on thetft". the Indian Ayres may throw the Jasso and-oooect hides. at small expense, andk the manufacturers aer wutrng to benefit at tbe lowest duties on them by all that auoei: labor, and charge us high for the- leather. made from tnem ; anq act snuiwv uyuta af the serfs of Russia in raising pejmp, which, t hriwo-h rvvinr a hi?her dutv. navs one not half so KirrhQ t imnosed on us for the manufacture of it? and. without giving- r garments we wear are colored in part by-indigo, wilfMiated by the slave labor of India, admirtedfree Mete ; though the ;garroenis are taxed high, and though," it ? an American production, and once considerably rafsed in the southern States. Hence there is no indemnity fox the other injuries of the Uddby the diseruinatkgittie8. Withoutthatt'jewj whjen are aupposed -by eotne to counter- protect ivfe feyaftm; JT its tHwplaying or encoatag - ingy in thssev waVSr eitlto.Ameresitrjabar or can-& al : traL.anlhe contrary a direct diaerwDinatiad id &.vr (if the'pauper labor all the wmrirheveivto j the injury of el t American htbor-at-ailxampetiBg Utah it,-a wdiiea mighroompeterkh it,-rfprotect- by as nig a dtaty as imposed-on the marruac tares frorrilt, And- wh not- skidd our labor m one case as fully as in the other ; and by a like dty, if anyof is dev-dted or would then be to vauch produelione-? ' And" if the farmer (not now financier) of Andalusia should ask for more pro tection for bis. - pine appiee and grapes, could he ne-t deeftd the praver in aid of his American la bor and ca pita, quite as plausibly as some parts of j the present -system a re defended- . ,Tii.lWfiji i ! jartitf respects how little nveree.fts Iriaads aeeto the-use of 'foreign labor and foreign products, when useful-to them, and that entirely free, let me refer the Senate to thirty or forty such articles in the act of 1842 (a list of most of which he held in his hand.) - - t The only escape from nil this is a mere qu est ion of dol lars and cents in profit and loss, by manufac tures over other pursuits : and not the plausible hat exploded one; that they are more America, and therefore -more patriotic. But as to those greater gains,- we. have: already7 attempted to ex- plainhpw, mthe long ran,, the species of manu factures raised uo by hvgh protection oas rmt-ueen dwahiy productive of large profits to the whole engaged in them, or. of advantage, to the corrt- januy as a wtholet " '- '-': U' the restridrve system, then, employs no more American .labor and capitoll- than wxuddhe'erh- Dbvedm othet DutstStS aind i'TJrofitable monufac ' . . ' r . . - . , i . - tM lures nere witnout it : ir u uses loreign iaoi wtu i foreign productSs whenever more- benehcial to the manufaeiui ereihemse4ve: if, in 'fine, it .yields no Lgveaier prdfits to the whole' country, os a whoje, no ffreater abdUv anaovosnentv-tlian wHhoue I entreat gentlemen to point out p6w.it is:more tiiotic, or nsefrxl than other "pursuits, so astopro- iice those gfeat advantagesin a"geietai point ofj Only specific . position left in their Arvpr, unexam- tned is that they tend to make us independent, as ha nation, of other cduntriea. .It-is uot independJ ence- fn producing iastrumehts and munitions of war, -and -for national defence, aa.many erroneous- I v suppose: since those we have long made for. ourselves, -arid the duties, high orrrow, are of little conaequence ; hot it is, Hidepeodenca -ibr, thd" necessaries- and comfOTts, as tveh assoineof the luxu ries of every day and peaceful lift. Yes, sir, this kind of jndependeBce is gravely urged as .mo mentous to the nation, and for other classes, when the manufacturers themselves go to foreign coun- tries lor - all their raw- materials, ayes, ana ma- itjehinery, -when obtained there cheaper-, when the are dependent and itie a part of there system to remain dependent on lorcigu countries lor mucn of their hides, hempr cheap wool, indigo, and hundreds of other ai ticks, because they obtain them at lower prices there. Can gentlemen for get that this Ts an admission of all we contend for, which is to be depend on other epuntries for manufacturers themselves, no less than other arti cles, when we can obtain them there cheaper, and only then? On this principle we only ask leave to amend this partial system so that we may go for fine cot tons and woollens to England and France, where long experience and skiU, and great canity ena ble them to make such articles cheaper than, here, and where improvements, too, are rapid and great. So when dependence Here between different class es and pursejts- is commended by eloquent argu ments m lavor of diversity of puisuiufand sweet interchanges of industry, is it forgotten that, undefH k -J ,-.t.-- J I. ? .1 . r..j .:w j our sysirfil, iiws vjjiciy iiiio riuuihk huuiu sun remain; io a useful -exttht, and be, by our com merce, diffused wider to all poople? It is this mutual dependAftce, among inhahitants -oLall na an(J spaung apdn the others. - Tfiey trurv consid tjorrs, as well rrS of the samev .which . is the gn at -er -tbe character of the American Mn:hanir nursedf commerce, and-teahh, and Civilization. rtoertivelv dfegraCed' in . the hands of .such low It divides ampug them the Surplus of each a well as all their arts and learning and other ejiccellen-1 eiea it tajus patnunaer, ooc oniy lerrruiuai gainrj but a purer religion apd higher prosperity, and 1 more durable peace the world over. Foreign i nations tlms becortre as dependent on us as we on trrem not powicat crepenueRc-, wnirn wicwiii- atfvertantly cemfoundod with this, but social and j Tm - ' mx " - a i j - -r ar.s ofmnercial ano merary oepenaence, wnaan MPT dHrctums and nronafactares oOa4r others all elim- ate, and all stages of civilization that wa or Ena; land can raise as cheap and useful ly the drugs of T'rfrkev as Turkey herself, or the fruits of Spain,, or wince of France J or they compete with England io making 'iron, or with us in Tafsing eottan c rL 'pr-jrna king 4ead. ' And henck, while we ought not to become fanatics or visiona aUemntinff to concentrate evervthinS in one mm - y mr- a Q , J-" J W Spot,'(wKich alone coukl-be enected-by Peiry, buti never yet, tor wise reasons, nas oeen aone even oy Him,yiet ds be content tobuy kH we need' where it can without force be. produced cheapest, whether at home or abroad; and sell all we do not need vhe):e it wifl bring most whether at h.ome or abroad., "In this way, we shalToIlaw opt the ap parent dict ites' of Providenoej m giving advan tages, in somethings to af! clunatea and people, to be exchanged with others through the bless ings of free commerce, and thus adopting the beat apparent rnrthod of inc reasing ou prosnerityj and extendirrgcivtlizarion, andsecnfirl peace thjowgu' out tfre wortd: ' - - -: ' While all has changed, and is moving onward, a i ai" 1 i" hare we to go oacic ana clmg to tne aark restne- Siye systems of a rttdef civilization are wepre nnred to take the backward step, so as to protect. byisCxm)inatfng cloties, the old channels of com-f meree by the EuphrateSiand the'isthrmwof SheZj habd again- to build up Tyre, Alexandria, and enigv nur.nj-i vpu yxuvu. Hope? Atewe to tax higher theostuof Stearns By olfiaou "legislation, sir arf we to stop aH improvement ; and, while, this ttewpawar in com merce Is' bririg-urg all nearer, and rnking evcTy people better acquainted, with each other's wa'a and abundance, not only transferring St. Louis to Pittsburgh, and" New Ofleah to Charleston, but Europe as near as Halifax in days of -yore, are we to Munteract .ese nay facilities for mere inti pest guaramee of progrogs ib ouuiau aais. . u can njake by such mehdicaait ope h It iSfofly tp scrpno.sethalr we prtHiy otherna-1 . - ; 1 tmn can unite suecesSlullv wrthin Itaell the pra-1 ' more .instances, the verydrnate, enlarged, prosperous, and- free trade, and I while the Celesbal empire nseit is opening its Lports onder tbe progress of the age, virtually Mock all-foreign ones up- to us ana ours iorever,,cy a more stringent and-restrictive policy on bur part ? Much more must we beware 'of poshing this selfish system so as lo operate not equally on one great people, but in vid iouslywa sections and sa SHrii ItenMwte kiratare oiQCa .wnftiat course among ourselves, niattftt jour. iauiar lomv at goumpaeak, lounoea Ta to be sustameo on mutual roncessions, mutaaJ sacritrnd gains, and w ha t should be d u ra W aand . fitkfefuiepm- promises, rieware, srr, ol seeking to: escawom - syen cornpfonrises -inougn kv iecaiicaj jsgisia- tien net forever binding lest all arnica bJe and hanerrary engagements borne. stfipped of much of their moral -force, and we seem punic- in ap pearance, if not in reality. Beware, too, of a per nranent return ia that system which has once rbeea abandaned for its perils to all held holy to oorpoftucat. br other hood. Beware of tearing open, td fester" anew aad worse, old wounds that .'had been, mostly healed, and which wrong is inflicted by the exercise of such doubtful pow ers as will justify the wildest schemes of inter nal improvement, for that general welfare which I can be set Up by the intevsted in defence of all extravagances, can justify din rib utions of the public treasures or public lands, and end in the as- sumption of two nunureu minions oi xsime ueuts. Beware of a policy, constitutional or otherwise, whose tendency is like that which, in the Brit ish corn laws, now agitates- oar parent country to .its centtec - - ". Above alt, rf,.Jet.'n,-fikfe the senator from Maine, read the injunctions of the farewell ad dress of the father ef his. couotry against the Causes of disunion, as well as disunion itself. Let him read and' re-read the junctions of that, warning Voice against the spirit of partiality and encroachment towards fraternal lights a gainst the- inroads that fanaticism-, or aaraieetr party, in the domineering spirit of powerful ma: jeiuies, may be tempted to risk. U&i nrm. ten them to beware as to inconsiderate memorials here to dissolve that hallowed Union,' .on noi count of one of the compromises which led to pa-jit; and above a4J, to- beware how petitions are rnrouraged.-whicb, under the distresses of waXj formerly were confined to a faetion, and died on their wa v hither af the news of peace. Be ware how such petittons are. pew encouraged to stalk into this very hall, from State legisla tares. and uree us to unsettle the great -com- promises on whichr the ilnioh itself rests, and which, if prostrated, may lead-rtot onlyvto.separa- tion, scenes of border warfare, St not servile con flagration and carnage such as never before crim soned the pages of history. " ' fcaaf e 4 POLITICAL VAGABONDS. Mosely, he pump-makr,'' and Bear, "the Buckeye Blacksmith-' a couple vagabond who are too lazy to obtain an honest livelihood by laboring at their' business are foffowiag -in the trial of the 'old coon;' Mr. Clay; and Haranguing tnreugo ine oomn. k ma tuai inear pomicai paupers, after finishing tbrjr t rades which are distinguished dike for smp.dity and falsehood, hand round d hat la "raise the wind o carry them from owe rrface to another, Mosely is a 7TZ r: ' 'a"y a a . . t . 1 1 - 1 i. t . t i be keeps we should say -tie nt mucn. Bear is a veteran oidCKguara ana moa nveram oeasi,: -s'r- .5 ousals ami coon-skm mufmnerirsof 1840. He is an exceedingly dehnsea arm ignoran; creature owariivouui g cu..ufc .,u .ug.y euapiru ofhorse-stealmg. 5uch ar,the instruments which bonest and honorable Whiggery emplpys to carry on and complete its designs against th a Dermicra - ty of the country ! Mr. Clay is invrd to tha South for the special edification of SouLhern Whig nabobs, and these vagabonds and black- Hit rtlo UIC lUiu aa tvrtivvv ut x piujji i uuniutc nwu electioneer with the meChanKS and laborers l We are glad to observe however, that this respectable portion" of Southern citizens regard this tftckery.? and the miseridile tools selected tocarry it out, in mm m a ' 1 , m' - w r their true 'gb repudiating the one andTScorning ' ignorant, and'-Tylng ve4)resentetivrs--fet- - ' uJ d.MtWTTt mnlrra hem innsible to ghamej and who can therefore fie without fear 9neg witboat blushfng! The Wea of an abb hodied Amerioflh. nrechanic quitting his trade and mrQy beggar because he -is top lazy tp.work; isj n ew m coantFV, -eomethmg 'that Konorahta and intelligent mechanics will beasham-J k. - - . ' mmm - - mjm, -n.. . w t6 gee, WhfggCiy is certainly welcome to an J rations. Missottrxan, J K A Legisldter. The 8nafb-w indebted yes 1 teToay for a hearty laugh, to tlld genilemun who had previously mforrninembarathat LoffiePhrJ- lippe was a son bf Napoleon.- Dr..- Gardner, of Bristol, the CBairmanQf the Committee on Eduea- tton. was this eruaiw maiviauai. - in me course of the debate upon the agricultural reSGlrrOJlS, vhich he had mtroduced. the subject af the doty npon imported soft eoap-'was brought into notice, and- Dr. -Gardner stated that the da ty on this arti cle was fifty sent pe pound. He S eortected by several senators, and among others by Mr. Livermore, of Middlesex, who stated that the duty on rbe article was fiftv cents a barrel. Dr. GaTO- - UU., immmmmmmA t .KJo nnr rnAirtv . ji .r .u" ..:a-:.ir t ,i,;k V,Q o,, rape. u,,V' . 1 - nMnk ..-.h.nrr tha inliT j-v r CiXT CABnW H.F hhl daMdnlmMnM 1 Wl 1 tlMHl 1C-Soma J i i ... .' . ! I- t kemlemarita talf WifiWWP general roar from'"aU parts af the b Was tha s " J.? . tT.v u lUz msnnncpM ni anon f p linrier rnver cm wiii&h im '"r - . head ot the committee on education sai a own, -.1 ... - iK. Mftvymnlmn ho hrl ra. - - ' qaeaam. . a r.J, Remarkable Changs -in- Ak -Government. Within -bre veara the t)nifci States have'had mmm A I tOlWVIIW. A0 V VV J m Wmw.Ma.vt w . a-, w w Slate, 4 Secretaries of the Taary4 a'Secretaries mf Wnr fi Rpr.retne snf he Nw. m- Attomev Generals, and 3 Postmaster Jenersls. This in- iiahidesthe administration ofMr. Van Buren. -Since Sey War Bell, Spencer, Portet. Watrrae, gBer.ifpehttT.nwrmer, rear- - , . ' m -v - naatoa, ; ; '' . AttV lieneral unttendeD,erey.4-ai9oii-. " I , . ... v ipt.kiir' - " i ro-ur. f's ;-; TMal a. " - . Tn these seven offices, in the ordinary and un diMurbedcoursaofveaUL seven persona would daminister the Government for eight yeaf bi'c u rim i n i.st ml ion hp Bcrniiflt. nrrr.nrd inn to a 1 et- ter ih tha HefaH staaafottwr 1 iaHaun vl wpai ornw; and crmgmg ceeeafieaRS, sne win mm o PreMea-HariaoD Tvtir 1 ' fe f the wrfrd and tha ay" rkle. The 4pfo o the Tqe-CSSfJ t tLe UoelriV N.te 4 ISottJ-West 0Ost ; thatevery inch Oregon her Wejt wilr-ot tolerate the' aggressions af eaWebeter 1on miba tinned States. Yet, after making RrhJsh Tiect. mrfca lonaer: fh.will not aea Sec y i reaeury wk r orwaru, opmjecr, . . i ! ' JC O'M gf WT JYM CLT1 O J", For the North Carolina Staodard. Mr. Editor .-There ha ve been so rnan v oppos ing statements ppi for caMJerrting ihia territory, lane Uierasaecuve ngms oi threat Britain and the United States to it, that it would puzzle anv one. not intimately acqaainted wkh the facta, tHis- covrthe true state af the case. It is time that every one should becouie acquainttd with the na J ture of oar claims on this territory and with the nature of those set Up by Great Britain ; for an ambassador has, not long since, arrived in this count y, with foil authority from the English gov ernment to settle all disputes arising from this ouestion, and to-dt-termine. if possible, rfce-bound- ary line between the American and British por tion' of the land under dtscussion : and ittis lmJwVLWhat' has the fertitos-. 'the felimatfi, or anv tani-that we should all "know whether the question is seiuea in a manner- so aa poi w itupfive .us pi; our just rights, and so as not to bring disgrace, on the Union. More especially, as it was rumored, arid generally believed," among a certain portion of the inhabitants of the United States, at the lime of the settlement of the North-eastern boundary question, ihat the negotiators on our part allowed ! themselves to be tightened, py yje threats ana ; bravadoes of :i John Bull," .into yielding part of pur r-ignta ana giving up part or our i orm-easiern territory to British cupidity. Now, whether this was so or not, we do not pretend to say. The de cision, then made. is irrevocable, and the less we sav about the matter, the better for us; for if we allowed ourselves to be bullied out of a part of our territory or rather, il the men, to whom we entrusted the affair, betrayed their trust in yield ing to England mote than her just rights why, it is a disgrace to us aqd a blot, upon our. national escutcheon JJg op ihe . cjher 4n4, . we gamed what was Our , due., there is no reason that we should plume-o u r sel ves u pon it ; : nor is any extra ordinary praise due to our negotiators, jot the af fair should have .been adjusted some time before it was; and the (Jelay indicated foar on "our .part, lest we should be in vol ved in a-contest with Great Britain a contest for bur just rights JNow, it. we wcrfieheated of a partoi our ngms, it is doubly important that we should not again be I cneateu. Ann u we were noi, ii. pcuptir mat . . . i . - i r - - . i there should not be as much negotiation and delay concerning the Ufegon ouestion. as there was concerning the North-eastern boundary mksjipn Alttiough " Jonathan " kfa aitrewd aiid'cunmng fellow, in his way, yet when if comes to pegotia lion, and particularly when there is a large, stake on the board, as there is in this case, "John Bull" is far superior to him. . ( . Although we are not one of those who are inti mately acquainted with this subject, yet, as very httle has been said or written about it, except in ... mn(rressjonai debet, the records of which uty of exarmnmg, we have JfeJ Dluch correct information Sgg ia Qrdcr thai wemight lay the subject ' t- Lt KoCr- hb wh riM '-the same means of obtaining a knowledge of it - a - - -.- - - 1 that Qur e iRch Oregon we as.elear and indisputable as thej 1 right of Great Britain to the British isles. And wc" will'cndaaror m pr0ve. j Fjrst . Tfee Sombern boundary is dcterminedl - K D treaties. ln the Florida treaiy, formed in - alihe boundary lioft be- . lweenpj;r rrkary and bers; " shall follow the 1 cotrrsc of mborn bank otthe Arkansas to hs f )Q rL N tiCe by lfiat pji ,alitude South' a " In our treaty w4tb j M ieb -orr,- L.,iaru o-i-ppH upon. " x i V oiidty: Our Northern- boundary is fixed by our treaty with Russia, formed in 1 824, which establishes the parallel of 54 deg. 40 min. N. as her southern boundary, Tfind .consequently ac our nonthern. All the space, therefore, het ween these tivo.paraliels 42 dg. and.54 deg. 3ia. -isfigAry ours. - . - mu- ... Independent of these treauesr which are suflt cient to . establish our right to 0regp'n beyond a doubt, Jt ia ours by priory of discovery, of occu. pation, and of Wpforatidn The kew on this point is, tl TOakind kave an eefual right toothings that have hot yet fallen into the possession of any one ; ana. SOjbbi nungs oeiong lo ujc ueisuu first takes possessiori of ttenj, Whenrthrefore, a nation fiuds a Country uninhabited and without an owner, it may rawjuuy tcaa posseasion or, and after it has sufficiently made known its will in this 'respect, it cannot be deprived of H by an other nation." , - A0i H is a principle that has al ways been acknowledged among nations, that the discovery and occupation of the mouth of a river entitles . the d isco ve re r to a 1 1 t he land ! watered by thai river and -Ks tributaries; , Captain Oray in an, American ship discovered and gave name to ,the .(linobja rivejand tdJlhroppasito poiatfi of rand at ifojnoulh, -krhe year which was 4ne -year previous to the, prdtea4edrHjsc,rery of Cap mMcKensia Posseasion wtis taken of Oregon hby ewis and Qiarke on. the part of tha United States, m the year iwt, wnae iqe pretenaea pos session of Great Britain, under Mr. Thompson, was not until 1806. Now what better right and rrtHtttte tO ttl tef ntOCV, I WOU 8, COHIQ-WCra.Ve f . T Mm- A . m At - . M. b irst. as we navanw, ur3ws m y k fl.4 lr-k- wndh. iaitfhurs brJhiorav L ur MtHV n.viw- r " "t ' - T " -"3 1 J L.na aloo thntvK also shown. And now wjiat right has h' iJr?T LTVT'' JTT-T - fha ttms TL 7 w are e that we. discowted it -rone vear aefoce-t . a aa rpfpnffc4naveaiseaered M.Sh .ore- i -.. . : . . t -l iouvv.sr-7-- ,,7XZ. I m 3 14 a rmmT . men o VI il a n I rsFAn IT rUMr lends IO SUV maiouc uvv.uu1V(u.m uhww Hmr was am wivwf yvo ww bw uwiwbwd Ti T rfli I i T .iaTi ' raTrlaA'r. tfir. fltr Ipretenda to. have occupied aad expfored U: got Unother; ciKStnfttapoe ". made EtlaB mojfls of kletermined in ciatming pat of Oregon, wbia4 . - m I win pe necessary w - S , nCgotiaQen was foffleBcaT aeswee jsBgjaaaaoa me U Oltaa .WBiea, wwn ra-pect io Oregon lerriio- Uvi. Mr. Ckrv waa then SecretarY-jef State bf I t " 1mm - .imm. IT 1 jt - ntS .Oral ICIW vmm RHHinci .ill uagianu VfA onrl lrn gMortiAD Honrr Pla cither .Am.rir or nriiisn inrarwx rvr irnm m iirkith in spi dl9ut Waipeaaand cowarfflv ioa4mhrbt and horJ tha British tyrants from our We nerrauthorwea our Minister to suraeipiar to Eag4ei shore. And what will follow from tbia? g, j . j.if r ui u il- a I H3U wymrxy umytt ji nxc wuviajpitavi ouaci -bprna. Yea, naarty for aoodred jnea of that coast to which he had just declared positively that - ; England had no color of a title 1 Bui aha Would 'not even agree to this ; she supposed that, as she 1 had gained so much from Mr. Clay, by a few mora thragtcind a Jiftle mord Wrgotiation- sfh might obtain the whole of if. Aadhow this Con cession ea the part of a weak Secretary of Stata, ia set ip by Ureat BcAain aa a jtost trtfb torc "Wa-hatve now shown rmon what fffoundsi Brkaia and1 the V ailed States reseeeflaaJv ch i (the ownership ef Oregon ; and, as ir has been as serted by some, that the terrifdTy in quesriroo tr not worthy of dispute that it consists-of barren and sandv vx-nsi nnrl r,rirJPs ndjU mwnh. i.. - i r- . . J- I ble of cDltivation, and have made various othr assertions of this kind, tending to delay k occupa- i . a R . , i . v . a . iron , we nnx it propel1 to make a vew remaiits upon the face of the country, Hs fHMtnte, prodae tions, and susceptibaity of tillage -and cultivation. But, before e proceed to Aia; we Vodkt as those who advance the general character of Tha cmiotrv as -an argoment against its occupation, Jtiatural feature of the country, to do with Us af occrpatien ? We have asserted and" proved out right to-ttf abd wheihef if is a barren waste or a5 very-gardea of nature, it isour duty to sustain i he assertioor even- by .foree of .nrars jfnegessaTy' This is a question in which national honor and national disgrace is involved, and .rroselfish con, sid era tions of ptofit and -bss shouldfWirf -into its diarajssiaar. ' --'- tsraBiritorv is about aoCmlfes fo .Jenirftt end 600 in breadth, being nearly one-fourth larger ' than the original thirteen States. It is traversed by many ranges of mountains and hills, and i he sutfuce, Bt many places, is exceedingly bron and not susceptible of cultivation. But there jko many vafefs ogtehf exfent vhich are equal of superkus ur fejrUfrUL tn the 'best lands of any of our SoWfeprU of - vVrBflNrlt States. The country ia watered by dome forge streams and bv innumer able smaller ones. Un account m the diversified1 Liatuse df the8u.rfee, H possesses eveTy variety of climate, frornJyMit otficy talceeniand Pepvhat of Italy and France , jphe shores of its -wvers, and th bdrdew of .iJrpreiries,. furnish timber super ior to almpst any in the world, and, inferior to none: The. wAft : k jtftls of fish, among whiicfe jv -tfia Salmon, can be taken, in immense quantities from1 i hp rivers All nJnn have travplk-d thrnfrh the fcOuntiy agree thaf, m mildass and saPuhrrty of climate, fertility of soil, and irrxurbnee of growth, it is stiperier lo any portion- of the Jnjted States. and inferior to BP -other country in the world. Here, there are no chilbng north-easterly winds to produee-coasumptrons and other troublesome Wd.fa dtoSf S, aarheeara prevairkig in man ot our Eastern States; and, with the exception ox. a few sir all portions, of land lying on some of tha large streams, there are no swamps and such other causes as tend Jo produce the contagious fevers, which annlByearry pffso many of the south rr and south-western inhabitants of the Unked States. V Am . a . A rfct , mm. ' . " ktveo. ui. the miastoi winter, rae- eye greeiea with the cheer lag sight ol the verdant punas ana waving meadows of summer ; and it said that all the-fturts df theTropfcaf regions here flourish. n this inviting country; those animals also are abundant whose furs are most valuable ; and the income to be-dWived from this source is immense- This is a brief but true description of the couhtryr now the subject of dispute between England ana the United States. ""v. For a great number of years. England alone has been deriving the immense profits which flow from its vast natural resources, the Hudson Bav Company that Wicked tool of the English aristocracy has been exercising a sole and abso ltfrtoeway over the gw hole territory ; and tt ia now erecting forts, training and arming the surround ing fnuians, ad strengthening JtscW daily, while W remain idle spectators, and waste time in dis cussing the propriety of taking possession. More- o.very-tms Company, mereasmg m insolence ana in a desire to oppress as it increases in strength, now exhibits a desire of harassing and driving off even the small number of our citizens who hava had -enterprise enough to leave their native homes and remove to the tar w est i es, mis company, whidi has assumed and exercises the right of sn- pferne jurisdiction over Oregon territory, has been tcymgand condemning American citizens oy na own laws, ot rather, by no laws at ajl, or has srni them to other countries in possession of Gieal Britain to be-tria, where it is impossible for them to obtain justice ! But a few weeks since, a me morial from upwards of sixty inhabitants ol ure- gpn; who are American citizens, was presented to the Senate of the United States, complaining of the ma ny and unprovoked injuries inflicted upon rhern by the British authorities, saying mat tney were Oppressed, and driven from their homes oy one of the principal agents of the Hudson Bay Company, and praying Congress to extend to tbem tfie pjotectioir of.American Jaws. And what has been dope concerning the memorial? . No thing, nothg! liven while this news w re ceived" of the lamentablecetaiition of our citizens in "Oregon, delay, atill delay is recommeiKled. Does not every .one sea to what this conduct of the Hudson Bay Company and of Great Britain is approaching? W ho, that has eye, does not see? Why is England thus earnest and deter mined in retaining possession of this territory? Whv was "she so determined upon securing her -crainis to the North-eastern terrltorv,.aod in which Usee aoVel succeeded T Why is she endeavoring . "mL ' jw.fci.i: A -A ...k. u to optain paaaession oi yanfurum aiju she beep irttoreing herself in the disputes between fTerasnd Mexico ? Tbe reason is obvious. . She wishes to obtain as atroasr a foothold oa ours West rm-WPSi w m-. )von '' a vJ... !-:... Si ul wi Nod east . fanose she gains possession of Ore gpraridrCalrj. Whatwill e be more than a prisoper, surrounaeq an our norm bu west uj bona; and on our south and west by British fleets and British cimnon ! Yef.'with'all these lights before us, we are dis posed ta temporize, and delay what most soon or ta t-. come to nass. Yea. we sav war will be da- t ' mm - -f ' " clared. rf the United States do net soon take the " mtmt. awd axper'etiawfiierafrotn Ora gonf Great Britain will net have SUClPinen to tdeal Wfth on our West ar sfie had oa our North- ealt ; There, instead of meejmg poeifying speech- ... - ... ?ll w I .1 i r.H- 1 I.. ..,--nJl Wtthnrrt ianr i . r. ...ft . tm . mm m inow win rise n limii . . - when eaCP Section Ol COumij uungw v" '"R" its own injuries, ana io repei roroigii without the aid or even countenance of the Fede ral Government. What else can follow bat dis union ? . . Many of those who are averse to taking imme- 1 a mmm