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THB COSSTITUTION AND THE T75IOK OP THE 8MTESrTHET "MCST BE PRESERVE."
VOLUME XIII-NUMBER-651. ' T E SS 31 S-$ 3PE It V A IV ft'V JKI Wf LMAilI W. HOI,IEIV5 EDITOR AJVI) PROPRIETOR. -Jr. PAYABLE IJV ADVAJSTCE. It' H published "weekly, by TERMS 1 ,1 1, YtfE NORTH CAROLINA STANDARD IS PUBLISHED WEEKLY, AT - -THREE DOLLARS PER ANNUM IN ADVANCE. . . Those persons who remitby Mail (postage paid) Five Dollars, will be entitled to a receipt for Six Dollars or two years' subscription to the Standard one -cony two years, or two copies one year. vlifour copies, : : : : $10 00 li " : : 20 00 twenty" : : : 85 00 The same rate for six months. jLijiY person procuring' and forwarding five subgen era with the cash ($15,) will be entitled to the Stand- ,id one year free of charge advertisements not exceeding fourteen lines, will be inserted o time for One Dollar, and twenty-fire cents for each subsequent insertion ; those of great er length, in proportion. Court Orders and Judici al Advertisements will be charged twenty-five per cent higher than, the above rates. A deduction of S3 1-3 Per cent, will be made to those who advertise by the year. flr-Ifthe number ofinsertionsbe not mark ed m tUetn, they will be continued until ordered oat. Letters to ihe Editor must comee of post age, or the y mar Dot be attended to CIRCULAR of lion. I. S. Iteitl, of Nortli Carolina, to his Constituents. Fellow-Citizens : The term for which I was elected your Representative has expired, and I conform to the custom which has heretofore pre vailed in our district, of noticing some of the ques tions which have engaged the consideration of the Congress which has just terminated. The duties of a .Representative, at all times arduous and re sponsible, " have been unusually so during the twenty-ninth Congress. I have met this respon sibility by giving my support to such measures as I conceived the interests of the country demanded, leaving it with you to approve or condemn my course, as the convictions of your judgment may j dictate. Ivnowmg, as L do, that you are not gov erned by partisan considerations which so often divide and distract our councils in Congress, I will not entertain a doubt but that you will arrive at just and patriotic conclusions in regard to the great questions which agitate the public mind. The elections of 1844 brought the present Ad ministration into power, and whether for good or for evil, a majority of my constituents, like myself, share the responsibility of the act In this election, the only triumph we claimed was the just expec tation of having the Government administered upon correct principles. In this, I think, the Executive has not disappointed us. One of the -. reforms to which we stood pledged was the modifi- cation of the tariff act of 1842. This unjust act was not only enriching one portion of the Union while it was impoverishing the other, but it was also taxing a large 'class of our citizens to contribute to the wealth of a favored few. It was, therefore, eminently desirable that this onerous system should be changed ; and, after a hard struggle, we suc ceeded in passing the act of 1846. It is not to be expected that this act is perfect, and it may, from time to time, require such slight modifications as experience or a change of circum stances may suggest ; but opon the whole, the act of lS3t may bVconsFderetrTTS-Tavorubfe td the agricultural classes as any tariff that has been in operation since the principle of protection has been seriously urged in this country. The predictions of the opponents of this act, that it would fail to j produce revenue that it would break down do mestic manufacturers that it would have a dele terious effect on all the great productive interests, instead of being verified by the experience of the countrv. have, thus far. nroved to be fallacious and I unfounded ; and no matter what may be said of its effects, if its principles are faithfully carried out, ,i ,, , fM ...Li ;.;t iV, cannot fail to give additional prosperity to the ngncultural interests of this country, by relieving . them from many of the unjust burdens they have . heretofore borne. It is net to be expected that cny tariff will ykld a sufficient amount of revenue to meet the demands of the treasury when the; countrv i3 eneaed in an expensive war with a ! foreign nation. To raise these extraordinary sup- j a . f plies, it becomes necessary to resort to direct taxa tion, or an increase of the duty on such articles of foreign importation as will bear it, or to loans. Direct taxation is not only odious among the! pcope, but it 13 an inconvenient and dangerous mode of collecting revenue by the Federal Govern ment, and I would never resort to it unless it be came an act of positive and indispensable necessi ty. In this opinion, I fancy, most of us agree. With a view to increase the revenue, during the war, the President recommended to Congress to impose a small increase of duty on iron and coal, and on certain descriptions of cotton goods, to re duce the price of public lands which have been in maiket for a number of years, and to impose a duty of 20 per cent, on tea and coffee. I have al ways been in favor of a just revenue duty ; and experience has more thoroughly confirmed me in mc opinion, tnai a iair ana reasonaoie graduation in the price of the public lands which have been in market for a series of years, is but an act of justice to the settler, and to the States in which such lands lie. Lands which, it is believed, can never be sold al the present Government price, would find purchasers in the poorer class of ciii-i zens desirous of procuring homes for themselves and their families; and the revenue derivable from the sales of the public lands would be increas ed by such reduction. Tea and coffee being ar ticles used by all classes, and in all sections of the Union, they were long subject to a duty, and would no doubt have so remained to this day but for the fact that a duty on these articles affords no "protection" it gives no boon to the manufactu rer. The proposition to impose a duty on these articles did not prevail, but it received my vote. A system of taxation operating with perfect equal ily is, perhaps unattainable ; but the statesman who regards the interests of his country, and the citizen who is devoted to his Government, will be atisfied with the nearest approach to this cquali- ly; and I am not sure but the same amount of revenue can be raised as easily and with as much equality upon tea and coffee, as in any other way. In giving the vote to imposaa duty on these arti cles, I expected to be assailed by demagogues and partizans, who care but little for the good of the country. If it comports with their sense of duty, I am willing it should be so; and I am free to say, that if the proposition had been to impose a duty on these articles to be expended for some un necessary object, that then the complaint might be well-founded.' But if this, proposition had pre vailed, I am sure I do not mistake the patriotism 01 my constituents when I say. that, instead of complaining of my vole to impose the duty, they would have congratulated themselves that they Were contributing their means for the pay and support of ih,e brave soldiers who have volunteer- fid their services and left their hemes to defend the rights and - honor of our country in a foreign land. If there is one to be found who would grudgingly sip his tea and coffee under so moder ate a contribution for the support of our gallant sons who are 'fighting a merciless foe, I would scorn approbation from the lips or sympathy from the heart of such an individual. The independent treasury act has been passed, and is in operation ; and although the time for its commencement is unpropitious, yet it is hoped that the predictions of its enemies will fail, and that the experiment will prove that the Government can manage its fiscal affairs without the aid of banks. As the war with Mexico is a subject of deep interest to the. whole country, I will advert to it. Although for years there had existed other good and sufficient causes for the United Srates to de clare war against Mexico, yet I am free to admit that its commencement at the time it occurred, grew out of circumstances' connected with the an nexation of Texas. I am equally free to say, that J it annexation had not taken place, a war with Mexico, growing out of other causes, would have been inevitable at no very distant period. In sup port of this opinion, I will state a few of the many outrages committed by Mexico against the Uni ted States prior to the commencement of theSvar. They are believed to be correct "No. 9. . Brig Calo. This vessel was boarded at Alvarado, on the 26th of August, 1824, by. some twenty men, who rifled her of $2, 701 in specie, and of numerous other articles. After threatening the life of the captain, and wounding two of the crew, they set the vessel adrift by cutting her chain ca ble," which, with the anchor, were lost. Thexlaim in this case is for $5,544." "No. 13. Brig Delight, of Philadelphia. .4 double claim. This vessel, in March, 1S35, touch- ed al San Bias, where the officers of the custom- iiuusc iuuijcucu iuc tvuvcyaucc ui iter vargu uyci a mile to the custom-house stores, and its reship ment. The damage to the owners was estimated at 3,716 4S. The same vessel entered the port of Sisal, in September, of the same year, where she was siezed by the collector with an armed force, part of her cargo forced on shore, her hatch es broken open, and the cargo taken to the custom house. Estimate of damages arising from the con demnation and sale of the cargo, &c, $15,692 50." "No. 14. Schooner Fair American, of Balti more. This vessel arrived at Refugio, January 4th, 1S26, was admitted to entry, landed her cargo under permit, and in part removed it to town, when the whole was seized by the Mexican authorities, and confiscated and sold. The Mexican consul at Baltimore afterwards requested of his Government that the property might be restored, and the owner indemnified. Mr.i Wilson's claim for damages is $50,225 21." "No. 27. John Baldwin, an American citizen, complains of gross and outrageous treatment at the hands of the alcalde of Minotitlan. in Guazcualco. T T accprta ftiof tho alalsto W9 intprpcf pil in A ' suit which was brought against him by one of his constitution broken, his bearing destroyed, and creatures. Some altercation occurring at the pro- sinking under a hopeless consumption. It isprop ceedings before the alcalde, be was ordered to the er to remark that the British Minister demanded stocks. He refused to submit, and, in attempting ; and obtained liberal damages on behalf of three to escape, was shot at, and severely injured, by a j British subjects who were imprisoned with Mr. fall. H wai nntnrp1 mnrfn fii eland in thf slnrks. Tifarlrtll and afterwards imprisoned. The Mexican gov- mnmt were informed subsequently that the Uni- ted States government 'would regard this a na- tional questiou.' The reply of the Mexican Exec- utive was, that it was a matter of judicial iavesti- gation," &c. "No. 2S. Schooner Topaz. The master ol outrage to the present time. ' ihe President had permitted her army to have in this vessel contracted, in 1832, to transport one "2d. This claim is for illegal duties extorted ; j .j m ,i i: -3 . r hundred and fifty Mexican soldiers from Matamo- . - . . .1 ras to Galveston. During the passage, the master and mate were killed by the Mexican othcers, and the crew were forced to run the vessel into Ana huac. Here they were imprisoned, on a charge of kll,i,D captain and. mate, and attempts were made by the officers above mentioned to make lhem at ,iberalej. OD lheir agreement to be bound to the or- ficerSi to serve lhem for three years. One of them subsequently escaped to the United States, and testified to the facts above stated. He states that the Mexican officers divided the captain's money between them. He thinks he had three or r. .u i n lu"r ' A u. . . t t stranded near Matagorda, in 1835. While in this situation she was fired upon by a Mexican schoon er, and her captain, crew, and passenger carried to Matamoras and imprisoned." "No. 42. The brig Jane and four other vessels were detained at Matamoras, in 1836, contrary to express treaty stipulations." ' "No. 44. Mr. Coleman, acting consul of the United States at Tabasco, was summoned before the authorities, in 1836, and publicly insulted and ill-treated, because he refused to legalize certain documents, the result of which would be to de fraud." "No. 45. The schooner Aurora was stranded on the coast of Mexico in 1836. A part of the car go was landed by the crew, when it was immedi ately taken possession of by an armed body of Mexicans. On the crew remonstrating against these procedings, they were insulted, maltreated, and the mate seriously injured." " No. 47. It was proposed to sell the brig Fourth All. M. II S UJJ LI - I 1JOIII&I 1 i lliBUl. iu . of July to the Mexican Government; but while the negotiation was going on, she was taken pos session oi dv th; Mexican autnonues anu me Mexican flag hoisted." "No. 49. In 1S36, William Hallett and 2al mon Hall, citizens of the United States, were ar rested in the streets of Matamoras by an armed force, who struck one of them on the face, and took both to the Drincinal barrack. Here they were confined, while a guard -was placed at the door of the house ot the American consul to prevent nis interference in the matter. The house was search ed for the cousul himself, and much of his proper ty was stolen." "No. 51. The American citizens at Tampico having requested that a man-of-war might be sent for their protection, Lieut. Osborne, with a boat's crew from the revenue cutter Jeflerson, proceeded there, when he was arrested by the authorities,' carried off, and examined. On his return, he learned that his crew had also been arrested, and held for a long time in confinement." " No. 53. The Schooner William A. Turner, of which James O'Flaherty was master, was seiz ed off Sisal, in 1834, by an armed Mexican force The vessel was released after Captain O'Flaherty had driven bonds for her value. ' In 1836 his vessel was again seized, himself confined, liberated, and, after entering into bonds for $1,200. his vessel re leased. Soon after, the vessel was again seized, and the captain confined in the cabin, from whence h wae sent ss rtrisoner to Tabasco." "No. 67. Mary Jlughes, widow of George, Hughes, master of the brig" John,1 of New York. The brig 'John,' lying at anchor in the river Ta basco in" 1832, was boarded and captured by an armed force, on pretext altogether unfounded. Captain Hughes was knocked down, cruelly beat en with the butts of the muskets of the boarding party, carried offand imprisoned and the cargo and stores of the vessel plundered. Captain Hughes subsequently died from the wounds received on this occasion. "Mary Hughes claims reparation therefor." "No. '68. James Cochrane, engineer of the steamer Hidalgo, was impressed into the Mexican service, together with the boat, in 1832 cruejly and ignominiously treated, and compelled to do do ty as engineer for two months." . . " No. 70. Claim of Samuel Baldwin. '.Mr. a citizen of the United States, settled ia Mexi co some years since, and had acquired .considerable property. On the most frivolous pretext, he was seized and thrown into the public prison with the vilest criminals. While there, additional charges were fabricated against him; he was loaded with irons, poison was given him in his coffee, and he endured the most unparallelled sufferings from the brutal treatment of, one Gomez, bis jailor. From Acayuacan, where these barbarities were commit ted, Mr. B. was sent to Vera Cruz, and cast into a wet and filthy jail in the Castle of San Juan d'Ul loa. "No. 71. Claims of Henry B. oron, Wal ler IV. Adam, and James' Kelley. The claim ant:, (seamen on board the American bargue ' Ro ger Williams,') having been paid off and discharg ed at Monterey, California, in 1840, were waiting for an opportunity to return home, when they, to gether with other Americans were seized, and con ducted to prison. They obtained their release, but were a second time arrested, robbed, and cast into jail, uo cause .for their commitment ever having been assigned." " No. 72. Claim of William Lord Etheridge Thompson. Thompson, an American seaman, was wrecked near San Bias, ia 1838. In 1840, he was twice arrested, and thrown into prison no cause whatever being assigned for his detention in either case. After suffering the most cruel treatment, he was released ; but found on bis re turn to the farm where he had labored since his shipwreck in 1833, that all his property had been taken from him. " No redress has ever been granted by the Mex ican Government." " No. 74. Claims of Isaac Graham, W illiam Church, Joseph L. Majors, Charles Brown, and others. These Americans, with six others, were seized in California, where they were engaged in business, in April, 1840, by the Mexican Authori ties, without any just cause or provocation, and thrown into prison. It also appears that at the time of his arrest, the house of Mr. Graham was surrounded, Gred into, and $36,000 in specie plun dered therefrom." " No. 75. Claims of A. C. Bredall of New Orleans. 1st. The schooner Lodi, with a valu able cargo of lawful goods, both belonging to Mr. Bredall, sailed from New Orleans in May, 1S33, bound for Matamoras in Mexico. On her arrival there, without any allegation of offence committed or contemplated, she was seized, her cargo landed, exposed, and pillaged." "2d. In 1843, Mr. Bredall arrived at Vera Cruz with passports granted him by the Mexican consul at New Orleans. He presented them to the proper authorities, but was arrested and imprisoned on the charge of a design upon the life of Gen. Santa Anna. During his detention, he suffered the most wanton, cruel, and humiliating indignities and pri- vations: and nnnn hi relpase. he rearhed New HrlAqn. In IiaUIa... n n .1 .k.iid.afl Annlltinf, . Lie i "No. SI. Claim of Capt. Jonas P. Levy. lst!be commatider-in-chicf of the army and navy of In JS43, the store of the claimant, with all its con-ilhe United States," and that "he shall take care tents, was forcibly taken possession of with the con- nivance of the public authorities, and never return- ed. Amount of property lost, 6,846 02. Repara- tion has been refused from the commission ot the from Capt. Levy by the collector of the port of La- . . min in 1Q43 nnilor fa leu nn'lpncpc """ " I - o , amounting to " 3d. The third claim is for ffoods belonging to . . ... . the claimant and his brother, thrown overboard by the captain of the steamboat Petrita, amounting to $7,483 25, for which relief has been denied by the Mexican, vovernrneni. "4tb. Capt. L. also claims reparation for being imprisoned after the commencement of hostilities .,, tt;. . .,t. , Aront between the United otates and Mexico, in direct violation of the treaty, provid.ngfor the occurrence of such an event, and for being compelled to leave Mexico, without time to arrange his business, also: n violation of treaty stipulations." The conduct of Mexico towards the United States called forth the following strong language rom Mr. Forsyth, Secretary of State, in a letter to the Mexican Minister of Foreign Affairs, in 1837: These wrongs are of a character which can- oot be tolerated by any Government imbued with a just self-respect, with a proper regard for the opin-' lons of other nations, or with an enlightened con - cern for the permanent welfare of those portions of its people who may be interested in foreign com- Grande produced the war; but it must be rccol merce. Treasures belonging to citizens of the Uni-; that Corpus Chrisli is on the west side of ted States has been seized by Mexican officers, in he Nucces and no one pretends that there is any its transit from the capital to the coast. Vessels ,-rr L, . . ... of the United estates have been captured, detained, and condemned upon the most frivolous pretexts. Duties have been exacted from others, notoriously asainst law. or without law. Uthers have been employed, and in some instances ruined, in the Mexican service, without compensation to the owners. iJiitzens 0 me unuea oraics nave oeen imprisoned for long periods of time, without be ing informed of the offences with which they were charged. Others have been murdered and r eb bed by Mexican officers, on the higi seas, with out any attempt to bring the guilty to justice." 1 It was in reference to outrages of this character, that Gen. Jackson used the following emphatic language in regard to Mexico : 1 . "That the length of lime since some of the in juries have been committed, the repeated and un availing applications for redress, the wanton char acter of some of-the outrages upon the property and persons of our citizens, upon the officers ayid flag of the United States, independent of recent insults to this Government and people by the late extraordinary Mexican Minister, would justify, in the eyes of all nations, immediate' war." The sum of two millions twenty-six thousand one hundred and thirty-nine dollars and sixty eight cents, of these claims were liquidated ; but Mexico has refused to pay the instalments as ihey have become due, agreeably to her promise. The remaining claims have not yet been liquidated. . Thus it will be seen that we bad borne insult after insult, and outrage after outrage, from Mexi co. The peaceful injunction which we are com manded to obey, does not go farther than to require that, when we are smitten upon one cheek, we turn the other. We had even gone further than this for the sake of maintaining peace with Mexi co. But when she came on our soil and shed the blood of our citizens, every consideration of honor, of justice, and of patriotism, required that we should repel her. The right of Texas 4o annex herself to the United States has been too often de monstrated to need anything from mo on this point. Texas had been one of the States of the Mexican confederacy, and was an equal of the other States, but did not- belong- any more to them than they belonged to her. In the revolution of 1836, she successfully resisted the usurpations of Santa Anna, and at the time of tier annexation, had for nine years maintained her . independence as a separate and distinct sovereign State.. Mexico had even herself acknowledged her independence during this time, and proposed to do so again upon the condition that Texas would not annex herself to the United States. For one, I am free to admit that I did not believe (hat Mexico would declare war against the.United States in consequence of I . - r m i , iue annexation oi aexas; ana l am now mciinea to .the opinion, that if certain politicians and news papers in the-. United States had not promulgated sentiments calculated to deceive and mislead Mex ico in relation to the state of public opinion in this country, that she would not have declared war against the .United States in consequence of annex ation. It has been alleged that the war with Mex ico was brought about by the President, without the sanction of the constitutional authority of the Government. The Governor of North Carolina, in his last annual message, in alluding to the Mex ican war, says : v "In this posture of affairs, without consultation with Congress, though in session, by the authority of 'tnVlwiecttive, as rai!iUrycoam)aadermerely, our army was made to take possession of the whole territory in question. Resistance was attempted, hostilities ensued, and we are thus involved in war on a point of honor the constitutional department of our own Government never having authorized an appeal to force for the country in dispute,, nor defined any objects, for the attainment of which, it should be waged. While our arms are signalized by victories worthy .of the nation's renown, and the spirit of the people is ready to uphold the honor of our flag at any sacrifice, it still remains a mo mentous question under our institutions, whether Congress can be superseded in .he power to make war, and the authority given to the Executive, only to effectuate the will of the Legislature, can be used to determine and settle the policy of the coun try, in matters ot boundary; or any other." This assertion was followed by the declaration of the Whig members of the Legislature, that the war with Mexico existed by the action of the Ex ecutive, and the subsequent sanction of Congress. Thus it will be seen that an effort has been made to throw the responsibility of the war upon the Executive, and not upon Mexico. I cannot envy the patriotism of the man, who, when his country is engaged in a foreign war, will seek to hide the wrongs ol the enemy, by attacking the President who is endeavoring to maintain the rights and honor of the country. Suppose the President had erred which I do not admit docs justice or pa triotism require that that error should be heralded from one end of the country to the other, while the wrongs, the bloody wrongs, perpetrated by Mexico are passed over in silence? Why has this spirit manifested itself? Is it because the Presi dent is a Democrat? or is it because Mexico is against our country. Let us advert to the facts, and see how they stand. Texas was lawfully an nexed, and became one of the States of this Union. The President proposed to treat with Mexico in relation to the boundary, but Mexico rejected our minister, and refused to treat, declaring that she would invade Texas. The 'Constitution of the United States declares, that " the President shall that Ike laws Do Mnhfully executed." Tbi army of the United States was removed towards the point where an altnck from Mexico was appro j hended. For if, 3fter the declaration of Mexico. I , ' 5."" -uu p.y I ntir Milton tvitnnuf nemn nvnrtr r flnrt In rrnn I , . . -... j w'v v.. I . I ; U . ..A I " J:..l ,1 t I . 1 l r r .t n t amy as commanaer-in cniei or tne army oi tne ' United States, nor would he have discharged the further duty imposed on him by the Constitution, 0f taking care that the laws be faithfully executed. If n fnrrtcm rnrmv were marchintr nn nrmw in in- ,i ,,nir r.rl ,nn ,;, :i,r, ,i - r ' ' , , ' on their own responsibility, to assemble at the . . - . . , e .- . . .. , . . P f invasion to defend their lives and their property, 1 could not take it upon myselt to say mat tney nad done wrong, or mat tney were tne authors ot the war, or that they had vioiutid the . Constitution; and much less can I undertake to say that the President, who is commander-in-chiel . - ofthe Army of the United States, and whose duty it is to " lake care that the laws be laithtully exe- cu,tc2 " e,lher ,v,oIated the Constitution of the Um- ted atates, or oecame rrsponsioie iot tne war, Dy marching Ihe army to a point at which the coun- ! try was aooui to De mvauuo. it nas occn said re- . moving the army from Corpus Chrisli to the Rio ! , . , . . - . t.t , . . . - . east bank of the Rio Grande. At the time of an nexation, Texas claimed to the Rio Grande, hnd that stream has always. been regarded as the an , cient boundary between Texas and Mexico, par- licularly the lower Rio Grande, which was occu pied by our army. But it must be borne in mind, that Mexico not only claims tho country lying he tween the Nueces and the Rio Grande, but she claims the whole of Texas; and she has never pretended that her claim to lhat part of the terri tory lying between the Nueces and the'Rio Grande differed in any respect from her claim to the rest of Texas. Such distinction is only made by the enemies of the war in this country, for Mexico herself has never demanded of us anything less than the whole of Texas. I cannot well imagine how any one can oppose ihe war, unless such per son Is in favor of the surrender of the whole of Texas; and I cannot believe that any individual, whose mind is not warped by party madness, or whose feelings are not alienated from his country, could be in favor of such a surrender. It has been asserted, lhat this war was brought about by the action of ihe Executive ; and by this it is either meant that the President is in the wrong and Mexi co in the right, or lhat, although the war . was right, yet ihe President ought to have suffered the Mexicans to cross the Rio Grande and murder our people, and take possession of the country, without resistance, until the news could have tra velled two thousand miles to Washington, and un til Congress could make a formal declaration of war and have sent it back to the scene of action. Suppose the President had not ordered the army to move until all this had taken place, whata burst of indignation would have rung from one end of this Republic tb the other I Even at. the time that war was declared by the United btates ogainsU Mexico, it was denied by many, of those who now say the President caused the war, that war existed at all; for they look -ihe ground that the acts of hostility which had been perpetrated by; the Mexi can army would not be .recognized as a war by that Government ; but when brought -to. vote di rectly on the declaration of war, only fourteen members voted against Tt in the House" tf Repre sentatives; all the Whig members from North Carolina as well as the Democrats, voting in the affirmative. The preamble to that declaration of war asserts, that " whereas, by the act of the Re public of Mexico,, a state of war exists between that Government and the United Stafrs: Be it enacted," &c. - Thus it will be seen, that while the Whigs in Congress, on the 13th May, 1846, declared that' the war existed by the act of Mexico, the Whigs in our State Legislature, in less than one year thereafter; declared that the war existed by the action of the Executive!. In asserting that the war existed by the action of the Executive, they were either mistaken or wilfully wrong. Wow do the lacts stand The President proposed to treat in relation to the boundary, but Mexico refused, and claimed the whole of Texas. Mexi co declared war against the United States, and proceeded to execute the declaration by crossihir the Rio Grande, and shedding the blood of our citizens before a blow was' struck by the army of the United States. After it has been shown that Mexico first declared war and was the first to shed blood how can it be charged that the vnf was brought ahdut by the action dflhe PVesidtrial l As well might the highwayman charge his own guilt upon his faultless victim. I have been pained to see the opposition that has manifested itself to the war. I have already adverted to the course of the Governor and the Whig members of the Legisla ture, as being calculated to disparage the war. The Greensboro' Patriot, a paper of- high stand ing among the Whig party, on the 28th of No vember, 1846. in the same number which contain ed the Governor's message, published a communi cation, from which I take the following anti-war and unpatriotic sentiments. Read them : ' Pause I call upon vou as American citizens. as freemen, not to lend your countenance, much less your aid, to gross violations or your Constitution. " Whigs of North Carolina : this is the Presi- dect's war. not the people's war. He is not the man 01 your choice, xou are not bound to sup port him right or wrong ' only when right. The sage ot Ashland, the man of your choice, two years before the. event, foretold that war would ensue from the annexation of Texas. The President proclaimed in his message its annexation, and glori fied himself upon it, as a bloodless achievement and a short half year found the ensanguined plains of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma reeking with the blood of the slain, and a soldier's grave closing over the remains of the heroic Ringgold. Short- sighted man! What delusion possessed you 7 Had the giddy height to which you had been so unex pectedly raised addled your brain and destroyed your vision ? Can you now tell what countless woes you will inflict on your country before anoth er year rolls round ? Are you able now to tell what you intend to do with your twenty thousand vol unteers? or where they will be six months hence ? " Democrats of North Carolina : you lent your aid to place this dizzy man on his tottering pinnacle. If you believe you werd right, now is the time to show it. He calls unon vou now to ioin hi stand ard now is his time of need j surely you will not desert him ! Wheel horses of Edgecombe come to the rescue ; a long pull and a strong pull ! Game cocks of Nash, on with your gyves ; give an. ever lasting flutter and show your pluck ! Ye braves of old Martin, rush to the command of your lieutenant-colonel, and pluck bright honor firw tko-swar-thy ranchero! Will the trumpet voice of Sleepy orees s orator De stilled, and Wayne's courageous j iiemocracy be deaf to the call of thir Irader? Will the Unterrified of Caswell, and Rockingham, and Stokes, and Mecklenburg, with their noisy chieftains, turn away their ears unheeding from the alarum 7 Surely nof. " Democrats : your gallant leader not your coun try, nor your country's interest calls you to the tented field 1 during the war? Make your testa mentary dispositions, and obey the call. Surely you will not have o hers to follow him whom you have appointed and decline to follow yourselves ! Can you decline? will you faher7 The slightest hesitation will be construed into an abandonment of your chieftain, for self preservation and your country's interest. "What Democrat dare do this ? 'Traitor, coward, turn and flee' like Haywood. '''Citizens : Bashness is not patriotism the fear of the charge of cowardice, is nut bravery sustaining your President right or wrong, is not prudence to abandon your wives and children ' during the war1 is not affeclivh to desire to kill a distant people who are fighting for their coun' try, their homes and their firesides, is unchris tian. " Beware, that the w'ickedness of the rulers does not fall vpon the pcBple " . The Patriot of the same day endorsed this com municalion in the lollowing enditorial article: - " We admire the straight-forward honesty and ' K boldness of the annexed communication. Its sen timents are those of the bluff candid citizen, un hackneyed in the paths of political trickery, who has no faculty to perceive how thai which is moral ly wrong can be metamorphosed into political right eousness. The burlesque appeal, which it contains, to the Democrats, is perhaps too tart and sarcastic especially as lo those among them who hav-e been deceived and who honestly disapprove of Mr. PoIk's war measuses ; but for those who yet approve let them take it! Let the fearful responsibility of treasure and of blood rest where it belongs upon the shoulders of Mr. Polk and his approving friends!" Although the democratic counties of Edgecomb, Martin, Caswell, Rockingham, Wayrro, Meek lenburg, and Stokes, were taunted in this commu nication, yet, when ihe hour of . trial came, they were not found wanting. They nobly volunteer ed their services, thereby showing that their De mocracy is not of that kind which flinches in the hour of lheir country's need. Opposition to this war has not been confined to North Carolina alone. It has been denounced on the floor of Con gress as "unholy, unrighteous,- and damnable." The New York Tribune, a leading Whig paper, uses ihe following language in regard to the war: " What means this war? The House of Rep resentatives has virtually declared war against Mexico What is implied in that 1 "It means that, so far as our Government can effect it, the laws of heaven are suspended, and those of hell established in their stead. It means that the commandments are to be read and obeyed by our people thus i Thou Shall kill Mexicans; thou shall steal from them, hate lhem, burn their houses, ravage their fields, and fire red hot cannon balls into towns swarming with their wives and chifdren.. It means that we are to stop producing food, clothing, and comforts, and turn to making swords, bullets, chain-shots, shells, and all the devil ish enginery df human carnage.' It means that we are to exhaust our . treasury, multiply taxes, incufi public .debts, and mortgage the sweat and blood'of honest labor for untold years to cbnie. ' It' means security, quiet, and gladness, are to be driven from earth-and ocean, ana their places usurped by butch ery, rape, devastation, and horror. It means that improvement is to be arrested, the blessed arts of peace neglected, and the world -recede toward the midnight of barbarism." . , ; The State Journal, a leading Whig paper in Ohio,' adopts the foilovying language in condr uih- ing the war : ' ; : " ;',''. : '; ; ' ;- V '- "Mr Polk and his advisers, who brought IhU war upon us, begin 10 repent of the madness anit folia that have characterized their proceeding They are anxious to throw upon Mexico the respon sibility 'of bringing about the war. TUey vrould represent our Government. as kind and forbearing' under long-continued provocations and aggression They would proclaim -Mexico the aggressor, and charge upon her the butchery of American citizens on American soil." - The Whigs were willing, to a man, to vote means to 'defend our soil, and rescue our gallant army, endangered by the weakness and wicked ness of tue President, but they were not willing to expose the country to all lb? horrors of a protract ed war by declaring the war already commenced, when thty had received no official notice tual thq war-making power of Mexico had authorized an' assault. If rhe blood of gallant men. is to be spilled ; if the treasury is lobe impoverished, our vessels plundered and scuttled, and their crews butchered ; if our coast is to be ex-. posed, and ihv nation made 10 feel the horrors of. war : they wished ihe country to remember who brought about these things." ! GorfrndrBt-bb,of : Ohio,v who Whig,, ia his inaugural, says4!.v -M '. '" ; ' " And how, with the Constitution of the United1 States in our hands, proclaiming that Congress' alone shall have power to dvclare war, can we be- hold a President of the United States trample that sacred instrument in the dust, deliberately, and without the advice of Congress, then in session involve the country in a foreign war of conquest', and yet not dare give utterance to our indignant condemnation of his unconstitutional acts ? Where is the man who does not know and feel that thitf Mexican' war is a Presidential war? a war which, before its commencement, Congress would not have declared ? a war.begun without adequate cause, and without any great, Justifiable, and com mensurate object, couipatable with the interest aad integrity "of the Union." t These arc only a few of the many instances irr which the' war has been denounced and bitteily assailed, by Whig presses nnd Whig politician. Strange, and unnatural as such sentiments may np- pear, yet they are not wilhout'prccedrnt. DuringT the last war, kindred sentiments and similar de nunciations came from the Federal' prrty. Persons were violently abused, even for loaning their mo i nry to the Govern merit, to enable it to prosecute the war. 1 will give a lew examples, to show the bitterness with which the Federal party of thai day opposed the war of 1S12 r "It is very grateful to find rhat the universal sen timent is, that any man who lends his money lo the Government at the present lime will forfeit all claim lo common honesty aud common courtesy among all true friends to ihe country. God forbid that any Federalist should ever hold up his hand to pay Federalsts for money, lent to the present rulers and Federalists can judge whether Democrats will tax their constituents to pay interest to Federalists." Boson uuzetle, April 14, IS 14. " No peace will ever be made till the people tay there shall be no war. If the rich men continue to furnish money, war will continue till , the moun tains are melted with blood till every field ia America is white with the hones of the people." Discourse delivered at Byfield April 7, IS14, by Elijah Parish, D. D.. . . ,. " - " Give ear no longer to ihe syren voice of DcnTotf-' cy and Jeflersonian libeity. It is a cursed delusion, adopted by traitors, and recommended by syco phants. Jefferson a man who, with the dagger of public confidence, first gave the stab to your liber t ies." Extract of a circular hand-b ill, published at Newbury port. . , J; " Let no considerations whatever, my brethren deter you, at all times, and in all places, from ex ecrating the present war. ll i's a war itijut, fool ish, and ruinous. It is unjust, because Great Biitain has oifered us every concession short of what-She conceives would be her ruin. As Mr.'Madison has declared the war, let Mr. Madison carry it on." Discourse of Ret. J. 6.- J. Gardner' Hector of Trinity Church, Boston July 23, 1812. "If, at the command of weak or wicked rulers they underiake an unjust war, each man who vol unteers his services in such a cause,1 or loans nij money far its support, or by his contentions', hi writings, or any other mode of influence encour ages its prosecution, that man is an accomplice ia the wickedness, loads his conscience with thw blackest crimes, brings the guilt of blood upon his soul, and in the sight of God and his la-, is a mar derer." Discourse of the Rev. David Osgood delivered June 27. 1812. A report of the Massachusetts Legislature" in 1814, de clared that "the war, so fertile irr calami-, ties, was waged with the worst possible Jfrrewa, and r!,rr;PA nn ;n ihn ivnrt nnssiM manner, fnrminor ..MB.. - , - ..... ............ M a union of weakness and wickedness which defies for a parallel the annals of the world." , It is un- necessary to trace the parallel further between lft9 Federalists during the last war and the Whigs who oppose the present war. Public sentiment has long since consigned the opposrrs of the last war to the condemnation they justly deserved; and the day is not far distant when ihe opponents of the present wa'r wit! share the same fate. No one can dread the consequences resulting from the war more than myself, nor would 'nny one more highly appreciate the blessings of peace; but with all my love of peace, 1 can never consent that the lights and honor of my country shall bo comproinitted, aad that a foreign nation shall in vade our territory, and murder our citizens, 'with out repelling the aggression as bcconies a great and free people. Believing Mexico to be' in the ' wrong; and my' own country in the right, I voted for such supplies of men and money as were deem ed necessary to enable the Executive to prosecutor ihe war to an honorable termination. As on rn couragement to our soldiers, we passed an act giv ing to each one who volunteered for five years or during the war, one hundred nnd sixty acres of bounty land. In voting to sustain the war, I bc licved I was acting right, and at the same tima executing the will of my constituents. If, inf lhis,r I was mistaken, I have only to say, that while I hold a public trust, I never will refuse to raise men to defend. my country against the atticks of a foreign enemy, nor will I refuse to vote to raise moncr to feed and clothe our soldieis while they tire exposing their fives in defence of the? rights' an 1 honor of our country. Were 1 to refuse to vole for such supplies I should feci lhat I hadfiot only forfa ited the confidence of my constituents but also my claim to me name 01 a citizen 01 mis Republic. ; " r::" ."i The bailies of4 Para Alto, Resaca de fa. Palma Monterey, and Buena Vista, have shown ourol diers to se wbrihy of their country, Their daring deeds and invincible courage will teach other na tions that our rights are not to be assailed 'with impunity; and their bglliant victories and gallant sichievements will have nn imperishable place in the memory of their -grateful countrymen. The iiimts of this circular "will not permit me to allude to many other subjects which weie acted i r 3' i .t. I. I