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AN ANSWER FOR THEPUBUSHERS SUMMARY OF THE POSTOFFICE DEPARTMENT'S REPLY TO THE STATEMENT OF THE PERIODI- CAL PUBLISHERS' ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA REGARDING SEC- OND CLASS MAIL. The Periodical Publishers' Associa tion of America recently appeared, by its representative, Mr. G. W. Wilder, before the contmittee on postoffice and post roads of the house of repre sentatives, and submitted a printed pamphlet entitled "An Argument on Second Class Postal Rates Prom' the Business Standpoint Alone." The evi dent purpose of the ipamphlet is to dis credit the estimate made by the post office department as to the cost of transporting and handling second class mail matter. A careful analysis of the contentions made shows them to be erroneous or misleading. Every material premise on which the argu ment is based proves to be faulty, and consequently every important conclus ion reached is fallacious. Tb pamphlet not only discloses a surprising ignorance of the postal ser vice, but, what is still more unfort unate, it shows the lack of essential information readily obtainable. So far as the assertions made in the pam phlet have been given credence, the people have been mislead, and the Periodical Publishers' association owes it to the department, to the public, and to itself, to make proper correction. The Department's Method Misstated. In the icourse of his argument the representative of the association as serts that in arriving at the amount of transportation expenses to be charged against second class matter the department used the figures 6 3 91 as the percentage of weight of sec ond class matter to the total weight of mail carried. This statement is absolutely untrue. The apportion ment, of transportation charges to second class matter was made on the basis of 52.99 per cent, which was computed from the amount of mail and equipment actually hauled and the length of the hauls. The association's representative niakes a mistake also in assuming that the entire amount of second class mail is hauled on railroads, which is not the fact. Length of Haul An Important Factor' iHe also persistently refuses to rec ognise the obvious effect of length of haul, which is the principal element in determining the average cost of transporting a pound of mail. Pos sibly the reason for thlr- is found in the fact that the average haul of mag azines has been shown to be 1,048 miles, and the average haul of daily newspapers only 291 miles. The conclusion that there is no more expense to the government in carrying magazines and average dis-j tance of 1,048 miles than in carrying! newspapers 291 miles, is so palpably wrona: as hardly to deserve comment. I Mr. Wilder's argument is based on the fact that the cost of carrying a pound of mail is greater on certain short, routes, where the weights of mail carried are small, than on many long er lines where weights carried are QMS mfWBfm liikl&wy:iiiiil Cisrcs Colds 1-r?:-.!i3 up a cold .. clc- taj IBU" in a I. Ii cud ci. -vc•-. Ken! :i :. 1 Eicrr.rTSTJSK 1 !er...:r.t 1 t..:.c—nbsc. lately :JU-?r:vl nu.-r-j nnlc-od. LVu't L-c c(i('.«.-- jrMi. jnoss. c:r. !i,i! --t l.-indy ,AUar.:t ci.. Fre S I I Your •'i:fl!':. Ill- I'S, cl t!)*i'*-'. O"1-?". sin, ic ,lie.men in «. SS.OCJ :.-l:rt-S. -M :i Kcrili :,sal: rtvi.iiit.ici.i1. It under our t-'-H:vo ^uaruut*!0. Write for fr-:o Mtinjile nuw. Kondon Mfg. Co. Minneapolis. Minn. C&tMTV: greater. He asserts that "as tbe newspapers are in short hauls they are more than likely in the small weights, and therefore cost the gov ernment a higher rate per pound than magazines." This involves the er roneous assumption that newspapers, because they are hauled a small av erage distance, are likely to be car ried over the short, light weight routes instead of the main railroad lines. As a matter of fact, it is the main lines that enter large cities, where newspapers are published, while the short, light weight routes seldom touch large cities. The fal lacy of the association's whole con tention is conclusively shown by the fact that the entire weight of mail of all classes carried on these short, light weight routes, is little more than ten per cent of the weight of newspapers alone carried on all the railroads. He further contends that the pay for these short, light weight routes ha» an enormous influence in raising the average cost of railroad trans portation per pound. In reality, the total pay for these light weight routes is ony two and one-half per cent of the total compensation for railroad service. Proper Allowance for Equipment The estimates made by the asso ciation's representative as to the amount of equipment required for sec ond class matter are based on the assumption that 75 to 150 pounds of mail are carried in each sack, while the department's figures show that the average weight, of second class matter to the sack is only 40 pounds. According to his own statement he assumes that the pouches used to carry first class mail on trains weigh over 11 pounds, while as a matter of fact pouches of that weight have not been caried on railroads for many years. The heaviest pouch now fur nished weighs less than 4 pounds. He stated that the department made no allowance for equipment, hut charged second class matter on a basis of 63.91 rrer -ent. This state ment is likewise untrue. The de partment was careful to make the proper allowance for equipment. Still more remarkable is Mr. Wild' er's statement that the weight of oouiioment carried in postal cars is 75 times as great as the weight of the mails. He apparently fell into this extraordinary error by taking the department's record of the weight of mail posted at railway stations and on the railway mail cars, which is an insignificant nart of the total amount of mail trans,oorted. If h" had compared the weight of all the mail carried in the cars with the weiuht of the equipment, he would have found that the mail was far heavier than the equipment. ilt is not surprising that an inves tigator capable of making so glaring and so reckless an error as the one last mentioned!, should depart far from fact in his general conclusions. No Additional Cost for Fast Mail Trains. The association's representative de clares that second class matter is be ing charged with added cost of main taining freau nt and expeditious rail road and other transportation servi ces, including the fast mail trains. Evidently he is unaware that the de partment does not pay the railroads any additional compensation for ex ceptionally frequent or expeditious service. Xot a cent addiional is al lowed for the fastest mail train that runs?. Other Transporation Facilities. With equal inaccuracy Mr. Wilder assumes that the cost of foreign mails has been charged against second c'ass matter. Such is not the case. No part whatever of this cost has been so charged. Furthermore, he contends that no part of the cost of star-route and steamboat service should be charged against second class matter, alleging that suieh services are not paid for on a weight basis. 'Both weight and bulk are material factors in determin ing the mode of conveyance in these services, and they therefore affect the contract price. Similarly he claims that no part of tbe cost of mail messenger service should be charged against second class matter, and makes the statement that this service is performed by postmasters ^nd that they are paid far it by the government. Second class matter forms the principal bur den of mail messenger service, mater ially affecting its cost and frequently necessitating the use of vehicles that would not otherwise be required. Th« law absolutely 7rohibits postmasters from being interested in mail con tracts, and frr this reason they can receive no pay for messenger ser vi c. Another statement surprisingly er roneous is that the cost of wagon ser. vf'-e in cities is chargeable only in minor degree to second class mat te- on the ground that the large l'-'hlishors deliver their periodicals at the railroad stations. As a matter of fact only a small portion of the per iodicals is thus delivered. About 20 ner cent of all second class matter in Xew York City is hauled to the Your Good fortune will be if you should secure some of the bargains that we are now offering in furniture and household goods, which I fell for cash or on time pay ment. Look at the bargains we are offering this week in bedroom sets and kitchen cab inets, tables, etc. At E. Faunce's Fourth Street. Philadelphia, Pa., March 3.—When the big general strike of the union workers of Philadelphia, in sympathy with the dissatisfied trolley men was decided upon, the cry "On to the city hall!" was immediately raised. The union leaders declared that they would put squarely up to the city officials tin matter of tying up the city or com pelling the trolley company officials to arbitrate their differences with the men. The city hall was fortified by the heads of the city government as if for a scige. Cots and provisions were placed in the hall ways of the immense structure, and even the of fices were given up for the use of the police reserves. Some of the "Black Hussars," by which name the mount ed state police have come to be known station by publishers, and periodi cals form little over half of this matter. The character and extent of wagon equipment in cities mainly de pends on the volume of second class mail. Th large double wagons are used almost exclusively for such mail. The Claim that Railway Postal Clerks Handle Little Second Class Mail. The association's representative de clares that only 2.13 per cent of the total cost of the railway mail service should be charged against second class matter. This statement shows a woeful ignorance of the railway mail service. Th mistake evident lv arose from a misconception of the meaning of certain technical terms used in the department's reports, re sulting in the erroneous conclusion that only 7.1 per cent of the second clas matter Is handled in the railway mail service. The truth is that about 7.1 wer cent of such matter is han dled. The of the association's fig ures in this regard is best illustrat ed by a practical application of them. An estimate made on that basis would allow for handling onlv an average of one and a half sacks of second class mail on each train. Railway Postoffice Car Service. The representative of the associa tion claims that the apportionment of the cost of railway postoffice car service should be made on the sani' basic as that of the railway mail ser vice. This illustrates his unfamiliarity with the work In railway ostofnc cars. Car service is oaid for on th^ basis of space required for th" hand line: of the mnll. The apportionment of the cost by the dciparfme"t was based on the ner^entage of space re. qired, being 52.9?, per cent for sec ond class matter. It is estimated that if second class ma'ter were not carried and distributed in Ihcso cars 50 per cent of the snncp now paid for would not be required. Compensation to Postmasters, Clerks. Carriers. Etc. •Xo theory advanced by the assor-. iation's representative is more re markable for unsoundness than that| the expense due to salaries of post masters, assistant postmasters, and clerks, charged to second class treat-' ter should be annortioned on the ba sis of the percentage of revenu° from second class matter to the total revo_. pue. This assumed relation between the cost of handling mail matter in nostoffices and the revenue derived from such matter, docs not exist. If it. did exist, no inqnirv would b" n-"c essarv to determine whether th« sev-. eral classes of mail matter were pn''-| ing revenue in proportion to the cost incurred in handling them. On such a theory, if no revenue whatever were derived from second class ma''! it wouKU not °ost anything to handle it in the .nostoffices. In regard to tbe carrier servic th°j argument advanced is equally union-j able. Mr. Wilder assumes that the 1 department charged second class matter for collection, while as a mat-1 ter of fact no charge whatever was made therefor. He states that deliv I ery of second class matter is mad" only as a "by-product" of other 1 classes of mail. Every resident of a city has seen letter carriers loaded BISMARCK DAILY TRIBUNE, FRIDAY MORNING, MARCH 4, 1910. PHILADELPHIA CITY HALL GUARDED MA N WHO HELPED O END LAST STRIKE were placed on guard near the city hall. Among the men buisly engaged in trying to find a solution of Phila delphia's strike troubles, has been down with second class mail. He further asserts that bulk packages of periodicals delivered to news dealers constitute very large part of sec-j ond class mail. In reality they con stitute only a small part, and fur.' thermore the department made full allowance in its estimates for such packages. Again, the association's representa tive asserts that no part of the ex pense for rent, light, and fuel for, postoffrces should be charged to sec ond class matter, but gives no reason for this contention. The amount paid for postoffie" quarters is regnlat-! 1 1 in general by the amount of flooi-1 space required. Owing to tbe great bulk of second class matter a larger 1 percentage of space is needed for its handling than for any other class of mail. There is no good reason why it should not bear a share in the ex pense for rent, light and fuel propor tionate to the amount of handling it receives in postofflces. Rural Delivery a Proper Charge. The association's representative contends also that second class mat ter should not be charged with th" proportionate cost of rural delivery as signed to it by the department, the reason urged being that the rural de livery is "a govern nil'lit a! policv," and is being conducted at a great loss, and. further, that the periodicals have no need of that service. The contention that second class mail should not be charged with th" proportionate share of the cost of rural delivery is most unreasonable, Rural delivery is no more "a govern mental policy" than city delivery, functions, one making delivery to the rural and the other to the city popula These two pervlces perform similar tion. The- department was conserva tive in charging to second class mails 10.2: per cent of the cost of rur d'4 liveiy. Statistics show that 4-"i peri cent of tho piec-s of mail handled in this service consists of second class matter. Were jt not for the rural de, livery service the circulations of the magazines would be materially re duced. Turning a Deficit Into a Surplus. Tbe associations representative states "with proper allowance for ru ral delivery service there is a surplus of over $10,000,000 in all the opera tions of the postoffice." The reason given for omitting rural delivery service seems to be that it is unprofitable. The equal force it might be said "with proper allowance for second class mail there is a surplus! of over $40,000,000 in all the opera-1 tions of the postal service." Even ibe -e were no deficit the fa-t that tlT1! department i« conducting one branch of its business at a loss of $64,000,000 annually would demand attention. Periodicals Never Decroased the Deficit. Tt is inmiied in the association's 1 argument that the decrease in th" deficit between !S7n and 1902 wa? th result of the increase in quantity of! second class mail. This is manifestly faulty, because it associates only two selected facts and totally disregards all other elements affecting the reve nues and expenditures of the service. The demonstrated loss of more than S cents a pound in handling second Senator James P. McNichol, the well known contractor and republican leader, who added very materially in settling the strike of last June. class mail makes it clear that the deficit decreased in spite of, and not because of, the increase in the quanti ty of such mail. The great growth of the profitable business of the de partment during the period icited was more than sufficient to offset the in creased loss from the unprofitable second class mail. During the years referred to in the argument expenditures were decreased five different times by lower rates of compensation for railroad service, and receipts were decreased by reduc tions in postage rates, which occurr ed three times. Every one of these changes had a marker effect on the deficit. Mr. Wilder says that the year in which the department showed its larg est deficit was 190S, when the weight of second class matter decreased 1S, OOO.OOO pounds. fails to state that in 1908 an increase of nearly $12,000. 000 in the salaries of postal employes and the retarding effect of the gener al business depression on the growth of the postal revenue combined to produce an unusually large deficit, notwithstanding the decrease in the quantity of second class mail. A Novel Theory of Cost Keeping. Still another erroneous contention Continued on page 7. THREE Do farmers eat the proper sort of food? The farmer of today buys a much larger proportion of the food that goes on the table than he did ten years ago. It's a good thing that this is so because he has a great variety to select from. He should, however, use great care in selecting for the best results in health and strength. The widespread tendency in the city to increase the amount of Quaker Oats eaten is due very largely to the recent demonstrations by scientific men that the Quaker Oats ted man is the man with greatest physical endurance and greatest mental vigor. Farmers should give this subject careful thought and should increase the quantity oi Quaker Oats eaten by themselves, their children and the (arm hands. 57 North Star Lumber Co. We have been established in your territory for a number of years and have enjoyed having our customers to continue to deal with us. We we are going to ask as a favor not, only to ourselves, but your self as well, that when you are in the market for anything in our line, you come to our of fice and allow our manager to advise with you as to what kind of material is best suited for the purpose you wish to use it for. We endeavor to keep our managers posted on the changes and they are in a position oft en times to suggest to you arti cles that will s°rve you purpose to much better advantage and not cost you as much as that which you often times call for arbitrarily. Give us a chance to serve you and, if the above sugges tion is not clear, allow our man ager to explain to you how he often times can save you mon ey by his advice. ******+**T***^*+***********'****-+** North Star Lumber Co. W. E. Gleason, Local Manager William Erlenmeyer Recommends Cigars that will give entire satisfac tion. "The North Dakota Star" Cigar "The Commercial Club" 10 Cen Cigar sing "Celeste Aida" in the Edison Phonograph The New York Tribune says "Mr. Slezak dominated every scene, and his clarion voice rang out superbly in the climaxes. He sang the Celeste Aida with effect iveness, and the Nile scene with fire and passion, yet always with regard for phrase." Both strictly long filler, band made. Hear Slezak The New York American says: It is but a trifling with words, of course, to say that he was the great est Rhadames that ever appeared on the American Stage. The house was crowded and the standees out in force yet it was Slezak,not Caruso, who sang the principal tenor role." These comments represent the consensus of opinion of all who heard Slezak at the Metropolitan in the role of Rhadames. Could you ask for better evidence of the fact that Slezak is the greatest lyric tenor since the days of Tamagno? 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