1 llll H W (ID (f IK A W If If H IF n Sf If n
j ill) ifl iiii w m..' Uu' ill li ii m.' iu 1J 11 li ivl ill UJ 9
VOLUME 18 NO. 12.
CADIZ, OHIO, WEDNESDAY, JULY 2, 1851.
TERMS $1,50 A YEAR.
Sentinel & JTarmcr.
PUBLISHED EVERY WEDNESDAY.
CIIAB. N. ALLLN. WU. A. UILKS. WM. I. 1LAIN
ALLEN, GILES &, BLAIN,
EDITORS AXD PROPRIETORS.
TEUM9 OF SUBSCRIPTION.
07" One dollnr and fifty cents if pniil during
(tie year, or two dollars and a Imlf after the year
. - rill. i 1 t .. 1 1. I i ..
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Any person nrocurine five reinoneiblc euliscr!
bers to the Sentinel, will be entitled to a copy for
the same length ol time, Irec.
ORDER OF EXERCISES.
For the Sabbath School Celebration, in Cadis
July 4th, 1451.
1 Opening Ode by the Scholars.
Anniversary of Independence.
We come with joy and gladness,
To breathe our songs of praise,
Nor let a note of sadness
Be mingled in our lays :
For 'tis a hallowed story,
This theme of freedom's birth;
. Our father's deeds of glory
Are echoed round the earth.
The sound is waxing stronger,
And thrones and nations hear
Proud man shall rule no longer,
For God the Lord is near ;
And ho will crush oppression,
v And raise the humble mind,
And give the earth's possession
Among the good and kind.
And then shall sink the mountains,
' Where pride and power are crowned,
And peace, like gentle fountains,
Shall shed its pureness round.
, 0, God! we would adore thee,
' And in thy shadow rest:
Our fathers bowed before thee,
And trusted and were blest.
3 Ode by the scholars.
: We now to Christ, the Saviour King,
Our annual tribute pay ;
In sweet hosannas here we sing,
For his life cheering ray;
Oh, let the heavenly chorus rise,
On this our festal day;
And wake the concord of the skies
! With this our joyous lay.
Another year has run its round,
Since last we gathered here;
' And still the precious gospel sound
" : - Invites our list'ning ear:
But many Sabbath hours are gone,
' ' Of kind instruction given ;
Oh, may the lessons we have learn'd
Guide us to Christ and Heaven.
4 Reading the Declaration of Indepen
dence. 5 Ode by the Scholars.
Ode for the Fourth of July,
ARRANGED FOR THE CADIZ 8A1IKATII SCHOOLS.
Tune r"Ilail Columbia."
To thee our lov'd Columbia's friend,
, Our song of joy to-day we raise
Oh! from the heavenly courts descend,
Oh! from the heavenly courts descend,
And bless our heartfelt sacrifice,
And let us still enjoy thy grace :
While through the land fair freedom's song,
Our own dear parents raise to thee,
Our accents shall the notes prolong,
We little children too are free.
, Firm united lot us be,
Still to guard our liberty,
As a band of brothers joined,
Peace and safety we shall find.
The past with blessings from thy hand,
Have been most richly scattered o'er,
.-As numerous as the countless sand,
As numerous as the countless sand,
That glitter on the ocean's shore,
To tell us of thy won'drous works,
Oh! may the future be as bright,
. Nor be to us thy mercies less
Resplendent with the glorious light,
Of liberty and happiness.
iirm united ictus oe,
f ' Still to guard our liberty,
As a band of Tjrotliers joined,
Peace and safety we shall find.
, While thus we praise thy mercies great,
In Heaven we place our only trust
May truth and virtue still prevail,
May truth and virtue still prevail, .
And every scheme of bondage fail,
Which would our freeborn souls enslave ;
Pear Lord! prepare us for the skies,
And fill our hearts with thy rich grace,
Teach us to die, so that we may
With joy behold the judgment Jay,
' . Firm united let us be, '
' . - Still to guard our liberty,
l,; As a band of brotliers joined,
Peace and. safety we shall find.
, p Address by the Kev. Jambs Kerr.
. ' . ; Hymn by the congregation, -
1 " ; Love to the Church,
'J , , , Tunp "Firth."
J love thy Zion, Lqrd I
' Thd house of thy abode,
The church, 0 blest Redeemer! saved,
Witt; thy own precious blood.
, j Ilovo thy Churcl), 0 God I
, V v ' ' Her walls before thee stand, ,
,.;Vv i fJparasthe apple of thine eye
i ". . And graven on tiy hantl.
'f f e'er to bless sons
, ,; My voice or hands deny:.
T , . These hands let useful skill forsake,
This voice in silence dio.
;t j, If e'er my heart forget -
, ,i 4 .. u Her welfaro or her wo : ; ; '
t t Lot evory joy this heart forsake,
', ; !' And every grief o'erflow., ,
' ','( '-Vot her my team shall fall; ..!'
1 '' -For her my prayers ascend;" H
' T9 her my cares and toils be given,,
'j t , Till toils and cares shall end. , ' ...
Beyond my highest joy
I .prize her heavenly ways,
Her sweet communion, solemn vows, j
Her hyms of love and praise.
8 Address by the Rev. John Burns.
9 Hymn by the scholars.
Thanlcs to God.
Father! from thy throne above,
Smile upon us in thy love:
Happy children of the free,
Grateful songs we raise to thee.
Thanks for Srtnday Schools so dear,
Where we're taught thy word and fear,
From that holy book of thine,
Fill'd with precious truths divine.
Saviour! mid all earthly strife,
Through the cares and ills of life,
May the precepts thou hast given,
Guide us in the path to heaven.
10 Closing address.
11 Dismission ode by the scholars.
Away over mountain, away over plain,
Vacation has come with its pleasures again,
Where young steps are bounding, and young
hearts are gay.
To the fun and the frolic away boys, away.
Away ! away !
To the fun and the frolic, away, boys, away.
The fresh breezes revel the branches between
The bird springs aloft from her covert of
Our dog waits our whistle, the fleet steed
Our boat safely rocks where we moored her
0 ur boat, our boat,
Our boat safely rocks where we moored her
Where the clustering grapes hang purple,
The pastures and woods where the ripe ber
ries grow, .
The broad trees we'll climb where the 'sunn v
And bring down their stores for the lips we
Love best, love best !
And bring down their stores for the lips we
Dear comrades, farewell ! ye who join us no
Think life is asehool.andtill term-time is o'er,
Oh, meet unrepining each task that is given,
Till our time of probation is ended in heaven
In heaven, In heaven,
Till our time of probation is ended in heaven
it" Punch says to resuscitate a drown
ed Yaakee, search his pockets.
iwfi'er the most?"
where did the Maxicans
"Why, in defect" (defeat.)
(fc7If you have anv (h
ijbt whether you
snoimi kiss a girl, give her
the doubt, and "go in."
the benefit of
TM-Svm and reiiiil-tnnt fevers ought
always to trouble people who forget to nav
tTt-n. T? T-.11 1 .. . - r
runny busier s reception at Moscow
was the most splendid to be found in the
history of fopdoodledom.
it 2" We may glean knowledge by read
ing, but the chatl'must be seperated from the
wheat by thinking.
g:g The woman who reigns the queen of
tne Dan-room, is very seldom found capable
of being the governess of her own children.
RW "Tiberius, how do you make an II?'
il i T 'ti , ,
miy as roiiiai, i generally place a Hori
zontal beam between two upright posts."
aT3T If 'time is money,' a man ought to be
worth something pretty handsome after serv
ing ten years in the slate prison.
0r A barrel of pop-corn exploded in Troy,
on Wednesday, tearing away the handle of a
basket, and slightly kiliingtwoboys who were
sitting on it.
Mrs. Partington thinks that there will be
such facilities for travelling, bimeby, that" we
can go anywhere tor nothing and come back
JSTAn editor down south, who served
four days on a jury, says he was so full of
law that it is hard to keep lrom cheating
jUSTMr. Sayton, a Mormon missionary.
writes that two. large establishments are iit-
nng our, mjuonuon ior tne city ol tho ttalt'M ; r, tm;nn ..:..
4J .nL. '
&3T Music is a great substitute for muscle.
March a soldier out of breath on "Roslin
Castle," and the very moment the band
strikes up Yankee Dcodlc," he is ust as
good as new.
Jt3T If you would pass for a culprit ; all
that is necessary is to look like one. In the
opiniori of most jurors the man that hangs
his head deserves hanging. Carry up, then,
juoinj f3 us easny nuniDuggca as gins.
k.1ia, . j 'i-i i l" s .
JfrB-Thn w ..iniurfrt-iw, r
monwedth says shat a lare number of high
V ,Lmni;0ii,i " ir ":i ?.'
;'m;A7I:lT. 1 " m T
community were to appear in the Turkish
costume during the coming anniversaries,
JtW The interior of Bunker" Hill Monu
ment is to be used to demonstrate the rota-
Cambridge, will superintend it. and the nub
lio will be admitted by paying a small fee.
(K7G-cn. Hinton, the mail robber anA
Wbii stumper, is now a runner for a hotel
in Havana. A citizen of Circleville, Ohio,
sa.w and f ucognized him there a few weeks
since, but the, General protested that his
name was IJanlon. He said he had heard
oT a General Hinton in Ohio, who he under
dcrstood closely resembled "hira, but they
yeiw iui TViaium. : v -., 3 , . ,
lion ol mo earth on its axis, by repealing to give more heed to these animals than w
Eoucault's experiment with a pendulum 21G , by any means pleasing or expected.
ieei long. jvir. uond and Mr. Ilorsford of tie had now made nearly halt ot his
From Arthur's IlomeCJnictte,
Or, THE BLACK FIDDLER.
BY C. W. WEBBER.
The Wolf, besides beinir the most ubinui-
tious of our predatory animals, is the most
active, tenacious, and difficult of extirpation.
It is everywhere. It tills in the chinks of
desolation. Its savage grinning head peers instant death, as the cowardly pack would
through all the broken glooms of our stern! be sure to set upon hira in a body, on the
wildernesses a ghoul-like presence hid-, instant of observing such indication of fear,
ious, gaunt and fierce! It knows no sym-jllis only chance was to keep them at bay
pathiesj and we give it none. Yet there is .by preserving the utmost steadiness until he
one droll incident with which my boyhood , could reach the open ground before liim,
was familiar, which seems to indicate a cer-jwhenhe hoped they might leave him, as they
tain susceptibility to the softer emotions or do not like to attack in the open ground.
more refined sense, at least.
In the early days of the settlement of South
Kentucky, there was a great trouble with
the wolves. The large grey wolf of the
more wooded northern and middle districts
greatly abounded in the heavy forests of the
Green River Bottom, particularly in the
neighborhood of Henderson, which is situa-,
ted on the Ohio, not far below the mouth of
Green River. The barn-yard suffered to a
great extent, n way of pigs, calves, fcc,
iftom their depredations, which frequently, in!
mid-winter, were even carried to the auda-
cious extreme of attacking human beings. !
Indeed, it was no unusual thing for the '.
belated footman, at such times, when they ( shivering soul, when he observed the sud
were pressed by hunger, to find himself sur-idennoss of the sound caused the wolves to
(rounded by a herd of them in the woods. j
Some striking stories of hair-breadth escapes
ana desperate venture, Belong lo uus period
and condition ot things. JSo one ot them
ever made a stronger impression upon me
than the adventure of old Dick, the fiddler.
He was "a good old good for nothing
darkie," as the word went in thcjicighbor-1
hood, whose sole merit consisted in his fid-
uiing nut, Dv uie way singular as this
merit wis it "in reality constituted him by
far the most important "gemman ob color":
within forty miles around. The fact is,
nothing of anv interest could occur without
lds presence. It was as important skinny
as L it was-as the very face of the man in
the moon beneath whose auspices the corn-
slmclungs, the weddings, the "breakdowns '
and Juba dances ol the neighborhood were ,
""'l;., , V -
Old Dick, who was the propciiy of one of
the Hendersons, from whom the town and
country take their names, was esteemed by
his good natim-d and wealthy master as cte-
cidedly a priviliged character, lie had bis
time pretty much to hnnsdt, and no One pre-;
tended to interfere with if disposal, as his
masier numorousiy siyicu mm a -necessary,
nuisance" to the neighborhood, because he
pt the darkies in ajgood humor by his fid-
die. Now Dick had most strongly 'develop-
the liddler, the world over, namely, punctil-1
lousness aim punctuality, upon either ot
these points he was peculiarly irritable, nay,
even ferocious. V ith all the proverbial tun-,
idily of the "child of genius," Old Dick
...,..- t.a.ayv. .u.nyuu unj- uni .i iu-,
ties of etiquette which might chance to turn Wild with agonized terror as he was, prior
!....:. 4i. li.. : i i. i.l. ii t. i i i i . . , .
up during uic same ormes over whiclL he
presided: but nothinir caused liim to so far.
torget ''the proprieties" in his own person,
as me nucnenucm oi any unusual or ace-
dental causes of delay which prevented his
being on hand in time! Poor Dick! But
the story I have to tell of him will explain,
On the occasion of a grand wedding festi-
val among the colored gentry of neighboring
plantations some six miles distant, Old Dick land Dick continued to produce such fri"ht-
t p i.lj . ..11 . . i
was, of course, expected to officiate as mas
ter of the ceremonies. It had been an unu
sually severe winter, and a heavy snow lay
upon the ground on the eventful evening,
when having donned his "long tailed blue,"
with its glittering gilt buttons, and mounted
tin imn.,.n, d.ivi l ti, oi.i aP ,j,
.ii.iiiv.icn, oi... v ,.1,1, ,jj iu i niuuu
the dignity of his official character was prop-
erly maiiitamcd, tho ancient Apollo sallied
iorin, uuuie in nana, to uarc mo penis oi,
f ..1 1 11 1 11 1 l 1 l
'" '""" J .iiv.ii.., iwi un ,viitj;v4 uu-
Hps l.nil nil 1a tn iho f,,,i: Li..?l,,.fi.,-,.
with a haste and eagerness altogether unbe
coming its importance.
Tho moon was out, and tho stars twinkled
right merrily overhead, as the spry old man
trudged away over the crisp and crackling
snow. The path, which was a very narrow
one, led for the greater part of the way,
through the dark shadows of a heavy bottom
forest, which yet remained as wild as when
uie inuiaiis roaineu over it, ana was unuar
erecd by a wagon road for many miles.
The profound and dreary solitude of the
way . could not have failed to impress any
one who was not either more or less than hu
man, except under condition of entire pre
occupation in one absorbing thought, such as
now held absolutely the body and soul of the
11wii.m, . vnat. ilin ennf nf nMiinoltin ir
""'Y lVo WWUJUMVH f,l . A
He was goaded at every step with the
m?('aening vision ot the expectant ranks ol
"amv BVUUU''J "'""g wnues 01 uieiv
;cyes and stamping their stocking leet upon
I the puncheon floor, impatient of his delay ;
for the truth was, that lie had lingered too
long over the polishing of tiioso brass but-
tons, and the setting of that plentitude of
! collar, and he now first became conscious of
i.. , , j.,.i .,, ,,
it, as ne naa come iorin Dcncatn uie moon
I ami perceived m unexpected height above
- rr.,T i t .-u ,
J Onhe dashed with unrelaxmg energy,
''Wdless of the back shadows and hideous
night cries in the deep forest. Wolves were
howling around him in every direction, but
he paid no attention to sounds that were so
common. However, he was soon compelled
ney, and the light opening ahead through
the trees, 6howed Jum the "old clearing,
us it was called, through" which his path led.
The wolves had been getting excessively
noisy for the last mile; and to the indescri
bable horror of the old man, he cquld hear
them gathering about him in the crackling
bushes on either side, as they ran along to
Keep pace with Ins rapid stepsi , The woods
very soon seemed to the old man to be liter
ally alive with them,' as they gathered in
yelling packs from far and near. 1
Wolves are cautious about attacking a
human being at. once, but usually require
some little time to work themselves up to the
point. That such was the case now proved
lucky for poor old Dick, who began to realize
the horrible danger, as a dark object would
brush past his lei's cverv few moments, iviih
a snapping sound like the ring of a steel, letter in you r valuable paper, and by so do
trap; while the yells and patter of the gath-'ing, I think you wiU add some important
ering wones increased w.th ternoie rapidity.
Dick knew enough of the" habits of the aid
mal to be aware that to run would insure bis
He remembered, too, that an old hut still
stood in the middle of the clearing, and the
thought that he might reach that haven gave
him sonic comfort.
The wolves were becoming more auda
cious every minule, and the poor old soul
could see their green eyes glaring firey death
upon him from all the thickets around. They
rushed on more boldly, one after another,
snapping as they went past in closer and
closer proximity to his thin legs indeed,
the frightened fiddler instinctively thrust at
tiiem witn ins iiddio to turn them aside. In
doing so the strings were jarred, and the
despairing wretch took somo hope to his
leap aside with surprise. , He instam
his hand across the strings with veh
i lie instantly drew
,ilnu io ms lininue renet uiey sprang DacK'not
and aside, as n lie had shot amongst them. !
Taking immediate advantage of this luckyi""""1" "ulus' - "
! diversion in his favor, as he had now reached
the edge of the clearing, he made a break
for the hut, raking his hand across the fiddle
strings at every jump, until they fairly roared,,' t nc if ,vna ri..nirnloA -Kmvi
again., x ne asionisneu wolves pauseu lor a , , . ., .
moment on the edge of the clearing, witudo inlend that if ever you do come to tins
their tails between their legs, looking after country, that you shall cast any blame on
him; but the sight of las flying form renew-
ed at once Uieir savage instincts, anil with
a lod bust of yells they pursued him at full'
speed. Alas ! for the unlucky fiddler, had i
he been caught now, l -would have been nil
up witn nun, even had ins liddie continued
to shriek more unearthly nhneks than flint of
the spell by running, for had they caught
him now, they Ivould nver have paused to.4
, listen, had he been an Orpheus in reality.
Iucluly the old ronn reached the hut just
as the wolves were at his heels, and slam-
imng the nckcly door behind, him, ho had1
t.mo to climb out on to the roof, where he'
was comparatively out ot danger. 1 say
comparatively, for the perch he now occu -
pied, was too rickety raiher than desirable,
except by contrast with the immediate condi-
- Vl - Mescaped. ,
The wolves were now very ferocious, and
thronging the interior of the hut, leaped up:"""'""'"' '"" ""'"
at him with wild yells of gnasliin- ra"C. such a distant locality. But from my pres-
The noor old fallow was horribly frightened J
and it required the utmost activity of motion
mi kvii iiis tugs iiwj otang siuippeu oy inem.'n ;n , i,;vn,n,i rp.,,,,, , tJm
old Dick had manned to clinor to Jus iiddio
through it all. and remember. n o-ih at it h.-ul
saved him in the woods, he now, with the
sneer energy o dcperation, drew his bow
across the strings, with a sound that rose
high above all their deafenin- yells, while
with his feet kicking out intothe air, he en-
deavored to avoid their steel-like fangs. An
instant silence followed this sudden outburst.
.e -i . , , - , .
1111 spasms 01 SOlina as his Hysterica" COIldl -
i ;n L,;,1 ..
U 1UV,I VyVA.
This outbreak kept the wolves auiet for a
; moment or two, but old Dick soon learned
I to his increased horror that even wolves arc'
Wastidious to stand bad fiddling, for they
mm,..i . l.f.i i
t-uu iiuuuiAiu a luuunui in uiu tituicu, as BiMiii
as the first surprise was over, more furiously
i than ever. This was too much for the mmr
. 1 !! , . . .
tiddler, and more especially when the head
-'i . l.liuu null 1.1 UII1M, nil UUUVCe 1 UIU
' iv.r,i0,.f ii,.. ...,.r M,;., ., r.J, :.,..!..,
he sat.' He gave himself up now for a gone
darkie, and with the horrified exclamation :
Bress us! who dar?'
He fell to fiddling Yankee Doodle with all
his might, unconsciously, as the dying swan
is said to sing its own requiem in its closing
moments. With the first notes of the air
silence commenced ; Oi piteous had conquer
ed ! the brutes owned the subctuing spell,
ana ine terror, stncicen, when he came to
nimseiE astonished at the sudden cessation
of hostilities-saw he was surrounded by the
most attentive, and certainly fhe most ap -
preciative audience he had ever played be -
lore for tho moment there was the slight-
cessation of the music, every listener
sprang forward to renew the battle, and set
his pipe-stem legs to flying about in the air
again. ....... :
But he had now learned the spell, and so
long as he continued to play with tolerable
correctness he was comparatively safe. - The
old fiddler soon forgot his tcrrorin profession-
Lai pride, for he was decidedly, flattered by
sucn intense appreciation ; anu entering lul-
fy into the spirit of Uie tiling, played with a
gusto and effect such as he thought he nev
er before surpassed or even equalled. Even
tho wild, wedding, with its warm lights, its
sweetened whiskey, was forgotten for the
time in the glow of this new professional
But all pleasures have their drawbacks on
this earth ; and as time progressed, he began,
with all his enthusiasm, to feel very natural
symptoms of cold, fatigue, and even exhaus
tion. But it would not do lie could not
stop a moment before they wefo at him again
and there they persistently sat that shaggy
troop of connoisseurs, fidgctting on their
hauches, with lolling tongues and , pricked
cars, listening to their compulsory charmer,
for several weary hours, until the negroes
at tho wedding, becoming nlarmod about the
old man, came out to look for him, and found
hira thus perched upon the roof of the tot
tering hu,t, sawing away for dear lire, while
he was ready to dfop every instant from sheer
httigue and the 'reeling cpld, They rescued
the old man 'from his, comfortless position,
wniio tne lingering forms ol his late audience
told that they most unwillingly surrendered
the fruition of their unwonted feast. "
For the Sentinel & Farmer;
Editor Democratic Sentinel:
Gcn'hm'ii Please insert the following
itcms 0f inforra;U;on to our prCiiCnt Lktory of
Oregon, and the fanner's life there.
The letter is written in a different style
Vomniost of the Oregon letters I have seen.
Mi. Smiih is a plain uneducated farmer,
and represents tilings in a plain, farmer like,
common sense style, without any of the
rhetorical flourishes of art.
.Mr. Smith is anativeof Columbiana coun
ty, Ohio. He emigrated from his native
place, first to Missouri, and from that to Or-
S. R. WATSON.
Salem, Marion co., O.T.JulyXZ, 1830.
Cousin Watson, Sir: I now commence
a letter to answer a letter of yours, which I
received with pleasure, dated March 4, 1 851.
We are all as well as common, so far as I
know. Two of my sons, end one son-in-law
arc in California, and are doing well.
Now I am a going to answer you the ques-
lions you proposed in vour letter, or endeav-
orso to do. You can easily see that my
education is very limited, and that vou can-
expect any thing very stylish or in high
n . j- i .1 t ;n i-ii
( wlth respect to any country,) what will suit
one will not suit another; or in other words,
H ,nn a different nnnenrance. and in every
t nmv(.)nn inl reflect on ilm n!hfrr fo
r ,, , . ,, . ,
fore cI lnow,nS ihai 'ou ha.ve seen
f statement after statement in public print,
wii.ii regard to urcgon, nnct alter an you
apply to me for my candid opinion. Now if
T L .... , . t
our hrst question is, what proportion ot
land is pwune, and could a mangel um..!andin fact j lUVve endured hard and scrcre
, ber land lying along side convenient? Now,",,..nmrf,'nii mv v,r ; fmniierrmmh-v
sir this is a going to be a hard question f
, . vm v ' . ,
, 1 do suppose : you mean our territory. 1
'cannot answer it as regards the territory, for
this reason, that I have not, seen one-fourth
I part of it, only at a distance from somo high
.. , . , . . .
ei'it knowled.i-e ofitT would not simnnw thnt
'em. more than the one-third of the laud
There are the
Cascade mountains, they
run JNorth and
South tlironirh the territorv: and the C
range of mountains; and these mountains
' c reat lvt cf Uw terriU)
- li . ? 1 , , ,
fountains are mostly timbered with bcauti -
M timber mostly fir and cedar.
I will now give you a description of the
w:u tt ..n r. ti u
Ti ii...i ii. - i j. .ii... t
xl is ciineu liiu uest vuiiev 111 ure'roii.
, ,. , ' ' ,
d stance across the val ev from the Coast
mountains to lho Cascade range, would not
exceed foiiv miles. Part of this valley js Ull but very windy; and I do expect they tlir(,
bc.U,;f,li "j wj Yi;ii mire "treams ofwa iarc as ll0,'iliIly s ny place in the known'. ,s t
. ' ., " . ' 1 . '." , .. , '"world. The Sounds are north of the Colum-'l,
tor llovinff from tlio mountains; and timber . iiniuiuiviuiivujuiii gtac
generally-convenient; tlieiincarcrtothcmoun -
tains it becomes rolling and more ror-kv and
roti"h. The water is ccncrellv
,,...1,.. jl - 1 , 1..,,. .,,.,1 11
washes well the rocks are hard, and well
, burnt wilh t,ie ,Jun-
Your second question. Is the country
level or hilly? . I would say in the valleys it
level on the mountains you or any other
man would cull it hilly or mountainous.
Your third mtesiion. Is the soil as pro.
duclivc as it is represented to be? I cannot i
tell what is the present repou.. in the States, I
i . , ' ., r i
i as to the nroilucl.ivenesR of (he soil nrOvprmn-1
' , . , , , .7 , Jitho Columbia river is at its hi -rWt It. in
! but I say, as to the raising of wheat, I uU n nver ftt ,ts 'hcst: f. 18
1 do think it is the best country I have ever 1 0CCfKmcd b7 fll0Snow on the. mountanw
seen. Oats do well. Field peas do well. m - C)'USe country 18 ?uid; to bo
Corn is a very unprofitable cron: it does not a beautiful grazing country, and pait of it
LrftW well. fhP nirrh.a w nnr.l fi ,i
season too dry. Potatoes, do well. Vege
tables in-general do not do as well here as
in tho States, unless they are watered in the
dry season, or planted in some moist place.
' Your fourth rjueslion. Is it well watered
and healthy?. It is well watered; and I do
call Oregon healthy, although we have sick
ness and death here also.
Fifth question. Is if well adopted to rais
ing stock and gram, and do you think the
market for stock and produce will continue
I 1 1 4l T. , . " ,
to Degooa; jus well adapted to rasing
stock, at present, but I cannot tell how long
it may continue; it will bo owing to how
thick it is settled, and the quantity of stock
kept.' Stock lias done well since I have been
here, altho wo have had two hard winters
that is we call them hard in tl"s country; but
they are not, Hkc tho winters in the States.' I
have had to feed some cows that had calves
in tile winter, Sometimes the grass keeps
green and grows all winter. Every farmer
that has stock ought to provide some feed)
and haveitready if there should'conio a hard
spell or a snow storm, " t hrought a good
start of stock with mo from Missouri; and
have been selling oil1: last winter I sold about
$'000 worth. I have yet about $3000 worth
on hand, and have not bought an f sinco
came heref As to the grain' in this kjue'stioiii
I have answered it heretofore. As for the
market for stock, I think it will continue good,
but will be somewhat reduced from the
present price; and as to the price of produce
I think it will continue good, as long as the
mining operation in California goes on.
Question Glh. Is the best of the land ta
ken up? No. -'
Question 7th. Is there any danger of In
dian hostilities? I do not think theirc is any
danger, and I think there is none in Oregon
that apprehend any danger.
Question Clh. What kind of a place for
ispecnlation, and what could a man do with
a small capital of $1000? A thousand dol
lars is a very small sum to speculate on now
a days in Oregon. Young men who were
not worlh a few years ago, are
worth thousands now.
9th. Is there any dangr of the probable
amount of emigration, for one or two years,
taking up all the valuable part of the land,
and leaving none but that which is inferior?
Answer. I think there will, be good situa
tions longer than two years; yet our papers
state that the emigration on the different
points of the Missouri, is between 50 and CO
thousand this season," all emigrating west
ward: if that be so, good land here will go
fast. We look for a very long line of emigra
lion this season from the States and California,
and the farmer here will get almost any price
he has a mind to ask for eatables.
Question 10th. In a word what induce
ments are there for a young man and wife to
emigrate to your country: JNow, cousin
Watson, you must give me the liberty of j
giving you a plain answer to this question,
without giving offence to either you or your
wife. I do think there are several strong
inducements. , First, it is the greatest couu-
try for raising children of any country I have
a man wants th become wealthy I think
jic can obtain it here, with economy
i:itin i,1,i1,c,ir,.-nlil,i..,-l, T 1,-. u-,.i-l.-,.,l
Icame'toOnon till within a little
'ib,ncc 1 came t0 Urt0, M ltJun. .
than a year pas,. 1 am troubled now
uYii,h rheumatism, and nm notable to do much;
' , T1 . , , r ,
But I seel have got ahead of my mtenUon.
; t djd intend when 1 got tlirough answering
1 . '...,., i
:" , . . .
wrotdown tlic (lucstlons m lma w"rds'
! V'Z.: boC;ms'! J'ou mflJ" W forgotten them;
and nuw when you see the questions and the
answers it will all be plain before you.
" ncn 1 siaueu m 104 io come to uie-
in'S'0"' 1 intended to settle near the coast, not
rar irom the mouth ot the Columbia river,
But when I got into the Willamette valley
lho rainy season had commenced, and we'
oc-.rc'le worntwwn Wlll ie long journey; ana
; ibclore we could get there, we Had another
ran "Q of roa4 mountains 40 or 50 miles
"' lou11 mountains 4U or 50 miles
juroaa cross' ima a11 we C0UlJ tilke yCT,
j liad lo "e Packc(1 on horses or mules. Tim
Clatsup plains are south of the Columbia'
river on the sea coast.
xiio.se piams are a-
iboul 1 'i mile in li.ntrtli inrl fmm 9 In 1 m
! ,)0UL 1 mucs m k nSth antl 11 0111 z t0 J m
1 TCI ill 1 t 1
me sutucu UI ilnu a,e nciiuu -
. (,;., ronoit says it is a food couiltrv
! . ' . .. .. r
I zino nnJ a Pllrt ot lt Sooa ior rmm
inters considerable of snow falls there.
Tl. TT.,.1. Ti ... n t. :......!
, , . ., , ' . . , , i
ago, lost a considerable amount of tvtock by;
the snow falling deep, and having no feed
provided for them. : j , i
The Columbia river is bounded, in with
, . , , , , , , . ..
high and rough mountains, almost from its
. i i.i
uiouin io me xitiics ur vyuse counuy, wiui
a, lew exceptions - one is at ancouver.
The high water in June has been over where
Fort Vancouver stands. . June . is the time
I good for farming. " -J ",..
The Cyuse Indians have thousands and
thousands of horses, and a good many cat
tle, i Their country is more dry and frosty
in the winter, than the Willamette valley.
The Willamette is I think from 150 to 200
miles in length; I never have been to the up
per end of it. . There arc two other valleys
south that will soon be settled: the Umpqua
valley which is now a settling, and Rogue
river valley which is farther south than the
Umpqua; it is claimed by the Rogue river
Indians, they arc ahostile tribe alljbr fight.
The Governor is now going out to see if he
can treat with them.' AH the way he can
obtain an interview with them, is to send one
of out" friendly Indians to them to make his
intentions known;, ho may succeed, but 1
have my doubts with regard to it. -f
The water power in Oregon is the best
that I have seen, in, any country. Most of
the streams that come out of the mountains
have perpendicular fails, at which places al'
kinds of machinery can.be constructed."' I
sold my mills last winter for $ 1 0,000. ' The
principal timber is fir, it is in thick groves
and green the year round, It, is tall and
boautiful, and I do think that I can show1
place that' there ' can btr twenty thousand
rails jnadtf' on one acrd' of ground: tins 1
know will look almost impotssiblo to you.
There is generally oak timber enough In
this valley to answer for firewood the fit ts
not good to cook with. The oak is general
ly scattered and shrubby.' Along almost
all the streams, there is some ash timber
and aulder. A great many of the bottoms,
especially along the streams and close to the
mountains are gravelly; and in most of the
streams in this country there arc round hard
rocks of all sizes. The grass in this country
is generally short, except in low marshy pla
ces. In August it looks dead and dry, and
so remains till the rainy season comes on,
then it turns green and commences growing
again. This looks like an untruth, and I
could not believe it till I saw it myself. I
do not consider this a good hog country, for
this reason, the ground gets so hard in the
dry season that they cannot root- except in
marshy places. I sold this season better than
$300 worth of bacon, and I think about the
same of potatoes. " ,
Now I will tell you how the poor emi
grants in 1845 had to do when they got to
Oregon. Some of them started from the States
poor others lost all on the way. They had
to come down the Columbia on rafts and
boats. There being no road through the
Cascade mountains, they had to drive their
stock through them along a path. Having
got into the valley the wet season had alrea
dy commenced, and houses were scarce, but
wheat plenty. They had therefore to go to
work and pay for provisions. Rail making
was generally the employment. When they
, had provided some provisions they then se
lected a location and put up a little shanty
on it, and moved had'good health and ev
erything tasted good. ' What next? Went
to work, rain or shine, making rails; and
when their teams got a little recruited, coni-
..,,... .1 V,.1,;... o nm Tf ll,.r 1,n
! no team, make rails for some one who had a
, ; - , mi
i , . , , " ,."
sow their wheat commonly some time m
March, and some not ' till the last of April.
The next thing is, haul rails andfencc it, and
1 ri.rlinrvVst (li'vii-enei-iillv hail "-r-'in enough
; , ' ,
lor u"-raM:t , rUlu !u" ?K", ,
V'"" , " y
j vest harrowj our stubble ground over well,
'and you will have a tolerable crop. And,
.fu tl-;.lf i-niie-'nexiliast if you do' not
turn anything on your stubble ,' and let illay
u.i'.i! the next, you will have fine hog feed
on it. " '"'
What will I tell you next? " I will tell you
that we can sow wheat the year round here
; and have a good crop. Wre have a while
wheat, that is culled the winter wheat, which
we can sow from the 1st of may till Novem
ber; and it will not head out till the ncxl
. .- .1
harvest. We also have Wred wheat which'
fa called spring ' wheat, which we can sow
from September until May. The weather is
generally dry before harvest and in harvest.
T r . i .
Bl.forc tho wheat gets npe sonw th?
straw "turns a british yellow, and remains so
until it is ripe, owing to little or no dews ut
tw ,., ,.f.i, ' . "
0 wc ,,0 to Work cradle ami bind i.n,l a
.fri'f mnnw rl..'l i.l.rtrtl. .1.- !l I
bunches and let it lay till they arc going to
t out, which has to be done ; as soon
are done cutting. .Grain cannot be
here to save through the wet season.
(I will tell you about' tho wet season by and
' ulm,,by.) The way we get our wheat, is to put a
! o, ofho
es or cattle, in a dry lot on pasture
for a lew days, giving them little or nothing
7V i ', , ,
srrcen to eat. J hen clean nff hn run nt ft..
- ...v. vt WU
ground, and build a good frnee- around
Rlld Ilhiefi' vour ('ruin nil tlw m-imil n-,A
, V(lll.'.; ' . " ' , ".f"T, , '
'n jour horses or cattle on it, and lurrj liv
(1 - , , - -j . r
i,oro.,llc. et season comes pn. liut tines
are now somewhat different from, what, they
.were. ,. Kt'xt, how are we to take care of this
grain? ,We have but one little house, .and
it is well filled with children, and a few, otli
cr things, snd but few or no saw mills, to cut
boards. Why sir, , we build a house splij,
puncheon to lay the fjoor daub , the cracks
with mud, and empty our wheat in there.!
Here I have been speaking of past times, and
now they arc somewhat changed; we have a
great many saw mills, and we can tretalonjr
tolerable well. As to grist mills, the first
winter I was hero, thcrq was a great amount
of boiled wheat eaten, and clothing was "
scarce. We had tp'apply to; the Buck-skiu
man for clothing au shoes. It was impos2
siblc tci get cooking utensils, Clothing bus
come in.w), as, to. be tolerable plenty and
think it will remain so, 'V Shoes snd boote arp
likewise tolerable plenty at. present, so nrp
castings. Just before the gold mania broke
out, although, money was, scarce, I thought
I had nayer seen, a more industrious set of
people in my life than were jn' our territory.
They were fixing up splendid farms, ami
raising a considerable quantity of grain.-.
the tanner then could hire help hi harvest
at a fair price,now be. ctumul Farming
haa dfopped in a great measure; and the
farmer is.now raising grain for his own use,
and no); for sale. , The man w ho wants mon
cy can go to California either by land or wa-
ter, to get gold. It is not worth my wUilo
to say anything about California or its gold,
for I suppose you have heard bigger tales
about it than 1 ebuW toll. ' We hud Limieri
and shoemakora at work, but Uiey have It ft
for the gold region and in fact there i' eon
siderable land now laying idle, which Was
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