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The North-Carolina standard. [volume] (Raleigh, N.C.) 1834-1850, December 19, 1849, Image 2

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THIRTY-FIRST CONGRESS.
SENATE.
Monday. December 10.
The Hon. John Macpherson Berrien of Georgia,
Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, and David L. Yulee
of Florida, appeared in their seats to-day.
There being no business before the Senate, on mo
tion of Mr. Hale that body adjourned.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. Vj
After the journal had been read the House proceed
ed to vote the 29th time for Speaker, as follows:
Winthrop received 102; Potter, 76; Green, 10;
Wilmot, 6; H. Cobb, 5 ; Gentry, 5 ; Boyd, 5 ; Mill
er, 3; W. J. Brown, 2; and Messrs. Richardson,
Mc Willie, F. P. Stanton, Durkee, Bowden, McLane,
Bayly, Meade, S. W. Harris, and Kaufman, 1 each.
No choice having been effected, the House voted
the 30th and 3lst times the votes slightly varying
only from that given above.
Mr. Morse offered the following Preamble and
Resolution :
Whereas the Hons. Howell Cobb, of Georgia, and
Robert C. Winthrop, of Massachusetts, have each
received more than 100 votes on a number of ballots ;
be it "
Resolved, That the Clerk of the House be requir
ed to place the names of Howell Cobb and Robert
C. winthrop in a box, and the first name drawn out
by one of the pages shall be the Speaker of the 31st
Congress. . .
Mr. Morse advocated this proposition in a bnet
speech, when Mr- A. G. Brown moved to lay the
Resolution and Preamble on the table. After a de
bate of some length, Mr. Brown's motion prevailed.
Mr. Schenck then offered the following Resolution:
Resolved, That the House do now proceed to the
election of a Speaker, and that the vote be taken by
ballot.
Mr. Schenck briefly advocated the above and was
followed in opposition by Messrs. Jacob Thompson
and Venable. '
Mr. Venable sid he was opposed to the resolution,
and desired to give reasons for his views. Do gen
tlemen wish to conceal from their constituents their
action on this subject I Is it because they are afraid
to have their votes known that they favor such prop
ositions ? Will any member vote upon this question
by ballot differently from the manner in which he
would vole viva voce? If not, how can the use of the
ballot alter the result! If gentlemen were not to be
influenced bv the proposed opportunity of voting se
cretly, (Mr. Venable was understood to say,) he
could not imagine what good result, for the purpose of
the mover, was expected to grow out of the adoption
of this proposition. He had no desire to change the
main battle into a mere skirmish ; and therefore, , for
thai reason, he opposed it. He would not be the
first to make the choice of a Speaker for this House
a geographical question. He would not so vote up
on it until compelled by others to do so in self-defence.
YVhen driven into that position, he would occupy it,
discharging strictly what he conceived to be his duty
to his constituents. He would under no circumstan
ces vote for a free-soiler or an abolitionist, lie might
be too transparent too frank in declaring his views;
but having assured his constituents that he would not
vote for a free-soiler or an abolitionist, he intended
strictly to comply with that promise. He would not
flinch from this ground, if the House cannot other
wise organize, until the usual time for the end of the
session rolls round. He planted himself upon this
position, and would stand there steadfast with ever
so small a minority.
The Resolution was then laid upon the table ; and
the House then voted again, as follows : Mr. Win
throp received 101 ; Cobb, 10; Potter, 1; Wilmot, 6;
Boyd, 15; Greene, 5; Gentry, 5 ; Win. J. Brown, 53;
Miller, 3 ; Durkee, 1 ; H. Mann, 1; F. P. Stanton, 1;
Meade 1 ; Strong, 3 ; McCIernand, 1 ; Disney, 13 ;
James Thompson, 3; and A. G. Brown, 1.
Mr. Sweetzer offered a Resolution proposing that
the House stand adjourned until the 1st day of Jan
nary, 1850. Mr. S. advocated his Resolution at some
length, but before it was put, on motion, the House
adjourned amid great excitement.
SENATE.
Tuesday, December 11.
The Hon. J. L. Bright, of Indiana, appeared in his
seat this morning.
After the transaction of some unimportant business
the Senate adjourned.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
After the reading of the journal the House proceed
ed with the 33d ballot for Speaker, as follows : Win
throp received 101 ; W. J. Brown, 80 ; Wilmot, 5 ;
Boyd, 15 ; Gentry, 5 ; Disney, 8 ; H. Mann, 1 ; H.
Cobb, 5 ; r . P. Stanton, I ; Bayly, 1 ; Meade, I ;
Durkee, 1.
No choice having been effected, the House voted
the 34th time. Mr. Winthrop received 101 votes,
Mr. W. J. Brown 84, and 39 scattering. No choice,
and the House voted the 35th time. Mr. Winthrop
received 101, Mr. W. J. Brown 88, and 35 scatter
ing. No choice, and the House voted the 36th time.
Mr. Winthrop received 101, Mr. W. J. Brown 97,
and 26 scattering. No choice, and the House pro
ceeded with the 37th ballot. Mr. Winthrop received
101, Mr. VV. J. Brown 107, and 16 scattering. No
choice, and the House voted the 38th time. Mr.
Winthrop received 100, Mr. W. J. Brown 109, and
16 scattering. Mr. Winthrop voted for the first time,
for Mr. Vinton.
Mr. J. B. Thompson, Whig, moved an adjourn
ment, which was negatived, yeas 101, nays 108.
The House then voted the 39th time. Whole
number of Votes cast, 226 ; necessary to a choice,
114. Mr. Winthrop received 101, Mr. W.J. Brown
109, and 16 scattering. All the Southern Whigs
but Messrs. Cabell, Morton, Owens, Stephens, and
Toombs, voted for Mr. Winthrop ; Messrs. Allen.
Durkee, Giddings, Howe, Preston King, Root, and
Tuck voted for Wilmot; Mr. Wilmot voted for Mr.
Durkee; Mr. Winthrop for Mr. Vinton ; Mr. Cpbb,
of Alabama, for Mr. McDowell; and Mr. Holmes for
Mr. Boyd. Messrs. Ashe, Daniel, and Venable, with
the great body of the Democrats, voted for Mr. Brown.
After the result of this ballot, another motion was
made to adjourn, amid cries of " No," " No," Call
the roll," "Call the roll," Mr. Winthrop here
rose and in a brief speech withdrew his name.
The question on adjourning was then taken, and
resulted yeas 110, nays 114. On the announcement
of this vote, many members demanded that the roll
should be called for the 40th attempt to elect a
Speaker.
Mr. Stanly moved a call of the House ; when, after
various motions, and ineffectual attempts to get tthe
40th vote, the House adjourned amid great confusion.
SENATE.
Wednesday, December 12.
The Senate met to-day but without transacting any
business adjourned.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
Soon after the meeting of the House, Mr. Wilmot
rose, thanked his friends for voting for him for
Speaker, and withdrew his name. He begged they
would vote for him no longer, but so throw their votes
as to effect an organization of the House.
.On motion, the House proceeded to vote the 40th
time for Speaker. There were 226 votes cast, 114
necessary to a choice. Mr. William J. Brown re
ceived 112; Mr. Duer 26; Mr. Stanly 18 ; and the
remainder of the Whig votes were scattered upon a
number of gentlemen. All the Democrats but Messrs.
Wallace, Seddon,ahd Bocock, voted for Mr. Brown;
and he was supported by Messrs. Giddings,' Wilmot,
Durkee, and other Freesoilers. Messrs. Anderson,
Ashmun, Bowie, Deberry, Evans, Houston, Kerr,
Marshall, McGaughey, Nes, Ogle, Otis, Outlaw,
Pitman, Shepherd, Thurman, Vinton, and Winthrop
voted for Mr. Stanly; Mr. Clingman, voted for Mr.
Outlaw, and Mr. Stanly voted for Mr. D. Pi King.
Mr. Stanly moved a resolution proposing the ap
pointment of three members from each party for the
Surpose of selecting proper persons for officers of the
onse.
Mr. Stanly said that the resolution was suggested
not by a Whig, but by a patriotic Democratic member.
He then advocated the passage of the proposition as
calculated to bring about an era of good feeling. He
expressed some views in regard to the present posi
tion of parties, touching the question of free soilism
and abolitionism, and the opinion that the Union was
not in danger of.jdissolution from any present move
ment, o
Mr. 'Bayly took the floor and spoke at some length
in reply to some remarks which had fallen from Mr.
Stanly; and just before he sat down he' alluded to
certain rnmorsMn circulation that morning, to the ef
fect that the Democrats and Freesoilers had formed a
coalition to elect a Speaker. Mr. Bayly indignantly
denied that any such arrangement had been entered
into.
Mr. Ashmun asked Mr. Bayly if a corresponde
nee
had not taken place between Mr. William J. Brown
and some member of the Freesoil party, in which Mr.
Brown had pledged himself, if elected Speaker, to
constitute certain Committees in such a manner as
would be satisfactory to the Freesoilers. Mr. Bayly
replied in the negative, and asked Mr. Ashman for
his authority. Mi. A. gave " common rumor." Mr.
Bayly then turned to Mr. Brown and asked him if
any such correspondence had taken place, when the,
latter shook his head." ',. '
- Soon after Mr. Root got the floor, when he was
interrupted by Mr. Bayly for the purpose of making
an explanation. Mr. Bayly said he thought it due to
himself and the House to say, that since he was last
up he had had a conversation with the gentleman
from Indiana, and that he was mistaken in saving that
no correspondence bad takcn-plare between him and
the . Freesoilers. Such a correspondence had taken
place, but the letter would' be produced and would
speak for itself. .
Mr. Brown rose amid great excitement to explain.
He did so at some length. He said when he came to
Washington he had not the remotest idea that he
would be taken up as a candidate for Speaker. He
had entered the caucus and voted for the nominee, and
afterwards gave him his support until he was aban
doned. When it was suggested to him that from his
position he could concentrate the Democratic vote,
and must be a candidate for Speaker, he was surpris
ed. He then explained his position towards the Free
Soil question, and read his letter in reply to a com
munication from Mr. Wilmot, in which he stated that
if elected Speaker he would so constitute the Judiciary,
District and Territorial Committees, as to allow of a'
fair hearing upon the Free Soil and all other questions.
After stating- that Mr. Brown was known by the
(record of his votes in the House to be sound upon
the Slavery question, and that he had been voted for
upon this ground by Southern Democrats, as well as
upon the strength of personal assurances to the same
effect during the present session, Mr. Bayly said
that if he had known any thing of the fact just disclos
ed no earthly consideration could have induced him
to vote for that gentleman. He said that when Messrs.
Stanly and Ashmun made their remarks in relation to
this matter, he was highly indignant, as the House
saw at the time. He thought their insinuations most
unfounded and illiberal; but he rejoiced that they
were made, and he thanked them for them. They
had led to a disclosure to which the country was en
titled, and hn thanked God it had been, made in time
to save the House from a load of obloquy.
He was followed by a number of Southern gentle
men, all of whom spoke in indignant terms of Mr.
Brown's conduct.
Mr. Venable said he desired to relieve himself from
the charge of occupying a false position. He had, a
day or two since, declared that he would in no event
vote for a free-soiler or an abolitionist. After this he
had repeatedly voted for tke gentleman from Indiana,
Mr. Brown, of whose soundness, on the question
of slavery, he had entertained no doubts. The dis
closures of this morning had led him to a different
conclusion, by placing before the House facts of intimidated by eulogies upon the Union, and denun
which he (Mr. V.) was uninformed. It appears that j ciations of those who are not ready to sacrifice na
me gentleman has been in correspondence with thejtional honor, essential interests, and constitutional
gentleman from Pennsylvania, Mr. Wilmot, the rights upon its altar. Sir, I have as much attachment
putative father of the Wilmot Proviso, with a pledge
to organize the committees on the District of Colum-
bia, the Territories, and the Judiciary satisfactorily to
those who .were known as the ultra free-soil party,
(Mr. Wilmot and his friends.') The opinions dis-
closed by that gentleman Mr. Brown in his vindi-
canon mis morning, io-wh: ins opposition to me ex- my conduct or opinions in relation to these questions,
tension of slavery, and a willingness to refer that ! which, in my judgment, so vitally affect it. The time
subject in the District of Columbia to a vote of the . has come when I shall not only utter them, but make
inhabitants, render it impossible for him (Mr. Vena- them the basis of my political action here. I do not,
ble) to have voted for the gentleman from Indiana as 1 then, hesitate to avow before this House and the
Speaker. From that gentleman he had received a I country, and in the presence of the living God, that
letter, during the late presidential canvass, expressing , if by your legislation you seek to drive us from the
his opposition to free-soil ism in every aspect, as he ; territories of California and New Mexico, purchased
understood it; and before he voted for him as Speaker, j by the common blood and treasure of the whole peo
he called upon that gentleman, and asked him if his i pie, and to abolish slavery in this District, thereby
opinions had undergone any change. He replied that attempting to fix a nationardegradation upon half the
they had not. With these assurances, he voted with States of this confederacy, lam for disunion; and if
pleasure for him, as a sound man from a free State-r I mv Dhvsical courao-e be enual to the maintenance of
another demonstration of southern men that they had
no aesire to mase mis a geograpuicai question, w nen
the correspondence was announced this morning, he
(Mr. Venable) demanded, in common with many
oiners, mat it snouia De read, it has been read ; ana
u ueciarea oeiore tne country, mat naa ne Known
either the facts which it discloses, or the opinions of
the gentleman made known in his vindication, he
would not have voted for him as Speaker. The vote
was given under a misapprehension of the facts, after
due diligence to discover'them. To be deceived pre
supposes no dereliction of duty; if an honest effort has
been made to obtain possession of the truth.
Mr. Robinson of la. defended his colleague, and
explained that his understanding of the pledge given
by him was that in constituting those committees he
would place upon them a majority of Free State men ;
not that they would be Free State men in favor of the
Wilmot Proviso.
Mr. Dunham also explained the position of his col
league. He defended him against the charge of de
ception made by Southern gentlemen. He believed
that his colleague intended by the pledge nothing
more than that the committees would be so constituted
as to give a majority of Free State men not Free
Soil men.
Mr. Kaufman told Mr. Dunham that Mr. Brown
was not charged with abolitionism, but with duplici
ty ; and, in the midst of much excitement and confu
sion, the House adjourned.
SENATE.
Thursday, December 13.
The Senate assembled, but there being no business
of importance to transact, that body soon adjourned.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
After the journal of the previous day had been read,
Mr. A. G. Brown offered a Resolution providing that
Mr. Cobb, of Georgia, shall be the Speaker of the
Thirty-First Congress. Mr. Brown advocated his
Resolution at some length. He said every one ad
mitted Mr. Cobb's high qualifications for the office :
and that on the broad principles of republican pro
priety, the Democrats, having the majority, were en
titled to the Speaker.
True, Mr. Brown continued, we have been unable
to unite our forces, but it is also true that you have
failed to unite yours. If some of the free-soil demo
crats of the North have refused to vote for our candi
date, some free-soil whigs and five southern whigs
have refused to vote for yours.
A Voice. How do you make a majority on your
side : by counting the free-soilers 1
Mr. Brown. Not necessarily. If we divide the
free-soil votes according to their party predilections,
we have a majority of five. If you exclude thein
entirely, counting them on neither side, we have a
still larger democratic majority ; and having the ma
jority, we are, upon all proper principles, entitled
to the Speaker. We cannot command all our votes :
you cannot command all of yours; and the result is
that no election can be made. What, then, do I pro-
fose, (said Mr. B.) That the two great parties coa
esce for the purpose of procuring that sort of order
in the transaction of public business which is so de
sirable, and which we have sought in vain for nine
days. Did he ask anything unreasonable 1 He
thought not. He did not ask the whigs not to elect
a whig Speaker; that they had no power to do they
had tried in vain. He asked them to abandon a vain
effort to do what they all admitted they never could
accomplish, and to join him and his party friends in
doing the next best thing that could be done the
election of a gentleman splendidly qualified in all
respects to preside over the deliberations of the House,
and, as far as he had the power, to guide correctly
and safely the destiny of the nation. It may be asked
why we do not join the whigs in the election of their
candidate for Speaker. In all contests, (said Mr.
B.,) when it becomes necessary for one of the con
testants togive way, the weak yields necessarily,
and he thought properly, to the strong. We are the
strong' party numerica.ly. If every-seat was occu
pied, and every member voted his sentiments on the
old whig and democratic issues, we have a majority
certainly of one. It is your misfortune to have four
members absent. This gives us an advantage by
five. Now, who shall yield you or we ? I appeal
(said Mr. B.) to the sober judgment of discreet .men,
of pure hearts and sound heads on the other side, to
put an end to this struggle by accepting a Speaker,
than whom they could not get a better in the House
or out of it.
Other Resolutions were offered, with a view to or
ganize the House, -but no action was taken upon them
ulil a prolonged and thrilling debate sprang up on the
Union of the States Mr. Meade said the foundation
of this difficulty was the Slavery question. He said
he was willing to unite the conservatism of both
sides of the House, in opposition to the propositions
to abolish Slavery in the Districtand to restrict it in the
Territories, and Would vote on such a basis for Speak
fir : but he told the" North that if the organization
of the House, was to be followed by the passage of
these bins, be trusted in uod mar nis eyes naa rest
ed upon the last Speaker of the House of Represen
tatives. . Upon these questions tne oouui was unuea
as one man ; and let the issue come when it might,
the free States would find every Southern sinew
snrin? of steel. He did not utter this as a threat.
He was proud to believe that our race on both sides
of the line are eauallv brave t but srentlemen would
find a difference between men contending for their
firesides, and the robbers who are seeking to despoil
them of their rights, and degrade them before the
world. . If there be any souther nian who would re
fuse to stand by his country "in such an emergency,
There are none," said several voices, he would
not merelv be execrated bv. his own people, bat his
own children would heap curses upon his grave
Mr. Root snoke at some length in reply. He taun
ted both parties for their failure to organize, and ridi
culed the idea that the Union could be dissolved.
Mr. Duer said he was willinr to ora TO with a
Sneaker of either of the three parties, butflie could
not vote for a disunionist. Mr. Bayly asked him if
he regarded the Democratic .nominee, Mr. ivobb, as
a disunionist wMr. Duer replied in the negative.
A Member. Who then !
t Mr. Duer was understood to point to Mr. Meade.
Mr. Meade,. It is false.
Mr. Duer. You are a liar.
THere great commotion arose in the hall mem
bers from all sides rushing towards the neighborhood
in which these gentlemen stood. AH seemed ais
posed to advise and take part in the matter.
The Sergeant-at-arm8 bore the mace into the scene
of the disturbance, and after some time, when the
Chamber had quieted down sufficiently to permit him
to be heard, Mr. Duer rose and asked the pardon of
the House for what had transpired; and thus termin
ated this disgraceful scene.
After some remarks by Mr. McLane in relation, to
the organization of the House, Mr. Toombs of Geor
gia took. the floor. He said it was proper that the
country should understand that a great sectional ques
tion lay at the bottom of all these troubles. He spoke
of the disgraceful scenes of yesterday, springing out
of this question of the discreditable trick attempted
to be played off on the House by the Freesoilers
ana oi me prompt ana noncrame manner in wnicn
the Democrats, as soon as certain disclosures were
made, had dropped Mr. Brown, and left the discredit
to fall where it properly belonged. He said he had
not acted with the great body of the Whig party in
supporting Mr. Winthrop, because the events of the
past, the present, and the prospect ofhe , future,
had forced the conviction on his mind that the
interests of his section of the Union were in danger;
and he was therefore unwilling to surrender the great
power of the Speaker's Chair without obtaining se
curity for the future.
It seems, continued Mr. Toombs, from the remarks
of the gentleman from New York, that we are to be
to the union of these States, under the constitution of
our fathers, as any freeman ought to have. I am
ready to concede and sacrifice for it whatever a just
jand honorable man ought to sacrifice I will do no
i more. I have not heeded the asnersions of those
who did not understand, or desired to misrepresent,
! my convictions of riht and duty, I will devote all I
: am and all 1 have on earth to its consummation. From
j 1787 to this hoar the people of the South have asked
1 nothing but justice nothing but the maintenance of
the principles and the spirit which controlled our fath-
; ers in the formation or the constitution. Unless we
i are unworthy of our ancestors, we will never accept
less as a condition of nnion. A trrMtonnstitntmnol
great (
right, which was declared by a distinguished north
ern justice of the Supreme Court (Judge Baldwin)
to be the corner-stone of the Union, and without
which heavers, in a' judical decision, it would never
have been formed, has already practically been abro
gated in all of the non-slaveholding States. I mean
the right to reclaim fugitives from labor. I ask any
and every northern man on this floor to answer me,
now, if this is not true if this great right, indispen
sable to the formation of the Union, is any longer,
for any practicable purpose, a livingprinciple? There
are none to deny it. You admit you have not per
formed your constitutional duty ; that you withhold
from us a right which was one of our main induce
ments to enter the Union; yet you wonder that we look
upon your eulogies of a Union whose most sacred
principles you have thus trampled under foot as noth
ing better than mercenary hypocritical cant. This
District was ceded immediately after the constitution
was formed. It was the gift of Maryland to her sis
ter States for the location of their common govern
ment. Its municipal law maintained and protected
slavery. You accepted it. Your honor was pledged
for its maintenance as a national Capital. Your faith
was pledged to the maintenance of the rights of the
people who were thus placed under yourcare. Your
fathers accepted the trust, protected the slaveholder
and all other citizens in their rights, and in all re
spects faithfully and honestly executed the trust; but
mey nave been gathered to their fathers, and it was
left to their degenerate sons to break their faith with
us, and insolently to attempt to play the master where
they were admitted only as brethren. 1 trust, sir. if the
representatives of the iNorth prove themselves unwor
thy of their ancestors, we shall not prove ourselves
onwortny ot ours : that we have the courage to defend
wudi mejr imu ine vaior to win. i ne territories , are
the common properly of the people of the United
States, purchased by their common blood and treas
ure. ou are their common agents ; it is your duty,
wnne mey are in a territorial state, to remove all im
pediments to their free enjoyment by all sections and
people of the Union, the slaveholder and the non
slaveholder. You have given the strongest indica
tions that you will not perform this trust that you
will appropriate to yourselves all of this territory.
prepetrate all these wrongs which I have enumerated :
yet witn inese declarations on your lips, when south
ern men refused to act in party caucuses with you,
in which you have a controlling majority when we
ask the simplest guaranty for the future we are de
nounced out of doors as recusants and factionists, and
indoors we are met with the cry of " Union, Union."
Sir, we have passed that point. It is too late. I
have used all my energies from the beginning of this
question to save the country from this convulsion. I
nave resisted what I deemed unnecessary and hurtful
agitation. I hoped against hope, that a sense of
I i i - i
justice anu painousin woiua inauce tne lortii to set
tle these questions upon principles honorable and safe
to both sections of the U nion I have planted ray
self upon a national platform, resisting extremes' at
home and abroad, willingly subjecting myself to the
aspersions of enemies, and, far worse than that, the
misconstruction of friends, determined to struggle for
and accept any fair and honorable adjustment of these
questions. I have almost despaired of any such, at
least from this House. We must arouse and appeal
to the nation. We musttell them boldly and frankly
that we prefer any calamities to submission to such
degradation and injury as they would entail upon us;
that we hold that to be the consummation of all evil.
I have stated my positions. I have not argued them.
I reserve that for a future occasion. These are prin
ciples upon which I act here. . Give me securities
that the power of the organization which yon seek
will not be used to the injury of my constituents,
then you can have my co-operation, but not till then.
.Grant them, and you prevent the recurrence of the
disgraceful scenes of the last twenty-four hours, and
restore tranquillity to the country. Refuse them,
and, as far as I am concerned, " let discord reio-n
forever."
Mr. Toombs was followed by Mr. Baker of Illinois,
who avowed himself for the Wilmot Proviso and the
Union. He denied , that the people of the North
wished to raise the .question of disunion, by agita tin tr
he Slavery question; nor, when the speeches and
scenes of this day were spread before them, would
they believe their brethren of the South to be in earn
est. Gentlemen, he continued, when von threaten
disunion, we shall doubt when you protest, we !
shall disclaim ; but no fervid declarations," no fiery I
appeals to southern feeling, no solemn invocations
addressed to. the Almighty,. (as if, indeed, he were a
God of discord,) will. make us believe that here in
this hall there is one man who chambers in his secret
heart a purpose so accursed and. so deadly; ;Sir, we
do not believe the Union can ever be dissolved, ' No
evidence shall convince us till the deed is done. Yet,
if such a thing be possible, it shall not be our fault.
We shall not'shrink from the calm expression of our
deliberate judgment. We are here as freemen, and
we wUl speak and act as becomes ps in the face of
the world apd posterity. Gentlemen, who is there
among as, amid all this talk of dissolution, that, does
not love the Uniott? Is there aian in this vast as
semblage who, on. the coolest reflection, would not
give his blood to cement it J . is not was our euuun j,
and is it not all our countrv 1 ' f Applause. ' Sir, I
confess this response gladdens my' hearty and already
I reproach myself that 1 could waver in my conu
dence but for a moment.' It "was a mournful specta
cle te a true-minded man, when threats of disunion,
fierce and bitter, could draw forth shouts of applause
from" gentlemen on the other side of this House, as
if disunion were glory, arid as if, indeed, the threat
were alreadv accomplished. And yet, sir, me ecno
contradicts the utterance. This- shout for.the Un
ion will be taken up among the masses, till it be
omes a nernetnal anthem of . hone and ioy. ' It
will swell amid the mountains of the North, and
travel with the winds across the prairies of the West.
It will reverberate through, all the vast extension of
the confederacy, and be repeated by a tnousanaaar
vancing generations. Sir, in the name of the North,
so rudelv attacked and speaking- what I krfow- to
be their sentiments I say a dissolution of this Un
ion is, must be. shall be impossible,' as long as an
American heart beats in an American bosom, or the
Almiffhtv sends his wisdom and his sroodness to
guide us and bless us. -
Mr. Baker was followed by Mr. Stebheng, of Geor
gia, and Mr. Colcock. of South .Carolina.-both of
whom endorsed what Mr. Toombs had said in the
strongest and most impressive terms. Other gentle
men also participated in this memorable debate, and
among them Gov. Cleveland of Connecticut, who
spoke most kindly of the South.
At the conclusion of .the debate, the House voted
again for Speaker, as follows : Mr. Winthrop 59, Mr.
Stanly 21, Mr. Howell Cobb 40, Mr. Potter 24, Mr.
Boyd 26; and the balance of the votes were scatter
ed upon a number of gentlemen.
The House then adjourned.
SENATE.
"' Friday, December 14.
The Senate met,- and there being no business of
importance before it, that body adjonmed.' '
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
After the journal of the previous day had been
read, sundry resolutions were introduced, looking to
an organization of the House.
Mr. Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, offered a
Resolution providing for the election of a Speaker
by a plurality, "provided said plurality shall not be
less than one third of the whole number of votes so
polled." Mr. Johnson advocated this Resolution at
considerable length, and in the course of his remarks
took occasion to show the unfair manner to the South
in which Mr. Winthrop had constituted the Com
mittees of the last House of Representatives. He
argued that Mr. Winthrop's election at the last ses
sion, had strengthened the anti-slavery influence at
ths.expense of the Southern States; and he stated
that the election of the present Vice President,' with
his known abolition sympathies, and the endorsement
that gentleman had received from the pen of Gen.
Taylor, had tended materially in the same direction;
yet the South had looked favorably upon both.
W hue upon these points he bore down Heavily upon
Mr. Stanly and Mr. Isaac E. Holmes. Mr. Johnson
added that though the South bad thus made herself
a party, as it were, to this war on her rights, in vot
ing for Messrs. Winthrop and Fillmore, yet she was
evidently now awakening to a sense of duty. The
people of all the Southern States, except North Caro-
una, appeared to ne arouseu on mis suDjecu
: 1 1 I 1 . 1
mr. uiingman, rising, saiu ne vvisueu to maKe an
inquiry of the gentleman from Tennessee, Mr. John
son, as to whether he understood him correctly in
saying that North Carolina was slumbering long.
Mr. Johnson disclaimed any disrespect to the State,
but meant that she was not so forward as some of
the States, &c.
Mr. Clingman said that many persons thought
North Carolina asleep, merely because she was not
always talking ; that when talking only was to be
done, she left it to others ; but when the time for ac
tion arrived, no State was before her. As soon as
the news of the battle of Lexington arrived, or with
in a few days thereafter, the people of North Caro
lina met together in Mecklenburg, and in a number
of other counties, and at once formally dissolved the
bands which had connected them with Great Brit
ain, and established a government for themselves.
If there should be a necessity for action' to protect
the rights and liberties of the South, no State would
be more forward than she in any proper action.
Mr. C. farther said, that this being the first occa-
T . . 1 II 1 f T V
sion on wnicn ne naa Deen oeiore me House in any
way, to prevent misconception as to his views, he
thought proper to say, that though his course in vot
ing for a speaker was different from that of the gen
tlemen from Georgia referred to, yet he approved the
course of remark in which they had indulged yes
terday. The sentiments generally expressed by Mr.
Toombs met his cordial approbation ; and he bad re
peatedly said that the speech of that gentleman was
one of the ablest, most forcible, and eloquent he had
ever heard, as was evident from the profound and ex
cited sensation it produced over the House. In his
general views, as well as those of his colleacrue TMr.
Stephens and of the gentleman from Alabama fMr.
niuiara,j ne muy concurred.
But be thought that
the southern members, being in the minority, oup-ht
rather to allow the House to be organized as former
ly, and wait the course of events. If improper
measures should be brought forward, then would be
the time to make a demonstration against them in the
most effective manner. .While he hoped that no ne
cessity would arise, he had no doubt but that it
would be met in the proper manner by the South.
As to Mr. Winthrop, he differed entirely in opin
ion with the gentleman from Tennessee, regarding
that gentleman as eminently qualified for the station
of Speaker, he having presided -over the last House
with great ability and dignity. His personal prefer
ence would lead him to vote for Mr. Vinthrbp inde
pendent of other considerations. This statement he
thought it fit to make, lest it should be supposed
that differences in casting votes for Speaker implied
a ainerence ot opinion witn regard to the rights and
duty of the South.
Mr. Woodward. , Will the gentleman from Ten
nessee allow me to make an observation 1 The gen
tleman from North Carolina Mr. Clingman has al
luded to an historical event which can no longer be
qnestioned, though it was at one time disputed, to
wit: that prior to the Declaration of Independence
by the united colonies in 1776, a convention at Char
lotte, in the State of North Carolina, did declare the
people they represented independent of Great Brit
ain. If the House will excuse me, I will add anoth
er historical fact not hitherto brought to notice. In
the convention at Charlotte there was a delegate from
South Carolina, and this delegate was one of the
committee of three who reported the resolution to
the convention.
Mr. Johnson was glad to hear that the old North
State is not slumbering; yet he regretted tafind the
gentleman giving these assurances, voting for the re
election of the last Speaker. - -: . .
At the conclusion of this debate the House adopt
ed a Resolution, proposed by Mr. Dimmick of Penn
sylvania, declaring that they would proceed to the
election of a Speaker, and cutting off all debate un
til the election is completed.
The House then voted the 42d time as follows :
Mr. Winthrop received 36, Mr. McLane 8, Mr. Stan
ly 30, Mr. Boyd 51, Mr. Potter 24, Mr. Cobb 18,
and the remainder were scattered in various direc
tions. Mr. Ashe voted for Mr. Cobb ; Messrs. Dan
iel and Venable for Mr. Boyd; Messrs. Caldwell,
Deberry, Outlaw, and Shepherd for Mr. Stanly ; Mr.
Stanly for Mr. Winthrop ; and Messrs.
and Stephens for Mr. Outlaw.
No choice, and the House voted the 43d time, as
follows : Mr. Boyd received 68. Stanlv 4n Win.
throp 25, Potter 24, and the balance was scattered.
No choice, and the House voted th 44th tlm. oo
follows : Mr. Boyd received 82, Stanly 49, Winthrop
27, Potter 22, Wilmot 6, and- the balance were scat
tered. Messrs. Ashe. Daniel, and Venahl -j
Mr. Boyd; Mr. Clingman for Outlaw: Mr. St,r,w
for Winthrop; and the other Whira from NTnrth r
rolina for Stanly.
After this vote the House, amid mnrth -rfMt0rr.n
and confusion, adjourned.
NORTH CAROLINA CONFERENCE.
The North-Carolina Annual . Conference of the
Methodist Episcopal Church, South? met in Oxford,
Granville county, N. C, on the 28th ultimo, Bishop
Andrew presiding, and closed on the 3rd instant..
Four yodng men were admitted on trial, 3 located,
viz: P. W. Archer, S. Pearce, and N. Anderson.
The nett increase of membership for the year is about
600. About $2,200 were collected for Missions. -
The following are the appointments for the ensa
ing year : , . ; v- . . .
Raleigh District D. B. Nicholson, P. E. "
Raleigh City R. T. Hefflin, B. T. Blake sup.
' " - Mission Wm. H. Barnes.
" :; Circuit Evan E. Freeman . ";
Tar River A. O. Allen, v f "
Henderson P. Doub. . . ; -; ' . '
Granville Wm. M. Jordan! . ' ' " s
Hillsborough Circuit D.;Culbreth.'V- -
. . . , Station To be supplied. " :
Franklinsville J. W. Tinnin. , V . '
Pittsborough W. W. Nesbitt. v -Haw
River-i-J. T. St. Clair. , i; ....
Sampson W. J. Duval. " . ' -
7 C. P. Jones agent of the American Bible Society
Salisbury District -Wm. Carter, : P. E.i . c
Mocksville -John Tillit. ' ' '.: -
Salisbury S. P. Ricaud. " '. - ,:
Greensborough A. S. Andrews. ' - '
Guilford John Rich, one to be supplied, i
Randolph S. H. Helsebeck. '
Davidson Wm. M. Walsh. ,
Iredell J. D. Lumsden. : ' . ..,-' :
Surry J. M. Fulton. - , , . "
Taylorsville-J; W. Floyd.
Wilkes Wm. O. Read.
Jonesville D. W. Doub. '
Stokes Lemon Shell.
James Jameison, Professor in Greensborough Fe
male College.
Danville District S. D. Bum pass, P. E.
Danville Station N. H. D. Wilson. m .
Pittsylvania R.. P. Bibb.
Franklin A. Norman, L. L. Nicholson; sup.
Alleghany R. R. Dunkley.
Staunton G. A. Coen.
Patrick J.J. Hines. m
Henry J. W. Lewis. -Rockingham
To be supplied. -Caswell
James Reid, W. W. Albea.
Person To be supplied.
Halifax J.. Goodman. .
Banister L. L. Herndon. :
Washington District R. J. Carson, P. E.
Washington Station S. M. Frost. v '
Roanoke R. O. Burton, Thos. S. Campbell, L. S.
Burkhead. '"
Plymouth J. W. Tucker.
TarboroughL. W. Martin.
Columbia H.Gray.
Neuse Paul J. Carraway.
Mattamuskeet P. H. Joiner.
Bath To be supplied. ,
Portsmouth & Ocracoke To be supplied.
Hatteras Mission C. K. Parker.
tftwbern District Wm. Closs, P. E.
Newbern Station C, F. Deems.
And re w Chapel Wm. H. Bobbitt.
Snow Hill W. S. Chaffin. ,
Smithfield I. T. Wjche, J. W. Wilson.
Lluplin r. U. Moses.
Topsail Wm. J. Langdon.
Onslow J. H. Jefferson
Trent J. L. Fisher, A. H. Johnston.
Beaufort J. B. Martin.
Straits Zebedee Rusht
Lenoir Mission N. Hooker.
Cape Lookout Mission To be supplied.
South River Mission To be supplied.
Cape Fear & Black River Miss To he snn.
Wm. Parks, Thos. S. Cassadav. and Wm. Ander
son, without appointment in consequence of affliction.
H. G. Leigh, without appointment at his own remiest.
H. G. Leigh, P. Doub, R. J. CarsonTVVm. Closs,
C. F. Deems, and D. B. Nicholson, Delegates to the
General Conference. Wm. Carter and S. D. Bum-
pass iteservea delegates.
1 he next Conference is to be held in Warrenton,
warren county, xortb Carolina.
Greensborough Patriot.
Correspondence of the Richmond Enquirer.
Washington. Dec. 12. 1849.
Expectation was rife this morning that an election
of Speaker would be effected to-day, and, consequent
upun una general impression, a dense crowd tilled
the galleries and floor of the House at an early hour.
Mr. W. R. W. Cobb of Alapama rose, after the
reading oi tne journal, and replied briefly to the stric
tures of the " Union," in reference to his votes ves-
a J TVI . TT . 1 - "
teraay. ne nouse men proceeded to vote for Speak-
. . w. uiuwu receiving nz; necessary to a
ciice 114; Messrs. Bocock and Seddon of Viro-inia.
anu vv awace oi ooutn Carolina, refusing to vote for
1 1 1 f . f ... - O J
iimi, uiu3 tiapjjuj ueteaung nis election.
mis juncture oi anairs Mr. Stanly of North
Uarolina rose, and offered a proposition, as a coneil
! ia to ry measure, that a committee of six be appointed
uiree iruin eacn Blue oi me Houses who RhonM
uuouse a suiuoie candidate upon whom each - party
could finite; thus reconciling conflicting interest
and effecting an early settlement of this vexed question.-
Mr. Stanly took -this occasion to intimate, that
an urroerstanaing existed between the candidate of
the Democratic party, Mr. Brown, and some mm W
oi me r ree-soii fartv."
Gen. Bayly indignantly repelled the i
disremitahle tn Mr. Rmnrn arA .
al turpitude upon those acting with him ; and during
ins icuidiK, asafu mr. Drown i who sat near himi
he (as had been indirectly alle?ed1 had written a lt.
! ter anv member of th House, pledging himself
(as Speaker) so to shape the Committees on the Diq.
inci 01 voiumDia ana Territories, as to mmrd
r n 1 m
cially the peculiar interests of the Free Soilers."
Mr, Brown replied in the negative, or at least dis
claimed writing such a letter as had been indicated.
uen. liayiy continued his remarks 9 few TnimAno
longer. (During this time great turmoil and excite
ment was manifested on all sides of the Housed Af.
& . I . . M
ler. anoiner onet interview with Mr.
T , , . .. . . -won.
Ddjiv rose ana intormed trie House that Tip
reoTfittfid tr sav that fmnr : e -irJ
lirnwn. hfl. anri'thnea o; :.v u: ' lj ,
grossly deceived hitherto, and he was how satisfied
that an understanding existed between Mr n
. . .... ...vow uukiu1' ot 1 li f 1 1 1 j 1 nn rtAon
9BH Mr. Wilmnf i ul ! v
"r" ":Y "n:c". ? ",e appointment ot
w,D vuiuuiiuees. xni3 announcement fell
lil-a hnmk.01,.11 t-- tt .. .
lino uuuiu-ouiMi iu mc nouse, and xne- excitement!
uvl"""0 "ireiiac. . x Udliucjt ueDlCIIO VOn t h A mH rrtn.
hl?-T friend-S in View. of ma terrible
utiSiTiU5Ul. x tiw csuodd is a most nappy one. The
thanks of the countrv,nd more paYtfcularly tSe
Snnth. ara Ana tn A'n. T7. t . .
' " , ,,cFlcocaMves, jjocock vand
Seddon, and Mr. Wallace of South Hamlin
happily refused their suDDort on thi hnllnt. thohv
neteatmop nia election onA . U n : r n r
Giddings & Co.
. .7. "'- ucsijjus 01 Messrs,
I would state here,rw a fuU knowledge of the foci
"&o iciuuiance our inenas irom the South
were inaucea lovoie lor Mr. Brown, nor did thew An
r 1 , . -
en until tha mno I '
wv, ...... ...v, . u.va. ampic duu saiisraciory assurance
had been given that he was "sound "on the subject
of the Proviso, as will appear from all of his recorded
recorded
votes while in Congress. The political cauldron is
uuuiuy over wun excitement to-night. As to the
ultimate result of this question, speculation is at fault.
I refer you for details to the Washington papers,
,UI ? remarKs 01 me several members
reference to the proceedings of this day.
Yours, truly, VINDEX..
National Hotel, 10, P. M.
in
P. S. During the whole course of the evening
this Hotel' has been a livincr mass of nen'nlo th
theme has been one universal cry of "Shame ! shame ! !
sname !!!" on the outrage committed. For the h on -
or of fiuture legislation. I hone never towitnooo h
a Scene as has nresented itself in uit. c -i
gress this day.
I . tug IIOIIS U 1 .fill
x-ur mo present we conieni OUrSe Ves With ffivinff
W. J, Brown's letter to Wilmnt. hiM, j-HI ?
. 1L. a a . a ....
enough.
- "&
c Washington City, Dec. 10, 1849.
.Dear Sir: In answer to yours of this date, I will
state that, should I be elected Sneaker of the House
of Representatives, I will constitute the Committees
on the District of Columbia, on Territories, and on
the Jodiciarv. in snrK manner o k.u u
from a free Stale, and have always been oDiosed to
uie extension nt c nvarir an4 .1 .u r 1 , 1
; j ugucto uiai uie leuenti 1
government should be relieved from the responsibil
ity of slavery, where they have the constitutional
power to abolish it. . m
.lam yours, truly,, VV. J. BROWN.
Hon. David Wilmot.
NOHTHCAROLINA
WEDNESDAY. JE5Heu
OUR UNIVFJ?srmr
V The Annual Reeling of the Trusty of
versity of North Carolina was held Ti l
Office, in thirty, on Thyd
ine iouowing Trustees, we learn
ance : Gov. Manly, President ex- ln nH
I. Swain, President of the Univer. Ho-1
ors reueii, yranam, and Morehead i , Uoyem!
kms, Esq ; Gen. R. M. Saunders tf Ha
Battlet Hon. John H. Bryan; Hon'c i Wln- H
and Charles L. Hinton, Esq. Secret uraves
In addition to the business ordinarily
uu Buuii occasions, .we understand that CH
lesbunsuip, Biyiea me frofessorshin r V
English Literature" was establJL; T0rJ'
Albert M. Shioo. A. M
mi, i i.. n
. -fluent of u f,
borough (Methodist) Female niu. urfJ
ree
to fill it, by a unanimous vote of the llo
Was select
The Rev. John T. Wheate, D.D.,;f c,
Tennessee, was appointed to the cha, bi
and Logic, rendered vacant by the resi 0ric
Rev. Dr. Green, Bishop elects m:J- . onftt
Professor Shinn. i Koi: 'P''
rr, "oucve, 13 a
native of ih
- j "uue, and (rra..J
University with the first nitin-.:! a 11 d
feel confident
his appointment will
n
satisfaction.
S1 universal!
mo .auuiig, aumij, ana piety 0f T)
was submitted to th Rna e r ""eate
thprp is th Kfrnno-pot naonn l.i? . ' m
. . Ul iruaUl
. & lu oeueve .
himself, in all rpsnpftc nrn.i rWi
" ' " ' ' successor of Bid
FORMS OF SUBSCRIPTION.
' We have been requested to re-publish, for the i,
formation of persons desirous of taking stock, the f
lowinor nlan.nf Rllhsrintinri tn V. r ir. 0
CUai. mo weensDorougn uonvention. Under i! :
yiai uuc ouaro is esumaiea to De about $8 000-
' W W DTOQ O nnllT n C 1 r r ....
. ..u.uo, wwi j a ui uie wne WUlionofin
Virtual Biiherintmnii n tU M .L i- ul "II
.. v" orm Carolina KalRm
Company required is taken:
Whereas, the purpose of this agreement is to Al
and secure the balance of the OnR Min;nn
lVldlial Btnlr. nnf 9lnli .,n..:i 1 i . . "Iu
Wft. thft nnitBniim.J : 1 i 1
each other and said Comnnmr t .? .. i
ii. - . 1 j cacn me nnol
hnni-ollh noi-t ik. J 1 I - .. ",c U"M
uuiiuicu.il uikvi tuesmu oaiance oi tne sad indi'
ual stock :
This ao-reement to Vn Kininrr nn
. o ."S wu uune, unjess on
hundred persons or companies subscribe the same oi
Po.), n..on f , ....
xam Jcioiu w i-vujuaijy 10 Oe at Jlbfirfr tn tnk
scribe as many shares of the hundred hi . ,u J
may please, and bound for no more than his or the9
l;ilUUOt
We have also been furnished by the chairman
the Executive Committee with the followinff form of
subscription for Companies raising one of the eigh
thousand dollar shares, or any amount among them
selves, to be subscribed by one of the Company, ir
behalf of the Company, to the capital stock of the'
Road. The form will, in fact, suit eny number and
any amount a Company may be pleased to raise:
AVe, the undersigned, mutually promise and agree
with each other to constitute a Company of I
persons, in order to form one of the associations off
Une Hundred persons, who have agreed to take the
unsubscribed residue of the capital stock of the North
Carolina Rail Road Company, and for that purpose
do hereby agree to pay each the sura of
Dollars ; and when the whole shall be subscribed, do?
hereby authorise and empower to sub-l
scribe tor one of said shares.
LUNATIC ASYLUM,
We understand that the Commissioners for the'
Lunatic Asylum, who were in session here last week,
have selected a tract of land on which to locate ti e
buildings. The buildings are to be erected on land
purchased from Messrs. Hall and Smith, and former
ly owned bv Cant. Theonhilus Hunter. The site is
about one mile South-west from the Capitol, on a
ridge commanding the City, and but a short distance
South-east of Spring Hill, the residence of the late
Capt. Hunter; and about a quarter of a mile west of
the Rex Hospital Grounds. Sufficient water privi
leges, we understand, can be obtained from Kocky
Run or Walnut Creek.
We would suggest the propriety of naming the
hill thus selected after the celebrated and philanthro
nic Miss Dix. to-wit Mount Dix, or Dix Hill-
it ia mainlv tn her instrumentality that We are indebt-
...
ed for passage of the necessary appropriations,
if ana lor the hrst dran or tne dui.
The Commissioners m attendance were, M-wr
ernor Morehead of Guilford, Mai. C. L. Hinton and
George W. Mordecai of Wake, Dr. Josiah 0. Wat-
... i r' r.t fScirell.
crn nt inhnstnn. ana aivui uiavca ui
tir. f!mP.ron. of Cumberland, the other Coramis
sioner, was absent.
Mr. David Mclntire haspresented
Large Tcrnip.
1 with a flat turn
us wiin a nai turnip, wiseu uu ma , ,
Point, in this county, which weighs ninepounds and
... : j k;. ni-infnfionaiivM
a half. yviimingion
I Ylna timo and irnn thrnw OS 1 HI'88 4 lu '
but we can beat you at a game oi three up, and no
m t,i TnVm Smith of this
I vui? am uuiir, i - - - - .
" misiaxe. jur. jonaiudii v."" - .
nnnntv. nnA Democrat and a constant reac
. , thrpe tam ps,
u c. j 1 u-. n-neAnoii 11 a with tnree iu""j
oiauuaiu, uao pitjcuw. 1
and a half. But we have recently heard of somethi ng
mccri hir him. two ftt WhlRh WeiSTUCU
. . , , ,. ,. , jj.-0 u our turnips
th Vf-etible U 5
tha cVioVla finmn .okhoroc have Dfiefl reCElvo
fount?!
ninr rmm ' Tne TJirffln'a farm in Orange 1
j nrf onwards "P
1 1 .in
. inr. 1 nn. (rennet"
offer our
Convention at ' Goldsborouoh.
We
1 ., , . r.. r .Vis
invitation
to the
manis 10 uie ouimuiee ior
n.M rt . , . l.U ol G0ldS0UluuD
-aii aoaa onvenuon, 10 De ueiu - .ye
Wayne County.on the third day of next month,
, ' .u Jl, :uJ ntlemeu are to be
learn that 8eyeral distinguished gentlemen are
present to address the people on tne w--I
that a large gathering is expected. j,,,
We are requested to state that those gentlemention3
have been invited to attend the Rail Road Conv
at Goldsborough andWilmington, on the 3d
of next month, will be transmitted, i '
going and returning, on the Wilmington
1 ana 0
Rail Rstari.
' I Ve cordis J
I Messrs. ioombs, otephews, x.v.
Unnmv th fnllnwintr from the Richmond &
I ..... .
1 a . rim . a
L. L -- Thnrsday
I 1 El H Nl.KIIH III UUUlCOQ VK- m - r.IIOr UV
K " 7 1 a chall P ve u"v J
been intensely exciting, and we shall giv of
tails on Monday, uiucn as wo is1" . Meao.
Vio farment. XOP are TlOt SOITV that Messrs. - .
Toombs, &c., have taken so decided a sian ustbe
South at so early a period, a ne - be ptu
met and decided, faction and iana"- mt in-
down and crushed, and a stop pu ds beI
suits and aggressions on the South, who dem u
i .ikta , atii. inis is l"c
tunoiuuiiu.. " e- . ,
ij7.V.L: .JVk.mand onion of tbe
Hibernia,
wA hoVa nn intelligence 01
. ...
the
vf c uaie '-r o
The ne
oieaiuer ok j" - .
o - in innrsA Trora rjii i-
the efle
by the turopa, wumn i . .1
that Cotton had slightly declined 10 Liverpool.
. V- lV . L. mm thA IQ IPS1. Tf "
, i
-r

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