Newspaper Page Text
Washington. D. C. April 10—Recog nising the land hunger of the people of the United States and their ght to accurate information in regard to the unoccupied lands of the country, James Wilson, secretary of agrtaul ture, in 1908. directed the chie of the bureau of BO«S of the U. S. de partment of agriculture to begin one of the greatest inventories of our na tional soil resources which has ever been undertaken. The orders were to make a soil survey of the lands west of the 100th meridian, and east or tne Rocky mountains from the Canadian line to the Rio Grande. The work fcar, begun in western North DnKn.tR and during the summer season of uw soil survey pa.ty, in charge cr Mr. Macy H. Lapham, completed the soil survey of 39,540 square miles inJ he western part of North Dakota This comprises an area almost equal in size to that of the state of Kentucky, greater than that of the state of In diana or of the state of Maine, neary iv equaling the size of the state of Ohio, and onlv a little less than the Bizo of New York and Pennsylvania The Passing of the Red Man. For a long time this vast agricul tural empire was unoccupied except by Indians in search of game. With the westward advance of civilization the grazing of cattle and horses dis placed the Indian and the buffalo, and several sharp border wars Anal ly gave the country to the domina tion of the white man. Droves of steers and mustangs were turned out upon the range the year around, with no thought of shelter other than that provided by natuie. Although a lit tle wild hay was occasionally cut to carry the livestock through the worst of the winter blizzards. During the early days of this industry thousands of head of cattle ranged over exten sive areas and the ranchers owned nothing but their livestock and a centrally located ranch house with its corrals. The greatest development of ranching took place in the late 70's and early 80's and the days of the great ranchers were followed by those of the smaller man who grazed from 200 to 600 head of cattle and horses. Some survivors of this re gime still remain in the more out of the way sections where the land is too rough to be utilized for more intensive agricultural prusuits. Conquest of the Prairies. At a somewhat later date sheep were introduced into the country and the industry proved to be very profi table, on account of the splendid nat ural grazing facilities, the excellent water supply, and the comparatively light expenses Involved in herding sheep. Thus the conquest of this great plains region was wroght by the rancher and grazer, preparing the way for the more intensive agricul ture of the crop producer. At an early date trials were made with the pro duction of cereal crops. These fre quently resulted in partial or com plete failure, owing to the use of var ieties unadapted to the soils and the climatic conditions, and also in large part to the crudity of the cultural methods employed. Grain production was merely incidental to the main business of grazing, and under these circumstances one can scarcely won der that no pronounced success met the early attempts. With the demon stration that dry farmed grain would succeed during seasons of average rainfall, a few ranchers who had been disappointed by unusually heavy losses in their herds turned their at tention to farming. With the same vigor which had characterized their ranching operations they turned to the tillage of the land and the suc cess attained by these pioneer farm ers becoming more widely known at the time when the more attractive prairie lands farther to the east had been occupied, the first rush of the homesteaders was made for the prair ies of the Dakotas. Farming Displaces Stockraising. The majority of these early settle ments were made in the vicinity of the larger rivers. Nearly all of the early farms included some bottom land along the river, as well as the upland in the prairies. For twenty years the agricultural settlement of the country had been slowly but steadily progressing and north of the Missouri river farming had almost en tirely displaced the stock raising in dustry during the past few years. Practically all of the desirable lands subject tq iiomestead entry, have been taken up within the past two years and settlement is now making rapid inroads upon the more broken and less accessible lands lying south and west of the Missouri river. The introduction of varieties of wheat which could be grown upon these upland prairies^ with a minimum amount of rainfall during the growing season, and the development of dry land methods of farming, have ren dered available for cultivation thous ands of acres which fifteen years ago were considered to be of no value whatever except for the ranging of cattle and sheep. Agriculture is still in its early stages of development, and the principal crops are those which can be produced on newly broken prairie land by extensive me thods of farming, Wheat, flax, oats, barley and potatoes, together with wild hay, are the principal crops, while emmer, or speltz, and corn are also produced. Between 1892 and 1906, the acreage devoted to wheat production in North Dakota, rose from 2,800,000 acres to nearly 6,000, SOI SURVE REPORT S CONDITIONS IN THE E S A E O NORT A O A the state, cbvered by this solid sur vey. Grain Yields. Under the conditions of extensive farming which prevail, a yield of 12 to 15 bushels per acre of wheat is considered profitable. The average yield for the entire state amounts to 12.65 bushels, and even in the west ern portion, under favorable climatic conditions, yields of 30 to 40 bushels per acre have been recorded. The recent introduction and demonstra tion of the drought resistant macar oni, or durum wheat, has led to an increase in the average yield per acre, and this variety is particularly well adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of the western portion of North Dakota. The ordinary varie ties grown are the Blue Stem and the Red Fife. All varieties produce grains of high quality, which rank high in the market grades of hard wheat. Thus far practically all at tention has been given to the pro duction of spring wheat, although hardy winter wheat varieties are be ing introduced. With, «he present wheat prices the aveiage return per acre is not less than $15 to $16, and the cost of production from breaking the land to threshing the wheat rang es from $7 to $8. Thus, while the net profit per acre is not phenomenal, the production of one or two hundred acres of wheat insures an excellent income to the family engaged in farming in the western portion of J\orth Dakota. Corn is grown to some extent, although the latitude is a little high for any except native varieties, which have become thor oughly acclimated. Next to the hay and grain crops, potatoes rank in importanse. The crop is grown in nearly all parts of the area, the tubers are of excellent quality, and the yield sometimes at tains 150 to 200 bushels per acre. The average yield under the exten sive system of cultivation practiced, is probably not far from 100 bush els. Necessity of Soil Knowledge. Thus far the adaption of particu lar soils to different crops and to varieties of different crops grown, has been little recognized in the haste of occupation and sunjugation of the land. It was the purpose of the soil survey to show definitely the loca tion and extent of the soils of differ ent character throughout the west ern portion of the state, in order that the solid, substantial development of agriculture in the region should be based upon a. fundamental knowl edge of the particular soils which were best suited to the production of each crop. The first step in acquir ing such a knowledge is to ascertain the kind of soil and its location. Then with the progress of settlement and with the development of more specialized agriculture it will be pos sible to correlate the success which any particular farmer secures with a given crop' or with his particular variety of that crop with the soil conditions under which he is working, and a glance at the map will show where the same varieties of the same crops may be grown with equal suc cess throughout the entire territory. In connection with the soil survey, .work, the North Dakota agricultural college and experiment station are conducting experimental farms in all portions of the state and the results of their experiments conducted upon definite soil types will, through the instrumentality of the soil map, be di rectly applicable over the entire 40, 000 square miles of territory covered by the soil survey. Typical Pioneer Has Vanished. Anyone who expects to encounter the typical old time pioneer in these prairie sections, will be disappointed. While many of the new settlers have come poorly equipped with farming Implements, still modern farm ma chinery is in use upon practically all the farms, with the exception of the newest homesteads. A settler has no time to walk at his work, and gang riding plows and disc harrows, seed ers and improved harvesting machin ery are in almost .universal use thru out the section. The level topography of a great part of the region, the uniformity of soil conditions over wide areas, and the large extent of agricultural holdings all necessitate framing on a grand scale. It is no unusual sight to see large gang plows hauled by traction engines. Requirements of the Homesteader The homesteader for the equipment of his 160-acre farm, usually includes a walking plow and a gang plow, a disc harrow, and a spike tooth bar- row, his drill, binder, mower, rake"-perlodp row ni arm Dinner mower rake, wagons, and harness, the total cost of which- will approximate about $600. In addition he must have his team, his small tools, his necessary house hold equipment. To pay for his en tire outfit and his necessary seed, will require from $1,200 to $1,500, and, of course he should have a in hand a sufficient amount of money and a sufficient credit to enable him to loaf until the first crops are harvested. The average farm consists of the 160 acre homestead, but already the more prosperous settlers have begun the purchase of neighboring homesteads and the present tendency is toward larger, rather than towards smaller farms. In the judgment of the soil survey experts an attempt to farm much less than 160 acres, owing to existing con ditions, cannot be recommended in a greater part of the sections, and un less the section consists of land that can be cultivated throughout Its ex- 000 acres, and the wheat production I tent, an even greater area is nec for 1906 amounted to nearly 88,000,- essary. Since this is a homestead 000 bushels. This vast increase both in acreage and in production was due chiefly to the extension of agri culture into the. western portion of country, nearly all the land is tilled by the owners and the renting of farm land has not yet acquired any large place in the farm practice of the region. The price of farm land, of course, varies with its proximity to transportation facilities, with the character of the land, with the amount of rainfall in the region, and with the availability of all the land for culti vation. In the more sparsely settled districts good farming land practic ally without improvements, can still be purchased for $10 to $25 an acre. In the more desirable locations un improvea sod land frequently brings $25 to $30 per acre, while in the old er settled districts good farming land at a moderate distance from towns and railroad facilities is not consid ered expensive at $30 to $50 per acre, depending upon location and improve ments. Rainfall Sufficient. The annual rainfall, except during years of extremely low precipitation, is ample for the needs of all the crops produced, but it is necessa/y to store carefully for the use of the crop all, of the moisture which does fall upon cessfully upon the tends of this sec tion, have been chiefly due to the employment of methods suited only to. more humid regions, while the greatest successes in agriculture have been attended by. a careful ad justment of the methods of cultiva tion, involving systematic rotation of crops, the use of drouth resistant va rities of seed, and the practice of such methods of tillage as tend to increase the capacity of the soils for absorb ing and storing water for crop use. Dry land faming under conditions of minimum rainfall differs so ma terially from the methods ordinarily employed in humid regions, that the new settler should familiarize himself with the very best methods for the tillage of lands and for the preser vation of moisture. He should hold in mind that the moisture stored in the soil prior to the planting of the crop is generally of greater benefit to the growing crop than the hard driving rains of the summer show ers. For this reason the stubble land of the previous year should be thoroughly stirred and loosened by the use of the disc harrow. This can be rapidly and cheaply done and It serves as an efficient check upon the loss of soil moisture from the sur face and at the same time furnish ing a loose, poros layer which greed ily absorbs the winter rainfall. Thru this action the land is also more eas ily plowed in the preparation for the crop at a later date. Fall Plowing. Fall plowing is generally recom mended, since it leaves the ground rough during the winter, in a condi tion better suited to catch and retain the rain and snowfall. Not frequent ly, however,, the ground does not be come sufficiently softened in the fall to permit of plowing it at that time, and then, of course, spring plowing is necessary. The shallow plowing of heavy sod land at first breaking, seems to be most generally success ful when new lands are being broken. The sod is turned over to only a shallow depth and the tough roots and stems of the prairie grass are left ex posed to the weather, resulting in the decomposition of the organic matter. The best practice usually follows with deeper plowing year by year, until a desirable depth of breaking is final ly obtained. Intertilled Crops. The use of intertilled crops also has many things to recommend it. Where the cultivator is ceaselessly run a dry surface mulch is interpos ed between the moist soil surround ing the plant roots, and the dry at mosphere. Then, too, the intertilled crops frequently provide more shade to the surface of the ground than do the cerial grains. Both of these con ditions tend to check the surface evaporation. In extreme cases the practice of summer fallowing, if con sistently carried out, serves to store a sufficient quantity of moisture to produce an excellent crop in the suc ceeding year, but merely leaving the land uncropped without cultivation, is productive of little, if any, benefi cial result. Summer fallowing can scarcely be afforded by the beginner in agriculture in the plains region. He must grow a crop the first year and he must keep at it in order to meet his payments and his annual ex penses. Therefore, the intertilled crop, at least over a considerable por tion of his acreage, is the most de sirable, and for such crops potatoes and corn are the best suited to the region. The North Dakota experiment sta tion at Fargo has produced practically as much wheat during the four year BISMARCK DAILY TRIBUNE, SUNDAY M0RNINQ, APRIL 17, 1910. the soil. The failures to farm sue- within the compact space of 80 page.5 cr0D S of a tion with one in rota crop of corn as could be secured when the land was consecutively cropped to wheat for the entire four years. For the trial an experimentation in the best methods of securing a stand together with the use of only north ern grown seed, will undoubtedly en able North Dakota farmers to intro duce and successfully extend the cul tivation of alfalfa. Inefficient prep aration of the land, and the lack of the best seed, together with slow pro gress in securing the inoculation of the soil, has thus far made the in troduction of alfalfa rather a slow process over the upland portion of the state. The Transition Stage. In the development of western North Dakota the first stage was the replacement of the buffalo by the herds of the rancher. The next step in many localities consisted of the displacement of the herds by the grazing of sheep. This, in turn, has given rise to the displacement of live stock by the farmer who is produc ing grain crops, but already a farth er step in the development of the country is made manifest through the introduction of dairy herds in connec tion with the grain farming. Already in some of the more eastern counties the livestock population almost equ als that of the old grazing days, and with the progressive development of more intensive forms of farming it is probable that western North Dakota will maintain in the near future ful ly as many head of cattle as in the old ranching days and in addition, will be producing grain crops which can only be measured by millions of bushels. Valuable Crop and Soil Report. The soil survey of western North Dakota shows In the form of a litho graph map the area and extent of each of the important soil formations of that sections of the country. Un like the majority of previous soil maps, there is also shown upon this map the topographic character of the surface of the soil and the character of the land, whether dominantly agri cultural or mixed agricultural and grazing, or purely grazing land, being set forth for each township. The report gives an accurate description of every class of soil encountered in the western part of the state. A dis cussion of dry farming methods is in cluded in the report and an account a 0 given of the areas of irrigated which are already being devel- a a 8 ope( along the principal streams, a picture of the soils and soil condi tions, agriculture and agricultural possibilities, and an account of the best methods employed by the best farmers in western North Dakota is included in the soil survey of west ern North Dakota, issued by the bu reau of soils of the U. S. department of agriculture. ARBOR DAY PROCLAMATION. Next to the soil our forests are our most valuable resource, contributing to the making of nearly everything we use in home or profession, regu lating the water supply and water flow of stream and river, warming the cold winds of winter, cooling the hot winds of summer, conserving the mositure for the nourishment of all plant life, and feeding the ever flow ing springs of pure refreshing water giving life, strength and fertility to the soil itself and protection to all animal and bird life. Unlike our other resources, they need not become ex hausted except through our own fault. By united effort we can le sto.e the natural to all its original beauty, and grow forests where the trees have never grown before. Every lot or parcel of waste or unsightly lana in the state should be made a beauty spot, useful and valuable, by planting in trees, and for the purpose of encouraging the planting and growing of forest trees in this state, and in accordance with a long estab lished custom, I do, hereby designate Friday, April Twenty-second, as Ar bor Day for this state, and I earnest ly recommend and request the officers of the different cities and towns throughout the state to unite with the county superintendents of schools, and the superintendents and teachers of the public schools of the state, in the preparation and execution of suitable exercises for and on Arbor Day. And I further recommend and request each free holder in the state to plant as many trees as possible on his own freehold, and let us make this coming Arbor Day a day long to be remembered in the state. Given under my hand and the great seal of the state of North Da kota, at the capitol, this ninth day o- April, A. D., 1910. JOHN BURKE, Governor. By the Governor: ALFRED BLAISDELL, Secretary of State- —State Treasurer Bickford was called to Linton Friday on a busi ness trip. It is expected that he will return this morning. Christ Geiszler of Gackle, wants to be county commissioner in Logan county. Tr Tribune Want Columns. ..I ry ••Ms* CO PPf-R A 1 WORLD-WIDE SEARCH FOR THE BARONESS DE FORRE8T WHO ELOPED. Chicago, April 15.—A search o' this city for Baroness De Forrest, a fav orite at the British -court, and Lieut. H. V. S. Aston of the Second Life guards of England, who two months ago eloped from the county sear, of the baroness near London, has been completed by Henri de Merc'er and Colonel George Boynton, agents of Baron De Forest. They left for Cali fornia, where they hope to find the elopers. A worldwide search has been made for the couple. Represen tatives of the Baron hunted various foreign lands.. Finally it was discov ered that they had come to the Unit ed States, and for the last week the search centered here. Baroness De Forrest, who is 29, vivacious and fond of life, created a sensation in London when she departed with the lieuten ant, who is 21. Baron De Forrest was furious and threatened all sorts of vengeance on Anton. It is thought the desire to revenge himself, more than a wish to get his wife back, is re sponsible for the great expense the -S baron has gone to in his search. Rheumatismit Electropodes Will Cure You Remarkable New Electric Treatment. Light flexible metal insoles—positive and negative—worn inside shoes. Body becomes battery—nerves theconnecting' wires. Blood, brain, muscles, tissues every part is fed a mild and continuous current of life-giving elec tricity—all day long. Positive cure for Rheumatism, Nervousness Neuralgia, Headache, Backache, Insomnia, Lumbago, Liver and Kidney complaints. Price only $1.00. A Positive Guarantee -is signed with each sale. Your money returned if Elec tropodes fail to cure—or if they should, after 30 days trial prove unsatisfactory. If not at your druggist's, send us' $1.00. State whether for man or woman. We will see that you are supplied. W E 249 Los Angeles Street Los Angeles, Cal. *BSJBBMB«^CS»JWBSS»«BSB™B»«BSS«B»«BB| Riverview Addition Grand Opening sale of lots Wednesday, April 27th, 1910 PRICES—From $150 to $500 for lots 50x142 feet. Some odd shaped lots lying right next to the park which are of larger size may be a trifle higher in price. E S --10 per cent discount for all cash, or, if bought on time, 20 per cent cash down, balance in 15 equal monthly payments without interest. An additional 10 per cent discount will be given anyone buying a lot of us who will build a house on it this year. All streets will be 80 feet wide, including a SO foot roadway and a 25 foot park on each side There will be a 16 foot alley in each block. Contractors will start grading the streets and laying sidewalks in a few days. This is the Most Beautiful Addition in the state, conmanding magnificent view of the Missouri River Valley and lying so close to the business center of the fastest growing and best city in the state that a lot purchased at our prices is a very desirable investment, either for residence or speculation. There will be a very pretty Four Acre Park in the addition Our prices are far lower than any in the city considering the location and distance from down town. We cordially invite the public to examine this property at any time. For further information see or write Bismarck Development Company F. E. YOUNG, Secretary FOR SALE AT A BARGAIN. One- Hart-Parr gasoline traction en gine, and two John Deere, three bot tom engine gang plows complete with breaker and stubble bottoms. Write G. W. WOLBERT, HD*W'E. CO., Bismarck, N. D. MothersI Don't fail to procure Mim. Wta slow's Soothing Syrup for your child' ren while cutting teeth. It sooths the child, softens the gums, allays all pain, cures wind colic, and is the best remedy for diarrhoea. Twenty five cent a bottle. PILES CURED IN 6 TO 14 DAYS. PAZO OINTMENT is guaranteed to cure any case of Itching, Blind, Bleed ing or Protruding Piles in 6 to 14 days, or money refunded. 50c. ONE LOCALITY. Following is an extract from a let ter received from Stady, Williams Co., by Prof. H. H. Aaker, candidate for governor: "You stand well out here and I believe you will get a solid support from this part of the state. Ole Halvorson, N. D." Williams is the county in which Prof. Aaker is least acquainted, and the letter came from a stranger and unsolicited. Quotations from letters of similar im port could be run indifinitely. (Adv.) Candidates should purchase thefr petition blanks at the Tribune. We have the approved form. Try Tribun Want Columns. I Before buying a Traction En gine examine "The Dakota Gas Tractor." All steel gears. Three speeds—1£, 24, and 4 miles an hour. Sold by F. Jaszkowiak Bismarck, H. Dak.