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The Bismarck Tribune
An Independent Newspaper THE STATE S OLDEST NEWSPAPER (Established 1873) Published by the Bismarck Tribune Company. Bis marck. N. D., and entered at the poetoftice at Bismarck M second class mall matter. Qeorge d. Mann President and Publisher Subscription Rates Payable In Advance Daily by carrier per year •J-J* Dally by mall, per year (in Bismarck) 7.20 Dally by mall, per year. (In state, outside Bismarck) Dally by mall, outside of North Dakota Weekly by mall, in state, per year 100 Weekly by mall. In state, three years for 8.50 Weekly by mall, outside of North Dakota, per year 150 Member Audit Bureau ot Circulation Member of The Associated Press The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use tor republlcatlon of all news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this newspaper and also the local news of spontaneous origin published herein. All rights ot republlcatlon of all other matter herein are also reserved. Foreign Representative., SMALL, SPENCER & LEVINGS (Incorporated) Formerly O. Logan Payne Co. CHICAGO NEW YORK BOSTON (Official City, State and County Newspaper) DEADLINESS OF LAUGHTER Pear of physical danger Is not such a terribly hard thing to overcome. The human race is fairly sturdy, and brave men are not uncommon. But the man who is not afraid or ridicule is a rare person; and when he appears on the scene he is almost certain to make a stir. Unluckily, we don’t usually recognize that kind of bravery. The word *’crank” slips off our tongues too easily; once we apply it to a man he Is blasted and his steadfast bravery can never hope for a nod of recog nition. In the city of, Massillon. O, there lives a man whose very name has been a folk-lore comic picture for more than 30 years. His name Is Jacob S. Coxey—and the famous Coxey’s army of 35 years ago has been looked upon for a generation as one of the low comedy inci dents in our national drama. Yet this man Coxey. who is now getting ready to go on a tour of the country to speak for a new paper money proposal he has devised, is a man of rare courage. He is not in the least afraid of being laughed at. And we. who enjoy laughing at him—well, how many of us can say that about ourselves? The ability to withstand ridicule gives a man an al most dangerous power. For laughter is our deadliest weapon. When everything else in our arsenal fails, laughter usually succeeds. The man whom it can't hurt is apt to go a long way. It doesn't matter in the least whether you agree with Coxey’s ideas or not. His money scheme may be a stroke of genius or it may be a brainstorm. That, for the purposes of this discussion, is irrelevant. The point is that Coxey, who has been laughed at for 35 years and who is ready to go out and be laughed at again, is a mem ber of a great brotherhood; the brotherhood of cranks, fanatics, clowns—and world-changers. Stonewall Jackson was the laughing stock of the Con federate armies for months; but before he died any southerner would cheerfully have shot the man who dared so much as smile at his gaunt, angular personality. Lincoln excited the titters of all of Washington’s better people when he first entered the white house; but now his graven image looks out of a classic temple toward the Washington monument, and people enter with bared heads. Roosevelt, the ‘‘dude cowboy,” drew a perfect salvo of ridicule when he entered politics, and today the children of the men who laughed at him speak his name with a reverent, wistful admiration. 80 it goes. Laughter has killed off many a cause, good and bad, and has sent many a leader to the scrap-heap. But when you find a man whom laughter doesn’t hurt watch out for him. THE MURDEROUS SUBMARINE The tragic loss of the British submarine H-47 with 22 of its crew has revived in Europe and here agitation for the abolition of undersea craft. This disaster and those that have preceded it create a strong doubt that the wartime usefulness of aubmersibles compensates for their vulnerability in times of peace or justifies the costly and exacting burden of their maintenance. America and England would have abandoned use of the submarine some years ago had not the lesser naval powers refused to go along. The latter argue that the relatively inexpensive submersibles enable them to main tain an approximate parity of naval strength with na tions with longer pocketbooks. Perhaps they can be ex cused for their suspicion that it is because of this that the great powers favor junking all submarines. These undersea tragedies will serve a good purpose if they intensify the intentions of the world to be done with such purely murderous devices. No nation remembering the horrors and brutality of submarine warfare as it was prosecuted in the World war advances reasons justifying opposition to the anti-submarine program. And, after all, the submarine ceased to be an effective war machine during the last years of the World war. Gunfire, depth bombs and accident made the life of the German submarine crews as hazardous as they had made life aboard surface vessels during the early years of the "sinking without trace” submarine program. FIST FIGHTS AND BASEBALL Rowdyism on any athletic field is, of course, a thing to deplore. It is distressing, unsporstmanlike, and all that sort of thing. And yet—well, no dyed-in-the-wool base ball fan will be sorry to read that Hack Wilson of the Chicago Cubs and Ray Kolp and Pete Donohue of the Cincinnati Reds felt impelled to use their fists on one an other after a recent game in Chicago. The only serious complaint against baseball in late years has been that the players had lost the old-time enthusiasm that made the game interesting. In the dayp when TV Cobb, Kid Elberfeld, Frank Chance and Bill Carrlgan were in their prime big league baseball wgs for ever Skirting the edges of fisticuffs. Nowadays it is more refined and gentlemanly—and, sometimes, much lees ex citing. But the fan can take heart when the players f«t to fighting. Ball players do not fight unless they are ter ribly ip earnest about the game itself. And when they feel that way, they are pretty sure to play interesting baseball. TO ‘PURIFY* WASHINGTON The Lord’s Day Alliance—including Bishop James Can non. JT., late of Wall Street—piously beseeches President Hooter to establish a "Blue Sunday” in Washington “as n moral example do the country.” The president might set n moral example fir this Sabbatarian organisation by yiflMtaw to aa—mi pesnooal responsibility for the set gith-dap behavior of the nation. Inndn observance is not a matter of morals. Many BMeni with unimpeachable morals welcome the recrea wml spportnnlhse of a liberal Sunday, and Intolerance Spfthan «nd thlr preferences aan be and often are car* pg'fi HxtoTx ’’ J ' * i » •* m'- v . m • %-•- . the chief executive is not the arbiter of the morals of the nation nor any part of it. There Is no constitutional power for him to dictate Sunday observance. Neither Is the manner in which Washington observes the Sabbath a matter for presidential concern or con gressional action. Are the president and members of congress, who to the national capital are outlanders, to step in and tell the people of the District of Columbia what they may and may not do with their one day a week of surcease from labors? It seems to those possessed of the real Christian spirit that here is one of those times when the decision should be left to those directly affected, and Washington has shown no hankering for a “Blue Sunday." Though only Just past the half-way mark, the year 1929 has produced more than its share of Infant prodi gies. Refuting the pro old-age arguments and claims of Henry Ford, youth has been accomplishing things, re markable things. For example, there is Jack Berry, nine-ycar-old Los Angeles wonder, who convinced a judge and Jury that he knew more than they did of what they were talking about. On the other side of the continent is an infant who is an expert swimmer and diver at an age when most youngsters are crawling on all fours. Probably the most notable of the year’s crop of prodi gies Is Betty Ford, who at the age of 17 graduated from Stanford university. At the age of eight she was the author of 100 poems and 75 stories, had read nearly 1000 books and had a vocabulary of 13,000 words. Old heads shake with cause. They foresee the time when adult authority must shift from superior knowl edge to such difficult achievements as wisdom and Judg ment. for the Infant prodigy has not yet been found who can put to rout the wisdom and judgment of gray heads. THE DANGERS IN SPEED Major George A. Parker, state registrar of motor ve hicles for Massachusetts, points out that the average speed of automobiles on Massachusetts highways has in creased 10 miles an hour in the last two years, and be lieves this is an important factor in the steady increase in traffic accidents. “Probably the vast majority of motorists have not the slightest idea of the potential striking force of their cars, and they go blissfully on their way until they bring up against a bridge-head, a tree or a telegraph pole," he says. Major Parker remarks that most drivers who come to grief while traveling fast try to alibi themselves. They will blame a bump in the pavement, a slippery road or a too-sharp curve—never realizing that their own speed was the primary factor in the accident. Fast driving is all right, provided that you remember that high speed calls for Increased care and forethought. Mishaps that are unimportant at 20 miles an hour become extremely dangerous when the speed rises to 40. SHOOTING AT THE LEE’S RECORD Two fast motor yachts will leave New Orleans some time this month in a race to St. Louis, in which they will try to break the record set in 1870 by the famous old river steamer Robert E. Lee—9o hours and 31 minutes for the 1250-mile course. We wish these sporting yachtsmen all kinds cf luck, of course—but somehow we can't help harboring a sneaking hope that the Les s record stands unbroken. A motor yacht is a thing of beauty and a joy forever, to be sure. But the Lee’s record is part of the great tradi tion of the river. It belongs to the packet boats. It has stood for nearly 60 years; and lovers of the river would not mind if it stood for 60 years longer. A physician attributes the fact that today a woman of 40 “looks 20” to her habit of “casting away superfluous clothes." If the process is progressive it may not be long before she'll look like a mere child. It is said that 400 out of every 1,000 Americans weigh too much, but those folk do not cause half the disturb ance of that other large proportion which weighs too much in its own imagination. Sometimes we fear the world is headed for destruction, and then we read the ads in “confession” magazines and don't care if it is. Forgiveness: The feeling that remains when time dulls the edge of resentment and you no longer give a darn. Editorial Comment COMPULSORY WHEAT POOLING (St. Paul Dispatch) Delegates to the semi-annual meeting of the Saskatche wan wheat pool at Regina debated with some heat on a resolution that called upon the provincial government to give the pool sole control of the marketing of wheat within the province. The debate indicated that discus sion of the issue had been widespread among the mem bers of the pool. There was agreement over the desire to have a 100 per cent pool of wheat growers and that it is unfair that the non-pool farmer should profit from the benefits created by the pool. But many of the delegates opposed the idea of legislative compulsion, expressing a preference for moral suasion and voluntary co-opera tion. A definite campaign is now being conducted in Sas katchewan to gain support for legislation that will cause all grain produced to be marketed through the wheat producers’ organisation. Thus the issue of the equaliza tion fee proposed in the McNary-Haugen bill comes in another form in Canada. There each farmer would be assessed the fee on each bushel now paid only by pool members and in addition his.grain could be marketed only by the pool. In the United States the fee alone, was to be levied on each bushel and the marketing of the product rested with the farmer. Canada has gone so far in government aid and direction of handling and market ing of farm products that it may yet adopt in the 100 pfcr cent wheat pool the principle of the McNary-Haugen equalisation fee. TILDEN FADING FROM TENNIS PICTURE (Minneapolis Tribune) The matches at Wimbledon definitely confirm the sus picion, which has been rather generally entertained for months, that Big Bill Tilden’s days as a tennis star of the first magnitude are nearing the end. The Ameri can player, who was unbeatable in his prime and whose ngaae has been synonymous for years with the most bril liant *nd scintillating court play, was defeated in straight sets by the Frenchman Cochet, and by such a formidable margin of games as to leave little doubt that he was com pletely outclassed. The pusing of Tilden will be a matter of keen public re|ret, for the lanky tennis ace. despite his eccentricities, a colorful and popular figure. The termination of the prolonged period of Tilden dominancy. however, has something more than a sentimental significance. Its Poetical significance, as far as the United States is con cerned, lies in the fact that this country apparently has not produced his successor. At present we can probably boast of more tennis players per 100.000 capita of popu lation than at any previous time, but among them there is not to be found one whose tennis genius even approaches that of Tilden in his palmiest days. There is every reason to believe that Prance as a re sist, with a galaxy of stars which includes Cochet Berotra and LaCoste, will rule supreme in the field of in ternational competition for some time to come, barring the unexpected flashing across the American tennis hor iwm of some phenomenal player. Meanwhile, however, the total loos of our tennis prestige is not even a remote possibility so long as Min Wilis upholds the traditions ol America abroad. If she can carry on, in her usual bril liant manner, until another Tilden appears, she will be doing much toward relieving the acute melancholia which dispatches from Wimbledon, relating the disastrous routMth* ones incomparable Big Bill, must inevitably PRODIGIES THE BISMARCK TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, JULY 16, 1929 Another Game in Which You Can Make a ‘Hole-in-One’! "Not speaking” seems to be a rath er occasional form of would-be mar ital punishment, one to the other. Now we hear tell of Mr. and Mrs. Curtis Zimmerman of Fayette county, Pa., who. after 40 years of married life which included the having and rearing of 15 children, have engaged in a no-speaking contest for over four years. It seems that Pa Zimmerman came home from a hard day’s work one night in 1925, started an argument with his good woman; the argument waxed hotter and hotter, and as a finale Pa Zimmerman opined that he would be just as happy and in a general state of well-being if the good wife would entirely discontinue speech with him. A silence agreement was drawn up, with five children as the witnesses. Since that night not one word has wife spoken to husband, or husband to wife. If it is imperative that one word of so be transferred one to the other, it is written on paper, and one of the children gives it to the other parent. Even when the wife needed money, she managed to keep silent, and transferred the request in writing through a child, and event ually the same request got in the courts. Though the story is funny, it is in finitely more tragic—tragic not only in this individual instance, but in it as a symbol of so many marriages, once fair and constructive, which can corrode into a travesty of marriage like this—all the more tragic because the married state is retained rather than broken. It is unusual—in fact, impossible— for personal pride to be stronger than love. When two people can cling to a non-speaking contest, it merely means self-love, a retaining of the mar riage because of convenience, rather than love of the other. Speaking of the wonderful paternal instinct, as I occasionally do, here’s papa David Bernstein of New York, sentenced to three years in the pen \ £jrALLENE SUMNER * * * “TELL YOUR PAW” * * * NOT SO FUNNY! S|( )|c 9|c PAPA’S LITTLE MAN OUR BOARDING HOUSE for renting out his 7-year-old son Sol omon as a beggar. It seems that every morning dear papa would strap little Solly into a wheel chair in such a way that he seemed paralyzed. He would rent out the boy and chair for $3 a day to such beggars as could use him. j|e :«j ;jc TtVO COMMENTS To say that only a father could do this and a mother, never, is as ob vious a comment as it is untrue, though, of course, the child-exploiting mother would always be rarer than a father. But one wonders at that if little Solly endured any more than some of these child prodigies who arc forced to practice the violin or piano ten hours a day so that papa can have a nice income, or are forced into be ing child stage stars. WHY? “Woman’s place?” Women are re placing; men as stewards on many of the ocean liners. Officials say they are not only cheaper to hire, but more courteous, efficient, reliable, and generally satisfactory. But what a yowl the not-so-good deposed stewards will make about "women taking men's jobs at lower salaries,” and all that. It will never occur to them that they themselves and not economic change had some thing to do with the innovation. * * * SAME WAY Miss Anne Marie Proessl. 34. of Munich, Germany, and Gottfried Ruppe, 39 of Canton, 0., were mar ried a few hours after meeting for the first time. Their marriage fol lowed a five-month correspondence. There were photographs, of course. Mail order romances are really un usual only when the participants send photographs not their own, or no photographs at all. A mail courtship is as dependent on personal appearance for arousing emotions rather than on disposition and character as exhibited through actions or letters, as is any romance. Looks count most. ALWAYS BELITTLIN’ While crossing a railway bridge a small boy was astonished to see two trains running on the same line and about to crash head-on. He stood and witnessed the smash. Later, some officials, l aming that there had been an eyewitness, found the lad and asked: “What were your thoughts at the time of the crash?” “Well,” the boy answered slowly, “I thought it wr.s a rotten way to run a railway.”—Tit-Bils. *Bm MB? 1 ; FH C RAyr Id Itlh tp DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA On July 26,1790, congress passed an act which provided for the location of the federal capital in “a district or territory, not exceeding 10 miles square, on the River Potomac be tween the mouth of the Eastern Branch and the Conogocheague.” The site today is known familiarly as the District of Columbia. Inci dentally, it is believed to be the same site where stood the famous Indian village of Powhatan which Captain John Smith visited in 1608. Location of a permanent capital led to many furious debates immediately after the conclusion of the Revolu tionary war and final choice of the banks of the Potomac was in the na ture of a compromise and also in deference to the wishes of George Washington. The first session of congress was held there in March, 1800. Thomas Jefferson was then president. “Looking ahead but a few years, one may reasonably visualize airplane postoffices, the mail being picked up, sorted and discharged in much the same fashion as is now done by rail* roads.”—Robert P. Lament, Secretary of Commerce. * * * “Don't reserve your manners for your friends. Give them an airing in the office and half the bugaboos of drab routine will vanish like thin smoke in the air.”—Helen Hathaway. (Liberty.) * * “If President Hoover's National Commission on Law Observance and Law Enforcement were to turn the whole problem of dealing with con victed criminals over to the psychia trists. the psychiatrists would find themselves unable to offer an immed iate solution to the problem, and I for one would not wish to attempt it.” —Dr. Elwood R. Kirby, Philadelphia physician and psychiatrist. * ¥ * “After we get plenty of business ef- By Ahern HEALIH4HET ADVICE Dr Frank McCov * OUKtnONS IN JKGMO TO MKAtTHtDIEr Ml IMONIKO »mj*mvwomMAMmMDrnouKOfTmmm MOCIOMM ST*HP*O*OM*SSMO fO* "THE FAST WAY TO HEALTH” TRY ALFALFA To many people the idea of a human eating alfalfa will seem ridiculous, as we are so accustomed to considering it as being food for horses, cattle and rabbits. However, experiments have proved that all alfalfa is also good for human beings, as it contains all the known vitamins and is alkaline-form ing enough to make it a protective food against acidosis. For years chemists have been work ing to prepare a food of alfalfa which would be suitable for human use. The fault lies that alfalfa in its dried state does not have a very agreeable taste and so the foods placed on the market containing this leafy vegetable have been made with too much sugar or molasses which is usually incompat ible with the ordinary foods used at a meal. Some candy factories have made al falfa into candy for children be cause of the richness of vitamins in the alfalfa. Finely pulverized al falfa flour mixed with white flour has been used in the form of cakes, muffins and cookies. In these forms, the flavor is quite palatable, although some people object to the slight green ish color. For several years I have been ad vising my patients to cat alfalfa if they could get it fresh, as both the leaves and blossom make a delicions addition to a combination salad. A dental authority has stated, “Alfalfa is especially rich in vitamins and iron which are important in keeping the teeth firm and strong. The American people should eat 15 per cent more vegetables for lunch and dinner and more dairy products. The introduc tion of alfalfa as food for humans may be a great boon. This may be developed in a very short time, and the scientist who produces food from alfalfa will be doing the world a vast service.” The tender leaves and blossoms, picked in the sun and dried in the shade, make an excellent tea com parable with the most aromatic of Oriental teas and without containing the injurious tannin and thein of common tea. The acreage devoted to alfalfa is steadily increasing year after year. It is used extensively for feeding cattle. The milk from alfalfa-fed cows is b-und to be more than usually rich in vitaminsgand since milk is ordinarily deflcientiin iron, this is important, since the amount of iron in milk is increased by using alfalfa for feeding. Alfalfa contains a fair amount of protein, carbohydrate and fat, and ficiency in America, I hope there will be a crusade to go back to the doc trines of our fathers on the right of every human to regulate his own life as he sees fit.”—Clarence Darrow. * * * “A little alteration in the United States system of administering crim inal justice, such as limiting technical pleas and narrowing down jury chal lenges, would result in the system working more efficiently.”—C. F. Jamieson. (Plain Talk.) ♦ * * “We have no statistics of unem ployment that are* worth shucks. With regard to the hazard of industrial employment, which ravels life and livelihood as devastatingly, we have left things at loose ends.”—Paul V. Kellogg, editor. The Survey. BARBS Professional parachute jumpers make good incomes, but not all peo ple should lower themselves to do it. * * * Boys will be boys and old women will be girls. * * * s A wealthy New Yorker left his for tune to a woman who had rejected him. Who said there is no gratitude? * * * A Denver man told the police he had lost his canary the other day, so they sent out the flying squad. * * * A new radium-tipped pencil enables a man to write down his thoughts in four colors. A big demand is reported from golfers. * * * Now that we have talking sign boards tourists soon will have to start wearing earmuffs. (Copyright, 1929, NEA Service, Inc.) ♦ - ...» ...» | Our Yesterdays I FORTY YEARS AGO Martin Hector, Fargo business man, is spending a few days in the city. Superintendent McCabe and Attor ney Bullitt of the Northern Pacific are here on business. Mr. and Mrs. E. W. Cowen, who have been in the city for the past two weeks, left for St. Paul. Mr. Cowen is agent for the Associated Press. A resolution has been introduced in the constitutional convention by Mr. Btevens, providing for only one house of legislature. TWENTY-FIVE YEARS AGO A. P. Lenhart, Washburn, was in Bismarck today on his way to Fargo for a few days’ visit. O. P. M. Jamison, Portland. Ore., who lived in Bismarck several years ago. is spending a few days here'with old friends. W. A. Dillon, A. L. Woods, J. H. Marshall, and Murdock McKenzie are attending the Masonic ceremonies in Mandan. Mrs. Kupitz visited her daughter, Mrs. Anderson, at Fort Yates this week. TEN YEARS AGO Major Frayne Baker, who recently returned from France, has been ap pointed a member of the highway commission by Governor Lynn J. Frazier. Miss Cora Simpson has gone to Dickinson to spend some time visit ing relatives. Miss Katherine McGgrvey leaves today for Detroit Lakes, Minn., where the large proportion of crude fibre is especially valuable in providing bulk for the intestines. Most people use a Dr. McCoy will gladly answer personal questions on health and diet, addressed to him, care of the Tribune. Enclose a stamped addressed envelope for reply. diet entirely deficient in cellulose containing foods. Alfalfa is also wholesome when stewed as greens, but most people ob ject to its strong taste. The fact that chemists are work ing cn alfalfa flour and various al falfa products may bring about its development as a recognized human food within the next few years. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Rheumatism Question—Mrs. H. J. writes: “No matter how much work I do, I do not seem able to perspire. Also, I suffer a great deal from rheumatism.” Answer—Those who have any kind of rheumatism always have difficulty perspiring. I believe this is due to the rheumatic toxemia which seems to poison the body to such an extent that the pores of the skin do not open freely. If you will get rid of your rheumatic poison through diet ing, and increase the health of your skin by frequent bathing, you will soon find that you will begin to per spire freely. When copious sweating finally starts, it is a sure sign that you have reduced your rheumatic diathesis, and you will be well on the road to recovery. Wasting Diseases Question—H. B. M. asks: "With what diseases does one lose flesh and strength?” Answer—Tuberculosis, cancer, and most of the deficiency diseases, such as scurvy, rickets, etc. Growth on Spine Question—Mrs. K. L. asks: “Would you suggest the orange fast alone for a growth on the spine under the in testines?” Answer—An orange juice fast is al ways indicated in the treatment of any abnormal growth where an oper ation is not advisable. If the growth is not cut out, it must be absorbed and eliminated through the blood stream. Fasting relieves the body of the burden of assimilation and the building of tissues, and gives the bod ily forces more chance to eliminate toxins or any abnormal growths. (Copyright, 1929, The Bell Syndicate, Inc.) she will spend two weeks at the lake resorts. Rev. H. C. Postlethwaite has re turned from a trip to Hazelton and Plymouth, Pa., where he visited rel atives. 1 UNLUCKY HOUSE London.—There is a house in Cov entry that is shunned by all couples contemplating marriage. The first man who bought it was engaged to be married. After he bought the house the girl broke the engagement. The second buyer, likewise, was engaged to be married. His intended bride broke the engagement. The house is at present empty. PLAYS NO FAVORITES London.—Blindfolded justice plays no favorites, and that is why one of England’s bluebloods, the Countess of Harrington, had to pay a fine for a bad motoring record. Dangerous driving, obstruction and driving with out license brought her before magis trates who fined her about $25. THIS IS NO JOKE Aberdeen. No longer will the Scotch bear the brunt of “tight” jokes. Lord Provost Lewis' recent ac complishment will to some extent al lay all such stories. In two years he has collected from citizens more (2,000,000 to build a new infirmary. One woman had to be dbumaded from drawing out her life savings of $250 to give to the cause. VETOES WHIP Wlt.f. Honolulu.—(AV-Gov. Wallace R Farrington has let die by pocket veto a bill providing whipping for men who commit crimes against women. The executive explained that the measure resulted from “spur-of-the moment desire to do something radi cal” after a recent wave of such crimes. INDEBTED TO HER Grand Rapids. Mich.—A nice fat hen, which Mrs. Theodore Greiner re cently killed for the family dinner, brought more than a satisfied feeling to the stomachs of the family. On killing the hen she found in its giz zard the diamond she had lost from her engagement ring six years before. One billion in France or the United States is one thousand million, or 1.000,000,000. In England and Ger many it is one million million, or 1,000,000,000,000. Flapper Fanny Says: mm. u.«. war, err. Some people are all wrapped up tr Mead* and ether* are jut rapped. '•> v i f V ‘V.