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V jj lowardsM How Windows Are Being' Put Into the Side of Kilauea, "the Most Spectacular and Continuously Active on Earth, First Stex3 Toward Tapping Its Tre mendous Heat and Energy. Ti 'HE dragon that lies under the rocks nnd bleak, twisted lava of Kllauca and as every serious-minded Hawaiian knows snouts forth flame and ushes and steam when affairs on the island are not to his liking, is about to bo routed out. Science knows strange disregard for omnipo tent creatures who shake the earth with their wrath and hurl red-hot stones upon vineyards and cocnanut groves. Accordingly a stcainhoveI, hydraulic probe, compressed air machines, nnd all the other trappings that have penetrated the fastnesses of other mountains and conquered the depths of the earth beneath cities and mighty rivers soon are to be set up at the side of ono of the most constantly active volcanoes in all the world. And if it proves that a fiery dragon in deed lies curled at the bottom of the grotesque pile, the group working under direction of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory are more than likelv to drag him out by the tail for the islanders who have suffered from his evil disposition to demolish as they see fitl It may a? well bo understood at once, however, that thir scientists are not looking for dragons. What they expect to discover is a method for put ting to practical use- the steam, gas and energy thoy now believe to be stored inside of the grim old smoking mountain. The proiect of setting Kilatiea to work is the most terrific of the age. It is more gigantic in one way than even the conquest of the air, since science in that engagement worked with an ele ment that at least was not virulently antagonistic. Mastery of the mountain means a long fight Mildred Leo Clemens. Cousin to Mark Twain, Who Hiked Her Way Across the Smoking Mountain in Hawaii Although t Momently It Might Have Erupted. 'sv . . smm-tf ' writ, , 57) III fj ..iif.i;...i.r'VlV,'lTltir ,,. l J1 VV!, ,.,,mmm,,,n,imf,,,W!lltv, n.KVVyjwfTI,fV!f,V:j,rvr mm ,, hrsMove ' -WlitSISMi Orator FT ' W T?3 -rAm as the m&&- a ' T ? QSP0ff Pictorial (I) 1789-Wipcd out pari of t!u, army of mMU 'M ttp 3f ---iMMF Conception of Keona, a Hawaiian chief, ami burned their - IM rf::'l 0H' 'ience Proposes vc and children in death with a blast of CM 0 .-x&P yj&k& 10 lunnel Heneath the uiphuru buh, a uliowcr ol incanotscftu 1.1 u against clouds of scalding steam likely to bo re leased without warning; it means braving the horror of the deadliest of known gases; chemicals so at variance with the human body as to cause instant death if the smallest particlo penetrates the lungs. It also means constant danger of beingcrushed beneath rocks hurled with the force of gtin-fire, and burtiud to death under uhuwera of red-hot ashes nnd lava. The heads of the Hawaiian Volcano Observa tory, who plan to supervise the work on the ground are nothing daunted by peril! They will betrin by boring through the great sulphur walls whL-h form the sides of the mountain, and again thnugh the deposits in the actual floors of tho craters. By this means they will find it possible j uninmc Pictorial Concention of How Science Proposes tunnel Heneath the Craicrntwl ! r..... the Chamber of Gases and Fire of Kilauea Which (he Photograph Above Shows in Actual Eruption. to measure the heat at various levels and to de termine the quantity of steam at intervals. Also the mineral nature of the formation will be re vealed, i .ItiW1Je onY n fcw 'Pars "Tf t,lnt many physl cJste held to the theory that tA- earth ie a molten hall covered by a thin crust of ground. It was bclievod that volcanoog wore merely vents to this great inner fire, and being connected with the in terior mass of moHf.ii rock were, ina sense, con nected with each other. 1 It hag been derided now, however, that the earth it a solid body and volcanoes venti of groat Interior lake of molten matter. There is, there fore, no common centre for all the volcanoog of tho earth. Another theory long hold is that a volcano was virtually a steam engine. The presence of bodic of steam under influence of great heat and presfur- va supposed to account for the blowing oif of the head of the mountain from time to time. But observations from the station in Hawaii show that force could not of iUelf be sufficient to ci4use such tremendous upheuval, since the quantity of steam i limited. It it to tap the heat and energy stored in this steam that plpos will Ik; run through the earth to conduct an end less supp.y to points where it might be -I 1 1 L . . ufu iu neai noust and run ongmus. Other conduits will be run from Kilauea, if plans work cut, for the purpose of carrying boat. This u a more obscure project than trans porting steam, since less is under. stood of the store of warmth. Ob servations made in many parts' of the world indicate that the temperature riso with amazing rapidity on the downward way. The rate of increase is so rapid on a one-mile lcvol that, if it increases accordingly ut a five or ten-mile depth, the earth's surface will be de cided a mere shell over great interior bourcoa of beat. It now is stated with some certainty that Xmtpvrt i'eutur Sml, I'jtt, rv.iiauea s Most Spectacular Eruptions (1) 1789 Wiped out pari of tin, army of Keona, a Hawaiian chief, ami burned their wiu-s and children to death with a blast of sulphuroUH gas, a shower of incandescent embers and clouds of heated steam. (2) 1810 Projected laa tu a height of sixty feet from top of dome. (3) 1808 Was accompanied by earth quakes and great Iosh of life. (1) 187!) Knocked tho bottom out of the crater. 1880 Repeated itself no often that there were forty-one eruptions and earth l unites during the year. there is a complicated labyrinth of passagoa be low the pround in which the heat varies. With the top of KiUuen covered with power houeet enginos, workmen's shacks, tool shads and till the other signs of industry, ronmnco and ad venture will b driven a little farther into th place where outworn thinR go. For since Mark Twain brought the strange corners of the Ha waiian Islands before an interested public In hi "Houghing It," the volcano has bean a goal of tourists, specially feminine ones. Mildred IOo demons, nmsin of the humorist, was one of the most recent explorers of Kl'auua. A gmduute of the University of California and well known as a locturer and writer, she made a pilgt imago to the smoking mountain with a com pany of native guides, after visiting the extinct volcano Ilolekala on the Island of Maui. Shu climlod to tho top of tins mountain, 10,082 eot, and descended into the bowl. Walking the seven nnd a half mi'e across, she emerged through a gap which really was a fissure in cooled lava. Jack Iondon, Alice Roosevelt and a few other nature lovers have made this SBme perilous trip. And by the wav -it must be admitted that dmd old Vesuvius, wbi,:h has smokod complacently above tho Hay of Naples since Koine was in its glory, is a clow rival for popularity with tho Hawaiian mountain. Despite the nu.v activity of Voauvius, which began last February, women al most daily are climbing as hostile sides and peer ing into the glowing crater. Since February a new cone iias formed which ejects u stream of Java 30 feet wide and pours out masses of reddish smoke and red-hot sini "s. The floor of the cra ter, which i' yellow with -ulphur, is over a rpjar tcr of a mile acus and nr-re tnan -00 feet deep. Kilnuaa, nowever, has 61 craters, 22 of which constantly emit columns of gray smoke. Vertical walls of brilliant flame rise from their pltr. And though the height of the mountain Is no greater than that of Vesuvius, the crater Is 2000 feet across and its circumferenro five and a half milos. And despite the terrible play of light, and swirling clouds of smoke, gases and steam, the crater always is traversable ebout tho edges of the nVrv lakes and streams of tnolUn lava. This accounts for the popularity of tho mountain as n gHthuring place for travelers. An interesting comparison between Vesuvius and Kilauea liss been made by n scientist. "The crater of Vesuvius may be accessible af tar an eruption, hut as a usual thing there is aeh a heavy discharge of vapor and cinders long be fore the lime that descending the bowl is impossi ble. Kilauea always is aeeeHHiblo. "Kven before an eruption one may stanJ on the brink nf the great pit and watch the boiling caldrons and ."weeping lava floods and blowing cones. So set are the courses of the lava strvaina that tho crater may be traveled with safety ami camping places may be made at the edges . ' tlw fierv lakes, if the heat is not too jrrt." Kilauea, besides being the mu&t spectacular and continuously active volcano on earth, is like wise a marvelous storage-dump of chemicals, TJio vaporj emitted by the liquid lavas are composed largely of steam, according to reports of investi gators, with very little smoko. Sulphurous add is the mrwt common of the vapors next to water. It has the odor of burning sulphur. Hydrogen escapes with the liquid lava, released by the ae liun of extreme heat on watur. Chlorine is emitUd when uea water finds aic-sa to the lava column, leaving chlorides as incrustati ms oi. the lavas, among which are common salt and iron chloride. Hydrogen sulphide likewise U found, s we) as carbonic acid, hydrochloric acid and nitrogen. I'yrito, matcasite and iron sulpnides in the rocks bolow the crater are believed to be the source Of sulphur nnd its gases. In caverns about Kilauea sulphates are pre duced by oscaping gases. Gypsum, hydrous alumi num sulphate and aluminum sodium sulphate, glaubcr salt and blue vitriol are loposita of tho gases, which chungu the rocks to earth.