PUBLISHED WEEKLY, BY
VOLUME XI. NUMBER fr.
WILLIAM W. HOLDE1Y
K . VEOKiAV, AFKIL 16, 1845.
jvf table tjr ju-rj&rex.
tDlTOR AND PROPRIETOR
-. j '
THE NORTH CAROLINA STANDARD
IS PUBLISHED WEEKLY, AT
THREE DOLLARS PER ANNUM, IN ADVANCE.
Those persons who remit by Mail (postage paid) Fire
Dollars will be entitled to a receipt for Six Dollars
or two years' subscription to the Standard one copy
two years, or two copies one year.
Forr cop.es, : I : : . fig 00
:: f j : ; J o
The same rate for six months.
iv. Any person procuring and forwarding five subscribers
rith the cash ($15), will be entitled to the Standard
one year free of charge.
AnvFRTisEMEWTS, not exceed ing.Wieert lines, will
he inserted onetime for One Dollar, and twenty-five
cents for each subsequent insertion those of greater
length, in proportion. Court Orders and Judicial Ad
vertisements will be charged twentv-five per cent
higher than the above rates. A deduction of S3I-3
percent, will be made to those who advertise by the
vear. fO- If the number of insertions be not marked
on them , they will be continued until ordered out.
Letters to the Editor must come free of postage, or they
may not be attended to.
, . - ' -' -
r .IST OF LKTlliKS
Remaining In the Post Office at the city of Raleigh,
for the quarter endfng 91st March, 1845.
New York City Advertisements.
183 PEARL STREET,
(Opposit cedar street) NEW YORK.
LEATHER, Seal, Hide, and Canvas Packing Trunks,
Ladies' and Gentlemens' Hat Cases and Travelling
Hags, valises, Carpet Bags Hobby Horses, Velocipedes,
&c. Russia, Black, Green, Russet, and Sole Leather
Folio Trunks, suitable for the Army and navy, on the
most favorable terms. Sold Wholesale and ReUil in
quantites to suit Purchasers.
flrj- Citizens and Merchants from the Country are in
cited to call as above before making their purchases.
April 9. 544-ly.
Lamps to Burn Campnene."
HORN'S PATENTS OLID BOTTOM GLASS
FOUNTAIN LAMPS for Camphene or Chem
ical Oil, have become universally celebrated and sought
after, as the most perfect "Lamps" ever invented. They
meet the approbation and praise of all who use them.
Trv all others, but do not fail to try the best, the chea
pest, and above all, the Lamps that will give the great
est light with the least expense. They are the most
simple and easy to manage and trim, cannot corode or
become heated while burning, easily cleaned inside and
out, and not aflected by a draft or current of air. Less
than half a cent per hour will give you a splendid light ! ! !
m Try one." Manufactured wholesale and retail by J.
0. Fay, No. 136 Fulton street, (Sun Buildings.) New
York, viz : -Stand Lamps for Parlors with or without
Lustres ; Suspending Lamps for Stores, Hotels and
Churches; also Chandeliers, Side Branches, &c tc,
in anv style desired, or made to order.
N.'B. Ladies, it you wish to preserve your eyesight
to a good old age, or want a strong and beautilul light to
sew or read bv, do not tail to procure one of these Lamps.
One in the centre ot a large parlor will enable you to
read the finest print in the most remote corner.
March 19, 541-13L
SPRING GOODS 1845.
HALLOCK, MOUNT fc BILLINGS,
173 PEARL STREET, One door aboTe Pine Street,)
ARE now receiving by late arrivals from Europe, and
from Home Manufacturers, a large assortment of
FANCY and STAPLE DRY GOODS, adapted to the
Spring Trade, which they offer by the piece or package,
on favorable terms.
Their stock consists in part of
Cloths, Cassimercs, Sattinets, V eatings,
American Prints of all styles.
Brown and Bleached Muslins, various styles and prices,
Irish Linens, Linen Lawns, Scotch Ginghams,
Printed Mnslins and Lawns new styles,
Bdlzorines, Alpacas, Lustres,
Silk and Cotton Work,
Silk anil Cotton Velvets,
Fancy French and English Gambroons,
Spring Tweeds single and double width,
Check Gingham and Merino Caasimere,
Drab D'E tes for summer wear,
American Pantaloon stufls,
Brown Hollands, Silesiasand Paper Cambrics,
Cotton Hosiery bleached and brown,
Fancy and silk Handkerchief, Ribbons, sewing Silk and
Corded Skirts, Table Covers, Linen Thread,
Jaconets, Camoncs, Gloves, &c. ice.
fjc- Merchants buying goods for Cash will find it to
their interest to buy of us.
March, 1845. 540-17t.
i:U SPKIiVO GOODS.
RICHARDS, BASSETT fc ABORN,
148 PEAKL ST. NEW YOTK,
Are receiving and offer for sale, at the lowest market
prices, a very large stock of
Cloths, Cassimercs, Waistcoatings, and
FANCY DRY GOODS,
OF ENGLISH AMD FRENCH MANUFACTURE,
Including giras and trimmings of every description, for
Outfitters and Merchant Tailors.
All those who resort to our market for their supplies
will find it to their interest to visit our store and exam
ine our stock.
New York, Feb. 4, 1845. 537-8t.
FRINGES, TRIMMINGS, &c.
1. A. BOOTH,
100 WILLIAM STREET, NEW YORK,
Importer and Manufacturer
OF FRINGES, for Dresses, Curtains, Carriages,
Rugs,&c. Gimps, Dress Cord and Tassels, Ze
phyr Worsted, Canvass, &c. Coat Cords, Cloak Tassels,
&c. All kinds ot Bindings and Fancy Trimmings A
large assortmeut of White Cotton Fringes, &c. Jtc.
He invites attention to his assortment, which will be
kept full during the season, as he will be receiving the
newest and most fashionable styles.
Offered by the Package or otherwise.
Terms and prices shall be such as to give satisfaction.
90- All kinds of t. i minings made to order.
January 29. 1845. 534-13t.
Alien, Job a
Avery, W A
Anders, Miss Martha
Alexandria, Wm J
Bonner, Mrs Eliza
Benbury, Mrs Penelope
Bonet, Miss Eliza
Baskervilte, Miss Mar-'
Barbour, Saml R
Barclay, Miss Leocadia
Bozman, Jos L
Blake, Mrs Mahalatt
Barham, Mrs Wm
Brooks, Nat G
Bledsoe, Stephen R
Botsford, S N
Burgwyn, H K
Barkly, William H
Belts, E G
Clark, Miss Lucy N
Copass, Ira G
Craving, Mrs Lucy
Culbreth, D 3
Clark, Mrs Aramanta
Cooper, John R
Carpenter, John W
Crawley, Jas M
Cope, Chas S
Caldwell, Jacob C
Doubt, Rev Peter 2
Doub, Wm C
Dickinson, P K
Du Pre, Jas
Dawson, H C 3
Dickinson, Jas S
Drake, A G
Ellington, John F
Earpe, Miss Elizabeth
Emerson, C N
Fowler, W L
Guyther, David C 2
G id Jy, Miss Jannett
Granbury, Maj J
! Grimes, John
George, W H
Hamiick, J Y 2
Harris, H H
Haywood, Mrs. Nancy
Hamilton, Andrew J
Horah, Jas 3
Holland & Rowland
Hayes, Geo W 2
Hintoo, Geo M.
Hinton, Miss Anna
Valuable Property for Sale.
By virtue of a Deed ot Trust executed to me by Mr.
Franeis L. Walthall, for certain purposes therein men
tioned, 1 shall proceed to sell on the 16th day of April,
. . . a . 1 1 ' T a. a. .
1845, on me premises, tne iouowing rropeny io wu :
HIS HOUSE AND LOT, situated in the eastern
suburbs of the Citv of Raleieh. Also, TWO WE
GROES a girl, and a woman ; together with all his
Household and Kitchen b urniture. Among tne n orni
ture are one splendid Mahogany Sofa, one Mahogany
Centre Table, one splendid Piano rone, besides two
Clocks, two Walnut Tables, and two Bureaus.
The sale will be continued from day to day until ail
Terms of Sale. House and Lot at six and twelve
months, with interest from date. Other property, credit
of sixty days for all sums of ten dollars and upwards.
Cash for all sums under ten dollars.
Selling; only as Trustee I shall convy to purchasers
such title as may be vested in me, which is believed to be
Those persons indebted to Francis L. Walthall are
hereby notified to come forward and make payments to
me , as no other person is authorised to give a discharge ;
otherwise they will find their notes and accounts in the
hands of an officer for collection.
Also, To hire, at the same time and place, a Negro
man by the name of Allen, for the balance of the year.
W. WHITAKER, Jr. Trustee.
March Z2, 1845. ; S42-4t.
Johnson, Mrs Mary
Jones, Miss Sallie R
Jones, J R
James, Israel E 2
Jenkins, Henry W
Jones, Benson F
Johnson, Mrs Emily
Kenner, Mrs D
Persons calling for any of the above mentioned
Letters, will please say they are advertised.
THOS. G. SCOTT, P. M.
April 5, 1845. - 464-3t.
Kinney, Chas R
King, Mrs Malendv
Knowhon, E A
Longee, Augustus S
Leak, Miss Mary C
Lewis, Win 2.
Laster, Miss Evaline
Laws & Co
Lee,. Miss Ann
McMillon, A B
More, Augustas 2
My ait, A
Moses, A F
Miles, Washington 2
Marby, Mrs Martha
Marriott, R M
Mangum, A b solum
McKinsee, E W
Myatt, Mrs Ann
Massey, D B
Moody, Y M
More, Jo W
McKeliern, Mrs Fran
McLiu, Miss Julia
Melish, Miss Anna G
Mens, Wm J C
Nine, Mrs Sally
Outlaw, Dr J B
Otey, J W
Pender, Josiah 2
Pool, Henry 2
Price, Jas A
Pool, Miss Aly
Port, Mrs 2
Richards, H S
Reeves, R R
Smith, Miss Milly
Singletarv, E B
Snead, D V
Smith, Henry 2
Smith, Richad S
Strebeck, Ann E
Smith, Mrs Nancy
Skelton, Wm T
Seapak, A 2
Sutieff, L M
Sandfod, J W
Sims, Miss Melra
Sluvart, Miss Susan
Turner, J W
Thomas, W H
To wnsend, Miss Corne
lia Taylor, Miss Louisa N
Wheaton, Mrs Mary R
White, Wm W
Williams, W M
WHson, W C
Woodall, David C
SPRING AND SUMMER
TJAVE just received and are now opening at their
M K store, five doors south of Williams, Haywood fc
Co's Drug Store, a complete and elegant assortment of
uooas in rneiriine, io wnicn mey invire aiieuuuu, cm
bracing blue, black and fancy CLOTHS, of every de
scription ; plain and fancy CASSLMERES, double and
single milled; DRAP D'ETE.plaip and figured, for
summer coats and pantaloons ; DRILLINGS of every
varietv; SCHALLTS, SATINS, figured SILKS, and
MARSEILLES ; together with a general assoitment of
to Wit : Stocks, Scarfs, Neck -ties, Gloves, Suspenders,
Shirt Oollats very elegant, Ate. Sic.
The above Goods will be manufactured to order at the
shortest notice, and ean be recommended with great
confidence, having been selected by Mr. Omvb in
person in the Northern markets, within the last two
weeks ; and Wrl be sold from twenty to twenty-five per
cent, less than ordinary credit prices. Recollect that
Olives &. Procter nave reduced the prices of clothing
in this city, since their commencement in business,
twenty five per cent !
We now return thanks to our numerous friends, for
the very liberal support we have received at their hands,
and hope, by attention and a desire to please., to merit its
continuance.. OLIVER & PROCTER.
P. S. The latest London, Paris and Northern Fash
ions, just at hand.
Raleigh, March 25, 1845. 542-6 1.
One Hogshead prime
If not very superior, return it.
A large lot of SPUN COTTON, made from new cot
ton aad pore white numbers not altered.
Also, several dozen ladies' dark assorted Kid Gloves,
and black do. , just from New York.
Terms. Six months credit for good paper, or 6 per
cent, discount for the cash. T. H. SNOW.
March 25, 1845. . 542-
AT a meeting of the Literary Board on the 1st of
April, 1845, it was
Resolved, That there now be distributed the sum of
FORTY THOUSAND DOLLARS among the several
Counties of the State, according to law in part of the nett
income of the Literary Fund lor this tear. That the
Statement on the Journal of the Board, of the amount of
Federal Population of each County, and the sum to which
it is entitled as made on the 1th of April 1844, when a
similar sum was distributed, be adopted as the basis of
this distribution. And that the secretary furnish the
Comptroller with a certified copy of that Statement and
Ordered, That the Resolutions be published in ths
Raleigh Register, Standard, Star and Highland Messen
ger for three weeks in secession.
HENRY W. GRAHAM.
Secretary ot Board.
April 9. 544-Sw.
Young, Miss Naney
in porter of China and Earthen Ware,
SYCAMORE ST., PETERSBURG, VA.,
HAS received direct from the Potteries, his
SPRING SUPPLY OF GOODS for the country
trade, which are offered as low as they can be had from
any Northern Importing House. Merchants and others
in want of any article of CHINA, GLASS, EARTH
EN OR STONEWARE, will find it to their advan
tage to give him a call after looking through the market,
and examine for themselves, as to quality, style and
prices. rAvatrw will De sincuy auenaea io ana war-
rented equalto that of any other house in tne country.
(r Call at the siuw w itit nitwfcK.
April . 144-8t
A Bargain in a Raleigh Farm,
1AY be had by applying to the Subscriber on the
lv M. premises, or to Isaiah Respass Esq , in Washing
i ton, in this.State, in that handsome, healthy and well im
proved Farm with 370 acres ot land in a body, cajled
i Margareita ; adjoining the City lands, and only a few
i minutes ride or walk distant from the Capitol, Public
! Offices. Court House, Banks, Stores. Churches and
schools oi tne iuy oi naieign, naving me v,uj open io
view. Than which, there is not a more desirable fami
ly residence, nor one capable of greater profit, near the
seat of Government. The Landscape is beautiful, the
air balmy and healthful, with delicious spring water
issuing from the Rocks in the lawn near the Dwelling
house. This is a well built, well finished and showy
house containing seven good rooms, earh with a fire
place, beside cellar, porticos, piazas, closets, and China
presses, and in ihe midst of spacious, well shaded and
ornamented yards. The out houses are numerous and
excellent of their kind. 'I he Und in its present neg
lected condition is capable of making 250 barrels oi corn
a year, besides other crops.
A little pains in a .Maikf.t Garden and Dairy would
enable its owner to sell io the City, every day in the
year, 2 worth, or upwards, of Milk, Cream, fruits and
vegetables. The farmhands, at leisure times, cook)
make en the farm 91500 worth of bricks, for Market.
At a very small expense, a Grist Mill, fitted for grinding
Meal and Cobs, Corn and Shucks, ran be erected on the
Mill branch, in the farm where has been a Mill, and the
dam and stones are still there and being fed by Springs
.1 could grind 8 hours out of every 24, and pay all of $8
in toll daily.
Rock Cotters say that a surface Quarry of the finest
building granite can be opened in the front field, which
would pay a rent of several hundred dollars a year. A
rock wall encloses a part of the front of the farm and
may be cheaply extended at pleasure. There is wood
enough on the land for the use of the farm, and some say,
$1000 worth to spare.
Mr. Charles Parish paid for this land in woods, nearly SO
years ago, more than 6,000, as his Deeds in my possess
ion, show, and he certainly expended more than $4,000 in
its improvement. His Overseer says he raised on the
Farm some years, 350 barrels of corn and 40 bales of
Cotton, beside crops of wheat, oats, peas and potatoes,
all of which and clover, grow-well on the land ; and it
being mostly red land, it rs susceptible of high and per
manent improvement by proper culture. Any man who
will work it right, can support the family and stock on
the farm and nett $2009 a year from its yield ; and the
property is obliged to steadily increase in value. As a
mere investment, it would be highly profitable property,
or to a gentleman in the sickly couutry, who had, or had
not, children to educate, and desiring profit ae well aa
health, it would be a very valuable acquisition, or for the
Deaf And Blind Schools, no place could surpass it, aad
certainly none can be had, that would answer so well,
at twice its cost.
This entire property, with firm -title and immediate
possession, can be had at $3,000; one third Cash in hand,
and one and two years credit on the balance, with inter
estor all would be taken in North Carolina Bank Stock,
or in Rail Road Bonds endorsed by the State, or in ap
proved Notes, of sums beyond $100.
Or as the land can be advantageously divided into three
parts, I will so divide and sell each part separately, if
soon applied for: The front land to the Mill branch,
and op the branch to contain 100 acres, with the Man
sion house and its oat houses including the Mill privi
lege and granite formation. On about 2-3 of which, 1 25
barrels of corn beside other crops, were made three
years ago. The price of this pan separately, is $25 per
acre, payable halt in cash and half in one year, at inter
est, if well secured. Although Mr. Parrish paid for
much of it $44 per acre, when in bushes, and lands ad
journing it have recently sold from $33 to $55 per acre,
with little or no improvements on them. 1 he land ea.tr
of the mill branch, contains about 220 acres part of it is
finely wooded, and has the Overseers houses , two Gran e
ries, and Threshing Machine. The tenant now (here
expects to raise 100 barrels of corn beside other crops,
on less than half the open land this year. The City is
open to its view, and a fine spring very convenient. It
may be made a beautiful family residence. The price
of this part, separately, is $6 per acre; alt ho' adjoining
hands have lately sold for $15 per acre. The third di
vision would be about 50 acres on the Race Tract Road,
adjoining Mr. Rorke's and Mr. Boylan's lots ; there is a
handsome eeite for building on it, covered with a grove
of trees, the land is excellent and would make a fine
farm, and when Mr. Boylan's lot is cleared it would
have the city'in view. The price for this part separately ,
is $15 per acre, half in cash and half in one year. Ad
joining lands nave often sold ftom $80 to $50 per acre,
unimproved, and will do it again.
' ' JOSEPH B. HINTON, Agent.
Raleigh, N. C. March 1st, 1845. 543 3t.
Encourage Home Hannfactn
GARDNER & McKETHAN,
HAVE lately made considerable im-
Krovement in-their style of Work, and
ave now on hand a GENERAL AS
SORT M ENT, consisting of
Carriages, Barouches, Buggys, Gigs,
SiilReys, Waggons, Sue.
Which for the elegance of Shape and finish, and durabil
ity, will compare with any made in the United States.
Persons wishing to buy, would do well -4o call and
examine our work, as we have determined to sell LOW
for Cash or approved notes.
Having in our employ first rata Smiths, we are pre
pared to do aay Iron work in the above line on moder
We warrant all our work to be of good and faithful
workmanship and materials, for one year.
09- REPAIRING faithfully executed at short notice,
and on reasonable terms.
Fay etteville, February 8, 1846. 548 It
THE Summer Session of the Subcriber's
Select School, twelve miles from Hillsborough,
will begin on the twenty-third of May, and Cnd on the
sixteenth or October.
W. J. BINGHAM, Prin, -Hillsborough,
April 9. 544-5 w.
CATCH THE SCOUNDREL.
On the night of the 12th of March. 1845, a notorious
scoundrel who called himself at my house William
Jones (though bis real name is understood to be Yancy
Winningham) stole from me a bright boy -race mare,
with a snip on the end of her nose, a knot en one of her
ankles, and is about 14 1-2 hands high, together with a
saddle, a bridle, and martingals. The saddle has a quilt
ed seat, and the skirts are double, but not quilted, with
blue casinet housing and sweat-pad, and is bound round
behind with black leather. The bridle and martingals
are of black leather, with ivoiy rings, and red spotted
plush in the breast, and abroad btowband.
The said Winningham is about 20 years of age has
a very light beard, sandy hair, tolerably red complexion
somewhat freckled, with yellow eyes, and would weigh
about 130 or 135 pounds. He is quick spoken, swears
very frequently, and generally tellsi When he goes to a
settlement new to him, that he has been caught and in
jured in a fulling Mill.
l win give ten dollars to any person Who will appre
hend this man and commit him to Stokes Jail, and also
a reasonable- reward for the recovery of the property.
In addition to this the people of Old Town, Stokes
county, offer twenty dollars reward for him ; the people
ot Lexington, Davidson, offer twenty dollars reward for
him ; and forty dollars is also offered for his delivery at
the Jail at Hillsville, Virginia.
99 On the same night Winningham stole a silver
Watch from a Horse-Driver, and some money how
much it is not known.
My residence is. on Reddys River, in Wilkes county.
North Carolina, eleven miles west of Wilkes bo rough,
on the stage road.
ALEaA.MJEK G. WH1TT1WUTUN.
April 2, 1846. 543-3t.
. Fifteen Dollars Reward.
TBAN AWAY from the subscriber about the 10th of
! January fast, my negro man Hector complexion
Very black, about twenty-five years old, speaks qaick
when spoken te, and is about six feet high. When he
went off he wore dark homespun clothes and has en his
back a very bad scar, caused by fire when small. I sup
pose he is lurking in the neighborhood of Averysboro'
in Cumberland county. I will giva the above reward to
any person that will deliver him to me at my residence
in Wake county, N. C, or confine him in any jail so
that I get him again.
Residence nine miles west from Raleigh
March 26th, 1846. 643-St.
COTTON ! COTTON!
The Subscriber, as Execu
tor to the last Will and Testa
ment of Ransom Sanders,
dee'd, will on Tuesday, 29th
instant, sell at the late residence of said deceased, seven
ty bales of COTTON.
Six months credit will be given, bond and approved
A. SANDERS, Executor.
April 1st, 1845. 544-St.
Fresh Garden Seed,
Of the Crop of 1844, just received and for Sale at the
Drug Store of
WILLIAMS HAYWOOD, &. Co.,
Raleigh Feb. 1845. 536-4m.
?CT Blanks for sale at tills Office .
From the N. Y. Broadway Journal.
We have had frequent requests within the last
ten days, for a copy of " Florence Vane" a little
poem recited by Mr. Poe, io bis late Lecture on
ihe Poetry of America. To oblige our friends,
therefore, (and ourselves,) we publish the lines,
from memory, as accurately as we can.
BV PBIUF r. COOKE, OF WINCHESTER, VA.
I loved thee long and dearly,
Florence Vane !
My life's blight dream and early
Hath come again.
I renew in my fond vision
My heart's dear pain' .
My hopes and thy derision,
The ruin lone and hoary,
The ruin old, ......
Where thou didst hark my story,
At even told
That spot the hues Elysian
Of sky and plain . .
I treasure in my vision.
Thou wast lovejifr than the roses
In their prime !
Thy voice exceiVd the closes
Of sweetest rhyme ;
Thy heart was a river
Without a main
Would I had loved thee nevtr,
But fairest, coldest, wonder,
Thy glorious clay
Lieth the green sod under !
Alas the day !
And it boots not to remember
To quickeD love's pale ember,
, The lilies of the valley
By young -graves weep i
The pansies love to dally
Where maidens sleep
May their bloom, in beauty vieing,
Where thine earthly part is lying,
Port of Baltimore. The folloiving; vessels ar
rived at this port during tho last month : From
foreign ports, 2 ships ; 1 barque ; 1 3 brigs ; 9 schrs.
Coastwise, 1 ship ; 8 barques; 26 brigs ; 99 schrs.
Total, 3 ships; 9 barques; 33 brigs; 108 schrs.
Whole number 153 ofthese, 148 were American.
3 British, and 2 Bremen. There also arrived
during the same month, 41 canal boats from the
interior of Pennsylvania.
t -Rcad the advertisements. A contemporary
gives the following good advice to newspaper read
ers. " People in every station of life should read the
advertisements, not only to ascertain what is going
on in the world of life and business, but take ad
vantage of the many favorable opportunities pre
sented by them for benefitting themselves."
To the 'Voter of Caswell, Rockingham, 8iokesf
Srrf, Wilkes and Ashe.
Fellow-citizens ; The term for w hrch I Was
chosen your representative has expired; and I con-'
form to the custom which has heretofore prevail
ed in bur district, of noticing some of the aubeets
which have engaged the consideration of the fast
Congress. When 1 entered" upon (he duties as
signed me, 1 entertained fears that I should not be
able to discharge the trust with satisfaction to jny
self, or to those whose kind partiality had made
me their representative; and now, after my duties
have ceased, when I reflect, upon the momentous
and complicated questions upon which I have
been called to act, t am free to say that those feats
have not vanished. Embarrassing and perplex
ing as many ofthese questions were, I have avoid
ed no responsibility. My conduct has been prompt
ed solely by a desire to promote the honor and
welfare of the country; and fully recognising the
accountability of the representative to bis constitu
ents, J leave with you to freely condemn what
ever in my legislative course you may find to be
wrong, and to approve whatever you find in it to
At the first session a bill was reported by (be
Committee of Ways and Means to modify the tar
iff of 1842. Although this bill did not provide
for as great a reduction as I desired, yet I voted
for it, because it was preferable to the present tar
iff The southern and northern whigs, joined by
a portion of the democrats, from the North, voted!
against this bill, and defeated it in the House by
a majority of six votes. Upon this important
question, to many of you my views have been of
ten and freely expressed. Subsequent reflection
bas not changed those views. A tariff is, in fact, a
lax bill, and ought in detail to be so arranged as
to equnlizeas nearly as possible, the burdens to
be borne by every section of the Union and by all
classes, having due regard to the ability of . each
to contribute. I fancy that all who are opposed
to conferring exclusive privileges upon a favored
few will assent to the correctness of this position ;
and if it be right, then the tariff act of 1842 is
clearly wrong, as all who impartially examine
its operations will be able to discover.
To collect a duty on foreign importations Suffi
cient to defray the legitimate expenditures of gov
ernment is what no one objects to ; but a tariff
which taxes one class to enrich another, is unjust,
and ought to be abandoned even by those for
whose benefit it was enacted. We are told by
those who favor this policy, that their object is
to protect the American manufacturer against the
pattper labor of European nations. When asked
how they wish to effect their object, they al
lege that it is impossible for our manufactures to
compete with the cheap labor of foreigners, and
that it is gross injustice to sutler their goods to be
brought here and sold, to the exclusion of those
manufactured at home. It is unnecessary to re
mark that if they were to succeed in keeping out
all foreign articles, there would be nothing re
ceived at our custom-houses upon which to collect
a duty, and the government would then have to
resort to direct taxation to raise a revenue to de
fray its expenditures a measure to which all are
The fact is, that although the duty on many ar
ticles is so high as to prevent their importation, yet
the amoun of importations under the present tar-
in lor the year ending June 30, 1844, was one
hundred and eight millions of dollars; and the
question is not whether foreign merchandise shall
be admitted into the country ; but, after it is ad
mitted, as it is under that act, whether we shall be
compelled to pay a high or a low tax on it It is
contended by many of the friends of the measure
that high duties do not enhance the price of the
article to the consumer; and to maintain this posi
tion they point to the fact that many manufactured
articles are lower now than (hey were some years
ago; and, without proof, assume that the tariff is
the cause. In this it is clear they are mistaken.
But, suppose) for (he sake of argument, we as
sume (hat (he tariff has made goods cheaper : and
then see what will be the result You know they
tell us that the tariff protects the farmer and plan
ler, as well as (he manufacturer!
It is known to every one (hat, since the passage
of the tariff of 1842, the articles raised by the far
mer and planter have fallen much more (han (he
manufactured fabrics; so (hat, if the tariff is enti
tled (o the credit of causing the one to be lower,
it must bear the blame of the great reduction in
the price of the other. If their facts and argu
ments be untrue, they prove nothing ; if true, they
prove the tariff' to be wrong, -Some take the
J round that, because other countries lay heavy
udes upon our products, we should retaliate by
levying heavy duties on (heirs; and contend that
(be consumer does not pay the duty, but that it is
paid by the foreigner who sells us the article.
Let us examine this position. The onerous duty
on tobacco in England is often cited to justify the
policy of retaliatory duties. Now, it is no doubt
true, that if the duties on tobacco were repealed,
it would leave the people there less tax (o pay on
the article, which might enable them to buy and
to consume more of it, and thereby increase the
demand and raise the pi ice to a limited extent
This would be true in regard to any other arti
cle in a similar situation in any country.
But if it were true that the planter who made
the tobacco paid the duty, and not the British sub
jects who consume it, (hen a good crop of tobacco
would ruin any of our planters, and (he worst of
it would be, that the more tobacco they made, the
greater would be the ruin! To illustrate: sup
pose A raises four hogsheads of tobacco, which he
sells for seventy-five dollars each, and they are
exported to Engl md, where they arc consumed.
The duty paid there, on these four hogsheads,
would be at least three thousand dollars I Now,
can it be pretended that A, whose tobacco was on
ly worth three hundred dollars, bas paid this
British tax of three thousand dollars? The idea
is preposterous. For A no more pays this tax
than B, who sells the same quantity of the same
article, and at the same price, to be consumed at
home, and upon which the British duty is never
levied. The consumer pays the duty ; and those
who insist on retaliating duties are in effect say
ing that because Great Britain taxes her subjects
almost to starvation, to " retaliate," we rkust tax
ourselves in the same way I The people, it is
hoped, are not willing to give their sanction to
any such system of retaliation.
Nothing is more fallacious than that the foreign
er who brings to the article to this country, and
not the consumer, pays the duty. It must be re
collected that we are only one of the great family of
nations, end get the products of other countries
by bidding as high a price as others arc willing
to give. If the doty on the foreign article is so
high, when added to the price at which the for
eigner fsable to furnish it, that our people ean not
afford to buy it, then the consequence M-that ho
seeks a market in another quarter, or employs his
capital and labor in other pursuits, I will state
an example to illustrate the miqtfity of the present
tariff t Under (hat act, tmdyed cotton goods, coat"
ing under 20 cents per yard, are valued at 2Q
cents per yard, and a duty on goods costing. 10
cents per yard-is & cents per yard, or 00 per cent
It will be seen (bat he who consumes the coarser
article is taxed 60 per cent 1 while be who con
sumes the finer article is taxed 30 per eeotf But
the injustice does not slop here. Suppose the far
mer goes to the merchant and buys a dollar's
worth of this foreign goods : in this case he pays
37 1-2 cents ol it to the treasury. But sup pose
he then buys a dollar's worth of the same U'md
of goods, differing in no respect except that it it
of domestic manufacture, for which be pays the
same price. Now upon this purchase he pays
the tax of 37 1-2 cents, or 6 cents per yard, as
well as on the other, but with this important dif
ference : that in the former case the 37 1-2 cents
tax was paid to the treasury ; in the latter, it goes
into the pocket of the manufacturer. I do not
pretend to assert that upon every domestic article
consumed (he price is enhanced (he amount of
the duty on (he foreign article, for the -duty, in
many instances, greatly exceeds (he value of (he
article, and in those cases it cannot be imported.
When this is the case, the treasury derives no
revenue from the article; and if the tariff affords
it any protection, whatever it amounts to is all
paid by the consumer to the manufacturer. But,
as a general rule, where the duty is not so high
as to prevent the importation of the article, then
the amount of the duty is the amount of (he tax
paid by the consumer j and when . paid on the
foreign article it goes into the treasury ; but when
paid on the domestic article it goes (o the manu
facturer. In the case I have put, if there was
no duty on the article, the foreigner would be
able to sell his goods at 10 cents per yard, just as
he now does ; and to enable the American manu
facturer to sell goods, he would have to put them
at the same price. But when the duty of 6 cents
per yard is laid, it raises the price of the foreign
article up to 16 cents, and that enables the A
merican manufacturer, who pays no duty on his
goods, to raise his price up (o 16 cents, which he
compels the consumer to pay. Thus it will be
seen that (be farmer, the planter, and (he laborer,
being (he consumers, are not only made to bear
(he principal burden of supporting the govern
ment, but are also compelled to contribute mil
lions as a bounty to the manufacturer. I will
here remark, that I entertain no unjust hostility to?
wards the manufacturing interest On the con
trary, I desire to see it left free to prosper and
flourish with the other great interests of the coun
try. But when it demands exclusive privileges,
and exacts unjust contributions from the agricul
turai and laboring classes, it shall not receive my
countenance or support to enable it to perpetrate
such iniquity. It is a matter of some astonish
men t to see the mechanics in our southern towns
and villages supporting the protective policy, and
declaiming against those who oppose it, and alleg
ing that the low price of foreign goods prevents
them from selling their own manufactures, when
if they would but take the pains to inquire, they
would ascertain the fact, that in nine cases out of
(en, the article with which the merchant under
sells them is manufactured, not in Europe, but in
the northern and eastern States, and by the very
men whom (hey seek (o protect, and upon whom
they endeavor (o bestow additional bounties. The
Secretary of the Treasury, in his last annual re
port to Congress, says :
" The existing rates of duties on imports and
tonnage, with the other sources of revenue, would
according to the best estimates, after keeping down
their interest until the 1st of July, in the year 1853,
and after paying the ordinary annual expenditures
for tbe support of government, and after discharg
ing the loan of $7,000,000, redeemable 1st July,
1853, leave an accumulated surplus of not less than
$50,000,000 ; and the same rates and sources of
revenue, if continued until the year 1863, would
after defraying the ordinary expenditures for the
support of government, and discharging the prin
cipal and interest upon the debt then redeemable
leave an accumulated surplus in the treasury of
not less than $112,000,000."
Thus h will be seen, in addition io the objec
tions already urged against the system, that a
large surplus of revenue is anticipated j and this
will have a tendency to produce corruption and
extravagance in the expenditures of government
Before dismissing (his subject, I will allude to a
vote which I gave shortly after the bill to modify
the tariff was defeated. When that clause of the
civil and diplomatic appropriation bill which mode
an appropriation for the purchase of stationery for
the use of the House of Representatives was under
consideration, a tariff member offered an amend
ment, requiring the stationery purchased to be of
the growth and manufacture of the United States,
provided the quality and terms were equal to that
of the foreign article. It being the duty of the
clerk to purchase the stationery of suitable quality,
and at the lowest price, I saw no necessity for the
amendment, and voted against it
After my return home last summer, I found
that, for this vote, myself and about twenty other
were denounced in a pamphlet, written at the
North, called ' The Whig Text Book:' as being
inimical to American interests, and disposed to
favor British policy I This denunciation was
reiterated by some whig newspaper scribblers in
my own State, who appeared to be regardless of
every other consideration except that of pulling
others down to the level of their own political de
pravity. Under the whig tariff act of 1842, the
paper maker bas a protection of from 30 to 90
per cent, while the article out of which paper it
manufactured has a protection of only 6 per cent!
I then thought, and still believe, that if, after re
ceiving this protection, the paper maker could
not successfully manufacture the article, it was
high time to stop legislating for his benefit, till
we had done something for the other interests of
the country. The amount of (he purchase was in
considerable ; but it was the principle to which L
objected. But few of my constituents are paper
makers : they are all paper buyers ; and, as their
representative, I take this ground : -if one of my
constituents carries abroad, or sends, by bis agent
or merchant, (which amounts to the same,) his to
bacco, cotton, wheat, beef, wool, or other article,
and exchanges it for paper, or any other commod
ity, no matter where it was manufactured or what
it be, it in fact becomes as much the product of his
Labor, as much the property of an Amrrican citi
zen, and as much entitled to the protection of the
it had been manufltc(ured
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