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The maximum of education gives the minimum of government and the maximum of liberty. "The propor tion of "well taught children to the population is the best measure of U.e civilization of that people." It is said that all great inventions and discoveries in time become demo cratic in character. We have grown from one man to all men. The print ing press, the telegraph, the use of steam, electricity, the spinning of cloth, all have contributed to the gen eral welfare all have reached the in dividual members of society and ac corded to each his share of personal advantage and general education. If this is true of the above cases it is even more so of an institution like our public schools. Its object is to bring free education to the youth of every home and every community. It •responds to public opinion it belongs to the people it is for, of, and by the people. As a state North Dakota is on the •eve of its greatest and best develop ment. The next ten years will deter mine in a very large measure the rela tive position we are to take with the •other states the union. Especially is this true as regards our system ot education. There is much yet to do to bring about a thorough and com plete uniflcaition of all the various forces which go to make up our gen •eral system of education. With earn est sympathy and hearty co-operation •on the part of the various officers from the least to the greatest, ten years of united labor will see these great forces in balance and its glory fall upon the two hundred thousand children who will then in all probability be within the schools of this state. School "buildings of infinite variety, beauti ful many of them as the skill of the architect can make them, well selected libraries, comfortable seatings, a flag staff and Old Glory floating at the top teachers, principals and superin tendents and thousands of eager, earn est, restless children, which together make up the modern school. At this particular time, in the open ing of the twentieth century, all men seem to have caught the contagion of material wealth as the object toward which their best efforts should be de voted. Character, not wealth or num bers, is America's ideal. It will be a day thrice unfortunate when the peo ple of this state lose sight of the above truth. Today, whatever concerns in dustrial welfare, whatever concerns the dinner table, the barn, the flax crop, the credit, the bank account, stock, concerns that which many people re gard as their happiness and their com fort whatever uplifts the state indus trially is the lever underneath the prayers and aspirations of a great many people of North Dakota. I make the contention that popular education is a vital necessity in our industrial situation. Our greatest evils are not from floods, epidemics or drouths, but from ignorance our wealth, however great or growing, is not in farms or mines or natural re sources, but it is in the forces which may develop these resources. To in crease our industrial wealth we must increase our intellectual wealth. Pig iron is worth $15 a ton nlade into Pig iron is worth $15 a ton made into horse-shoes, $125 into knife blades, $300 inito watch springs, $1,500. That is, raw material $15 brain power, $1,485. The great painter Millet "bought a yard of canvas for 50 cents, By Hon. J. M. Devine, State Super intendent Public Instruction. paid $1.50 for a hair brush, and some colors. Upon this canvas he spread his brain and gave the world the An gelus. The original investment was $2. His brain gave the raw material a value of $110,000. A man digs a ditch at $1.75 per day teach him to read and he learns the law of drainage and is worth $5 per day and the scale upward is limitless, for wealth produc ing capacity everywhere keeps pace with intelligence. Centralization of schools in this state must necessarily come. The high school will be erected in the cen ter of the township and the children of the farm will secure the same ad vantages as to higher education as is given to those who live in cities and villages of the state. Schools with auditoriums for commencements, en tertainments and lectures, township til* tfs9 libraries, well selected apparatus and teachers professionally trained and se curing as a rewaTd for their labor pro fessional wages. North Dakota has about 2,500,000 acres of common school land worth, at the minimum price fixed by law, $25, 000,000. We have sold up to the pres ent time about 230,000 acres. The total purchase price for the land al ready sold is about $3,700,000, yet we have hardly made a perceptible inroad upon this magnificent federal endow ment. The boy is now in the schools of this state who will live to see the permanent school fund of North Da kota reach the enormous sum of $30,- 000,000. Add to this the sum of 670 000 acres of land set aside and held in trust for our higher educational and charitable institutions, land well se lected and located in many of the best counties of the state, and which at the minimum price is worth $6,700,000, all of which to be held as a permanent fund, the interest on which is to go toward supporting and equipping them. This gives some idea of the splendid possibilities of our state in this par ticular respect. The people of North Dakota are intensely interested in edu cation. There are today 2,000 stu- dents in attendance upon our higher institutions. Already they are crowded beyond their capacity and I predict that before ten years shall have rolled away that our university will have an enrollment of 1,000 students, the agri cultural college as many, the Normal schools not less than 600 each and the School for Manual Training not less than 400 or 500. The school year of 1901 closed with 1,300 organized dis tricts, 2,900 teachers who taught 97,000 children and whose combined salaries amounted to $970,000. The total val uation of the school property is about $3,000,000, and the total sum expended during the year for all purposes was $1,987,440.70. This speaks volumes for the intelligence and patriotism of the people of this state and is a record of which the citizens of this common wealth may well be proud. North Dakota offers as good facili ties for the education of the children of the people who come to it as that of the best and oldest states of the union. Speaking of the country along the new extensions of the Soo a recent folder says: "Practically all of this area is rolling, becoming more so as it nears the mighty Missouri. There area number of streams in the valleys TYPICAL NORTH DAKOTA FARM AND STOCK SCENES. in which numerous small farms have been established for years awaiting patiently the time when their neigh borhood might be accommodated by the 'iron horse.' The soil is varied, being chiefly of clay and alluvial soil rich and productice under proper cul tivation and moisture. The crops there grown are unexcelled any where in the northwest. The land in its wild state is covered with a turf of very nutritious grasses which have been a treasure to stock raisers. It is well watered, dotted with lakes from which the buffalo in the past and the cattle in the present slake their thirst, and about which SENATE CHAMBER, STATE CAPITOL BUILDING, BISMARCK. they gather in large herds at various seasons.'* Martin Hanson of Coal Harbor, Mc Lean county, says he has made more off his cows and chickens this winter than he made from his crop last year. He raised 2,400 bushels of wheat last season and said that he did all the work himself except a few days in har vest when he hired a man to help out He believes that this country has a great future before it and is the coun try for a man with limited capital to get a start and become independent. DAILY TRIBUNE SATURDAY FEBRUARY 22, 1902 COLD EAST AND WEST IN NO COUNTRY EAST OR WEST CAN THE WEATHER BE COM PARED WITH NORTH DAKOTA. California friends of the publisher of the Jamestown Capital write that the weather of late has been colder than at any time previously during their residence there, and eastern friends say everything is so covered with sleet and ice that it is almost impos sible to get around at all—and wonder how many feet deep the snow is here and how many thousand head of cattle have perished in the "fierce blizzards" which have "swept the great plains of Dakota"—according to press dis patches. There has not been enough snow this winter for good sleighing more than a few days at a time, stock have run out all winter and gotten almost their entire living from the naturally cured grasses of the prairies, building operations and brick work have gone on uninterruptedly far into January and all winter long land huters have poured into the state and investigated and bought holdings. Think of it, thousands to come into the state dur ing the most unfavorable season of the year, when everything is in its most unattractive garb and, more than pleased with the prospect and possi bilities, have eagerly embraced the chances and secured farms and made preparations to take possession and improve at the earliest date possible. The Pacific, Atlantic and central valley states of the union have been storm stricken and millions of dollars worth of property damaged, while out here under bright and warm skies ev erything has moved along quietly yet energetically, in preparation for the biggest year in the history of the de velopment of the state. Come to North Dakota. After a thorough trial the new loco motive designed to burn lignite coal, and built exclusively for the Washburn road in North Dakota, is pronounced a complete success. Railroad men have watched this test with much in terest, and it is predicted that all of the roads in the lignite region will use the lignite locomotive within a few years. Previous tests of the class of locomotives made in Wyoming were successful, but the test of the Wash burn road is the most satisfactory to the operating men of the various northwestern lines. Officials of the state treasury depart ment announce that the state of North I Dakota is in the best financial condi tion since statehood. There is a cash balance of more than $800,000 in the hands of the state treasurer or depos ited in the several depositaries through the state. A large share of this amount is in the permanent funds of the state, but there is a considerable portion of it in the general fund, avail able for the current expenses of the state. There is a total of $115,000 in the general fund of the state. A part of this sum will be applied to the wip ing out of all floating indebtedness against the state, and the balance will be reserved for the payment of cur rent expenses. In the permanent school fund of the state there is $312, 000 awaiting investment, although the state board of university and school lands has made provision for the in vestment of a share of this sum. For the first time in a number of years the officials of the treasury department are on easy street and are not wonder ing where funds are to come from to meet current expenses. Payments of taxes have been liberal during the last two months. During the month of January the total collec tions by the state treasurer were $385, 191.17. Of this amount, $69,653.81 was collected into the general fund of the state. The sum of $150,479.24 was paid in from the sale of state school lands. Leasings of school lands brought in $16,975. Interest on land sales returned nearly $40,000. Up to the present time in the month of February the total collections to the general fund of the state have been $101,787.41, and the total collections for the month will probably approxi mate $200,000. About $50,000 of the levy of $153,000 for the retirement of the asylum bonds has been paid into the state .treasury. About $25,000 has been paid in during the first half of February for the support of the state educational institutions and the total receipts so far in February have been $256,000. The cash balance in the hands of the state treasurer has increased from $460,000 on January 1 to over $800,000 at the present time, the total increase being about $350,000 in less than two months. A further evidence of the growth and prosperity of the state lies in the large number of new banking institu tions being organized at small towns through the state. In the past few days the secretary of state has issued charters to the following state banks, each with a capital stock of $10,000. Farmers Bank of Souris, John Birk holz, S. S. Titus and Tracy R. Bangs, incorporators. Place of business at Souris. Bottineau county. Kenmare State Bank. Kenmare, J. W. Fox, Howard Dykman and E. G. Valentine, incorporators. State Bank of Dresden. Dresden. P. C. Donovan, W. F. Winter. J. B. Chale. incorporators. First Bank of Flaxton, at Flaxton G. L. Bickford, W. A. Bond. J. O. Han chett and W. E. Burgett. incorporators. State Bank of Rolla, at Rolla Adam Hanna, K. Stensrud. H. Stensrud, in corporators. Kenmare Security Bank, Kenmare E. F. Bonford, E. C. Tolley, W. R. Mc Glenn, incorporators. The Wilton Bank, at Wilton: H. R. Porter. P. C. Remington. Walter Gra ham and Frank Donnelly, incorpo rators. The last call for a statement of the condition of the state banks of the state showed a remarkably large in crease in deposits of the state banks, Another call is expected in a few days and officials predict that a still more flattering showing will be made. The demand for the sale of state school lands continues all through the state, even after the large sales made at high prices last fall. From Cava lier county alone have come requests for the sale of 600 descriptions of land owned by the state schools in that! county. The board will grant only a portion of these requests and has or dered the sale of 250 descriptions of selected land. These descriptions will average about 100 acres each. In Benson county the board has ordered the sale of 100 descriptions. These A number of school districts through the state are preparing to build new school houses and the state board of university and school lands has bought school district bonds to enable them so to do. Among the districts that will build are Buffalo, Cass county, for which purpose bonds of $4,000 have been purchased, and Forest River, In the Best Condition Since Statehood. Over $800,000 in the Treasury. Gossip Prom the Various Departments at the Capitol. Walsh county, bonds of $5,000 having been purchased. Other bonds bought are: Rockford, Ward county, $250 Haaland, Wells county, $1,800 Bu reka, Ward county, $250 No. 85, Cass county, $1,500 Leipzig, Morton coun ty, $600 Sullivan, Ramsey county, $900 James River Valley, Dickey county, $700. The annual report of the commis sioner of agriculture of the state shows a total of 37,331 farms operated in the state in the year 1901, and a total acre age of 7,127,427 under cultivation. The acreage sown to wheat last year was 3,895,957. The flax acreage was 1, 394,737. The corn acreage in the state last year was more than doubled, 151,000 acres being planted against a total of 73,000 acres the year before. Coal mines operated in the staite for the year 1900 are given as 33, with 135,000 tons of product and $108,000 paid out as wages in the mines. The Statistics for 1901 not yet available will show a large increase over these figures—probably double. The state board of university and school lands held its monthly meeting this week, and bought some $14,000 worth of school bonds. The board has had a proposition to buy $30,000 of construction bonds from the state in dustrial school at Ellendale, but as the purchase of these bonds is outside the general provisions of law on the subject and in the absence of a special law. it was impossible for the members of the board to make the purchase. It is probable at the next session of the legislature such a special law will be introduced and passed. Sales of school lands in Cavalier and Benson counties have been authorized to take place about the first of May. The success of the sale of lands in these counties last fall induced the board to hold another sale in the spring. sales will take place in May and there ination and that it will be the largest will be spirited bidding for the lands and they are expected to bring high prices. The judges of the supreme court are enjoying their vacation from duty and preparing for the hard work of the March term of court, which convenes in a few weeks. Among the matters of special interest to come up at the March term are the Voss disbarment case, in which testimony was recently taken at Mandan. The application of L. A. Simpson of Dickinson for re instatement to practice will probably come up also at the March term. Both of these matters are of interest to the western part of the state particularly. In addition to these out of the ordin ary matters there will be the usual number of appealed cases for hearing, and the judges will be kept busy the greater part of the spring and early summer with their work. North Da kota is one of the few states in which the calendar of cases in supreme court is cleared and kept up to date. The officials of the department of public instruction report inquiries coming from all parts of the state with reference to the proposed consol idation of rural schools. This move was set afoot by Superintendent De vine some time ago, and the seed sown appears to be bearing good fruit. The arguments made by the state depart ment in favor of consolidation are that half a dozen school districts may unite in one school house, hire con veyances to carry the pupils to the common school building, institute graded schools, and dispense with the services of half the teachers, the sav ing to be applied to better apparatus and fixtures and the other incidental expenses of graded schools. It is es timated by the state department that three teachers can do the work now done by six if the plan of consolida tion is carried into effect. Steps are being taken to test the method in the near future, and the department be lieves that North Dakota's rural schools will soon be upon the same footing as those of the older settled states, whore consolidation has been tried and found successful. The next teachers examination, con ducted by the state department of pub lic instruction, will take place on the second Friday in March. It is ex pected that from 70 to 1.000 teachers through the state will take this exam- vet held in the state. Examinations for state certificates may be taken at the same time. The new courses of study to be is sued by the state department of public instruction for the common schools of the state is about prepared for the printer, and will be issued about April 1 or before. It will comprise the changes agreed upon by Superintend Devine and the leading educators of the state.