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TO PREVENT CRACKED HEELS PROPER FEED FOR HENS ONIONS NEED MUCH LIME 1 FARM AND GARDEN * ERADICATE HOG LOUSE Vigorous and Patient Treatment Is Required. Blood-Sucking Parasites Cause Mud Irritation of Skin—In Dipping Creoline la Better Than Lima and Sulphur. (By N. 8. MATO.) The hog louse 1» a common parasitic pest on swine and one that requires vigorous and patient treatment to eradicate. The bog louse Is one of the largest of the lice that attacks domestic animals. They are roadlly seen traveling about on tie bristles, usually on the neck, back of the eara, moving with a peculiar sliding mo tion. The eggs or "nits" are amall, white, oval bodies attached to tbe bristles. Hog lice may bo found on almost any part of tbe animal's body, trat are most common about tbe neck, ears and back of the elbow. These are blood-sucking parasites and. by biting tbe bog and abstract ing blood, they cause a good deal of Irrltartlon of the skin. The animal pubs on posts and other objects and tbe coat looks rough and harsh. The parasite and eggs are easily found upon examination. Tbe parasites are transmitted from one animal to an other by contact, or by contact with Infected bedding or quarters. Dipping tbe animals three or four times at Intervals of ton days will usu ally free thorn from these parasites. ' - 'i //f \ // ' n IVfM ; 1 m \ m 7 J f provided the sleeping quarters are * thorougbly cleaned and disinfected. | In dipping to kill Itoe, the oool-tar | dips of tbe creoline type are better j than lime and sulphur. If the bog wallons are kept well filled with wo ter, to which some of the creoline dips are added every ten days, the awlne will usually free themselves from tbe Hoe. Another good way of combating the parasites Is to tie gnnnyaacks or other coarse cloths around rubbing posts and keep those cloths saturated with crade petrole um Vat for Dipping Hogs. \ There are many coal-tar "«Mps" on the market They are made from the products of the distillation of coal tar and have a variety of trade names. Creoline U one of the*« preparations. They are all dark-colored liquids with a strong coal-tar odor and when ■fixed with water form a milky white or slightly brownish emulsion. We j have tiled several kinds with ex Practlcally all drug gists have these dtps, but we woald advise seing a dip made by a well known and reliable firm. These dips should be used at the strength of one port of the dtp to forty or fifty parts of water If rain water la ob tainable It la preferred to "hard" wa ter These dips should be used warm There should be a dipping vat on •very hog farm They may be made of wood, galvanised Iron or They are set In the ground at a con venient place so that there la good surface drainage away from the vat A good alxe for a large vat Is ten feet long on top, eight feet long on the bob tom, and two feet wide on lop Tbe end where the bogs enter should be perpendicular and the other end In clined, with cleats, so that the hogs can emerge after swimming through The entrance should be by a slide. Buch a tank Is very useful whereever hogs are kept In numbers, as frequent dipping tends to keep the hogs healthy end free from parasites. eeUant resell* Incubator No Miracle Worker. Do not expect your Incubator, no matter of what make or of what cost, to perform impossibilities. Then see that your eggs to fill are fresh and have been well handled. Eggs should be from stock that is strong and vig orous. and free from disease. One cannot expect good hatches from eggs laid by hens that have been weak ened by roup or kindred troubles. If you will put some eara Charcoal From Cobs. Charcoal Is a health promoter for the fowls of corn In a hot oven and let them burn quite black and feed when the grain gets cold enough you will per hap* be astonished to see how greed ily tho poultry will partake of the charred corn. Give such a feed every two weeks. ■ Seed* From Alaska. Alaska will some day provide farm ers In lower altitude* with grain seeds superior to what they grow at home. Wheat Map of World. The wheat map of the world is nxoct map of the highest civilisation od the world. an ✓* WATER REQUIRED FOR SHEEP Animals With Bountiful Supply Pro duce More Mutton Than Those . That Ars Deprived of It Experiments carried on with eatttn showed that cattle given plenty of water with their pasture contained more molstare and less dry matter than did the carcasses of cattle given pasture but no additional moisture. It Is a generally accepted principle of feeding that It costa more and more to produce meat as the moisture de creases and the dry matter increases, From this we are able to deduce the fact that tt costs less to grow the steers that hod plenty of water, and so made watery carcasses, than It did to grow the steers that had no water other than that In tholr food and re produced a dry carcass. What Is true In the oaso of steers would bold equally true in the case of shoep. Sheep given plonty of water will produce mutton more cheaply than will those deprtved of It. Muscle expansion will be more active In the one case than In the other, and that Is another reason why mutton pro duction would be cheaper. There Is considerable water In any of the pasture crops that sheep eat, and they get still more moisture from the dew that collecta on the grass blades In early morning and late eve ning: but from these two sources, while it gels enough water to keep It alive, a sheep still does not get enough water to keep It In the very best growing condition nor to keep all Its bodily processes going on in the most effective manner possible. There Is not an organ In the body that can function properly without water to aid tl. Being one of the chief constituents of blood, water is carried to every part of the system, and not alone helps It In getting its nourishment, but also In ridding It of Its Impurities. It is obvious that a large amount of water must be necea sary to keep the sheep doing well. Enough Is not gotten with the food, even In summer, and this amount should be supplemented by all that tbe sheep will drink when given con stant access to It. J. CULL OUT UNDESIRABLE HENS A41 Fowl* Th«t Have Pasted Thalr Term of Usefulness Should Be Marketed at Once. It Is always seasonable to cull out the undeslrnb'e birds from a flock, says tho Poultry Journal. All hens that have passed their term of useful * ness should be marketed. While cull | lug should be continued throughout | the entire year, the most heroic work j should be done In the fall. What we call yearlings In poultry are those which were hatched the year before the pallets. They are nearer two years old than one. and make ex eellent breeders. After breeding pick out of this flock such as are consider ed unprofitable. What we call tbe two-year olde are the ones that are going into their second molt. Very often some excellent layers are found among these, and it pays to keep such, but at that age the closer we cull tbe bettor will be our profits. This cull ing, however, can only be successful by close watching. No matter how valuable a hen may be, If she proves to be a feather puller or an egg eater, sb«, too, should be sent with tbe lot of culls to market. j I HOMEMADE LAWN ROLLER Practical and Substantial Implement Will Keep Grass In Fine Shape and Discourage Moles. frequent rolling with a heavy roller keeps the lawn In fine shape and helps to discourage moles from working In It, soys the Farm and Home. A prac tical and substantial rol'er for this purpose may be made of cement with gaapipe axle and handle. It should weigh about 300 pounds and shonld 11 Home-Made Lawn Roller. be about two feet long. A piece of 16-lnch salt-glazed sewer tile makes a good form. Forms can also be j made of wood from narrow slats or galvantxed Iron, In the latter case the form may be left on the roller. Do Not Feed Moldy Com. Moldy corn will produce blind sta* gers in horses, and It should never be | fed to them Every year there Is con siderable trouble with this disease In the west, and In almost every the cause Is moldy corn. If this com does not produce blind staggers. It will tend to Injure the physical con dition of the animal. So don't feed It. and be careful about pasturing the horsea In stalk fields where there is moldy corn. case Using More Brains. In live stock and dairying, brains are more used today than brawn. Com Alone Unprofitable. Hogs cannot be raised profitably corn alone. on ✓* PROPER FEED FOR THE HENS Varied Diet Neocasary for Beat Ré sulta From Lay are—Dry Mash Always Before Fowls. A method which has given very sat isfactory results for the American breeds has been worked out by Prof. J. O. Graham of tbe Massachusetts Agricultural college. A dry mash Is kept In hoppers before the bens at all times and a scratch feed Is fed night and morning. Tbe dry mash Is composed of equal parts bran, wheat middlings, corn meal, finely ground oats, ground alfalfa and beef scraps, and the scratch feed of two parts cracked com, one part wheat and one part oats, says tbe Farm and Home, Tbe scratch toed Is varied, depend ing somewhat upon the condition of the bens. If on examination they are found too fat more oats and wboat and less corn are fed. Sometimes we feed three parts of corn to two parts of wheat at night and oats la the morning. At certain seasons of the year more grain Is fed at night In tbe Utter than the hone will eat, so there will be some left for them to work on early the next morning. This Is found to be a very satisfactory method. At times oats are ted alone, tor when tbe three are mixed together the wheat and corn are picked up first and the hens that eat the fastest get very little of the oats. If It Is desired to force the hens, In addition to the dry mash and grain, moisten some of tbe mash, getting It to a crumbly state and placing It In troughs, what they will eet In 15 min utes. This Is fed at night Fresh water, oyster shell and grit are kept before the hena. Mangels and cab bages are fed whole every day when possible, but at least three times a week. BIG FACTOR IN INCUBATION Lack of Ventilation Given as Cause for Many Failures In Artificially Hatched Eggs, The question of the cause op causes of the lower hatching percentage that commonly characterizes artificial In cubation when compared with results obtained when eggs are set under hens Is a matter about which there la considerable conjecture, but little definite knowledge. In connection with various theories that have been ad vanced and several expérimenta that have been made. It la perhaps sug gestive that Investigators have re cently Inclined to the opinion that un satisfactory results are probably due In greater measure than Is generally supposed to an excess of ventilation. Several authorities are mentioned In support of the statement that there Is a larger amount of carbon di oxide In the air surrounding tbe eggs that are naturally hatched than in a well ventilated Incubator, and tbe question Is raised as to whether and to what extent it may be an essential factor In Incubation. I i MAKING TRAP FOR RABBITS Full Directions Given for Construe toln and Materials Required—Use Apple on Trigger, In response to a query for directions to make a rabbit trap, Herbert L. Doty makes the following reply In the Rural New Yorker: Material required: Sides, two pieces, 3 feet by % Inch; bottom, one piece, 3 feet by 9x9% Inch; top, one piece. «V 2 , (taC Box Trap. 9% Inch; back, one piece, 3 feet by 10%x% inch. In the picture T, trig ger about 10 inches long; B, brace which flta In notch at N; P, wooden pin used as hinge at X. After box la constructed from material given above, bore a bole in tbe back a little larger than tbe trigger: take a stout cord, fasten It at 8, draw through notch at R. and tie to center of brace. Stick an apple on trigger, aa shown In cut, and the trap Is ready for the rabbit Save the Early Layers. Hens that lay but few eggs are ani mal weeds. If we breed from them they are more than likely to yield daughters that will be weeds also. Farmers and small poultrymen who cannot afford to use trap nests can pick out the pullets In September and October that are about commencing to lay, and save a pen of them for next season's breeders. The pullets that commence laying early usually continua to lay well. In this way most of tbe weeds con be kept out of the breeding pen. Halter-Breaking Colt. Never let a colt grow to any con siderable age and size without halter breaking him. Hundreds of valuable young horses are much Injured In dis position by letting him run until they are two and three years of age, and then for the first time cornered in a stall by several (arm hands, which may bo a frolic to the latter, but quite contrary to the former. ASPARAGUS IS HARDY - Select Spot Where Plant Can Re main Permanently. Land Should Be Deep, Rich, Fertile, Molat and Cool. With Warm Ex posure—Plant In Rows tho Same as Corn, Etc. One of the best and easiest grown : ®f our garden perennials Is the as- j paragus plant, Bays Green s Fruit I t,rower, It can be started either from ] «eed or from plants. If one wishes to ; rnise plants to sell, plant the seed, but If asparagus Is wanted for home or market use It Is better to Bet out yearling seedlings. It Is Important In laying out the as paragus plantation to select a place where It can remain permanently for | If taken proper oare of the plantation , will last for twenty years. The old I Idea was the asparagus ''bod." The j new is to plant In rows the same as corn, etc., so that for tbe market, gar- j den tbe cultivation can be done by horse. The land selected should be ft I deep, rich, fertile, moist and cool soil having a warm exposure, a gradual j If j the land Is originally hard and coarse, j I j southern slope being preferred. ti 'If *j r« IÜ '■ .1 I M mr\ i8 «i ; H ; 11 I One of the Beet Bunches. It should be worked a year or two in i advance by the raising of some thor oughly tilled crop, using as much ma nure as possible In the process. Late, deep, fall plowing Is preferable, turn ing under a thick covering of well rotted manure. In the spring, when the frost is out of the ground, plow furrows from six to ten Inches deep and four feet apart. If the soil Is not of the best quality two or three Inches of well-rotted manure should be placed In the bottom of each trench end on this add a couple of inches of loose soil. Then place the plants In the trench three or four feet apart. Cover with three Inches of earth. It not being well to cover deeper, as It takes too long for the young shoots to push their way through. As the shoots grow the rest of the earth can be filled In around them by after cultivation. When filled In, the crowns of the plants should be about six Inches be low the surface of the ground, for If planted much less the roots wJII push up to tbe surface and Interfere with the cultivation. TWO ROOT SYSTEMS OF CORN Deep Cultivation Prunes Feeding Branches and Leeeens Ability to Take Up Plant Food. A knowledge of the root systems of corn points out the kind of cultiva tion to be practiced. There are two systems, the primary and the second ary, says the Breeders' Gazette. Tho primary roots are the fine, fibrous roots, which almost completely fill the top two feet of soil, crossing each oth er in the rows after the crop Is half Deep cultivation prunes all grown. these feeding roots, lessens the abil ity of the plant to take up plant food and moisture and results In the loss of considerable water from the soil through evaporation. Deep prepara tion of the soil before planting and shallow cultivation afterward Is high ly desirable. The day of "plowing" the corn crop Is gone. The secondary, roots are tho tough, fibrous roots usually extending from one of the lower nodes on the stalk into the soil. The sole purpose of these seems to be to act as braces for the plant to have bold It upright Wheat, Rye and Barley. Wheat and rye have about tbe same composition, although wheat is some what richer In protein. Rye ie In gen eral tougher and harder to grind. Both are quite digestible, but less so than corn, on account of the larger percentage of hull. When they can be had at about the price of corn they may profitably form a part of some rations. They are ted more satisfac torily when ground than when whole. Barley seems to rank between wheat and oats. It Is not used very exten sively as a stock food In the east, except when tbe quality Is too poor to permit its use for malting pur poses. Avoid Kicking. Don't go behind a horse or cow without speaking. Neglect to do this may cause fright and the most do cile animal caunot be blamed for kick ing under such circumstances. Comfortable Coops. The coop for hens and chicks should be well ventilated, easy to clean, and of sufficient proportions to Insure comfort T0 prevent cracked heels Trouble May Be Avoided If Manure Is | Not Allowed to Accumulate and Urine Is Drained. . (By DR. H. PRESTON HOSKINS, Uni versity Farm, St. Paul ) Scratches, also called cracked heela or mud fever, can be prevented by careful stable management. Caeca are rarely met with in well kept barns, but are often seen In dirty, poorly drained stables. Dryness and cleanliness of the floor of the stall : are the two most Important factors j j a the prevention of scratches, Horses should not be allowed to ] stand In plies of manure find deconv ; posing urine. These Irritate and In flame the skin In the fold of the ankle just below the fetlock. The skin then becomes thickened, due to the Inflam matlon and breaks or cracks In It ap pear and If allowed to go untreated the condition grow* gradually worse, | Tho affected area grows larger, the , cracks become deeper and the animal I ) B jp s a unsightly and painful condt j tlon. Owners of horses can prevent the j trouble In tho majority of cases by doing two things. Do not allow man I uro to accumulate behind your horses, and see that your stays are so con j atructod that tho urine will drain j away promptly If your horses show j any tendency toward the condition ap I ply a small amount of carbollzed vase line, benzolnated lard, or zinc oxide j ointment, well rubbed Into the af fected parts. These remedies will soften the skin and protect It from external moisture and Irritating sub stances, During wet weather or when the roads and streets are muddy or slushy, extra precaution should be taken to prevent the condition. Do not wash cracked heels, as water and rubbing only aggravate the condition. I BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF LIME Substance Improves Sandy Bolls by Making Them More Compact and Retentive of Moisture, (By B. H, HITE.) Nothing In agricultural eclence or practice may be mentioned with more assurance than the beneficial effect of lime on easily puddled stiff clay soils. This is ao nearly a matter of common knowledge, the wonder 1 b that anyone will worry along with such soils year after year, and even from one genera, tton to another, while the possible In creaee In yield In a single year will often pay for the necessary lime. Lime may Improve loose sandy soils by making them more compact and more retentive of moisture. For this purpose some form of carbonate of lime la usually recommended, and In much smaller quantities than for clay soils. Clay soils will stand more lime TPS Vi r W v t7 Manure Spreader With Lime Hood. and, for almost every purpose, require more lime than sandy soils. The im provement of sandy soils will often be much greater if the lime is applied to a green crop turned under. Lime hastens the conversion of the vege table matter Into humus, and this with the lime helps to fill the open spaces between the sand grains. It is claimed by those who have given much atten tion to light sandy soils that there are no other types of soils that will re spond quite so readily to liming, pro vided tbe necessary vegetable matter Is supplied. LIME REQUIRED FOR ONIONS Soli Is Made Looser and Therefore More Productiv« trlbuted to Substance. -Success At Much of my success In growing big onions, many specimens weighing a pound and a half apiece, I attribute to a free application of lime to the land In spring, says the Farm and Fire side. Likewise, 1 believe that similar applications, just before sowing the seed of the Portugal onion early In August have helped me to get a re markably fine stand and growth. I have used manures right along, year after year. The land Is rich. The fine and almost spontaneous growth of clover on any patch that is left to Itself for a while would hardly show that there Is any need of lime. Yet, owning perhaps to faulty drainage, the land often turns up rather soggy, with close texture. Lime seems to make It closer, and therefore more produc tive. Fighting Stock Lice. When treating cattle or other do mestic animals for lice, bear In mind that H la Just as necessary to clean up and disinfect the stables, as to treat the affected animals. For lice on cattle, advises Dr. Rey nolds, dust Persian insect powder over the hacks and rumps; or brush the necks and backs dally; using a little kerosene on a stiff brush—not enough kerosene to wet the hair or In jure the skin. Transplanting to Open. Harden off all plants before setting from the house or hotbed to tbe open ground This is done by gradually re ducing the amount of water, and giv ing uore air. It causes the plant to partly ripen up Its wood, and it Is thus better able to stand the change to dlmatlc conditions outside. Plants properly "hardened off" have a dull purplish color and firm wood IMPROVING HEN FLOCK - ■ Great Deal Depends on Selection Of Setting Eggs, Shobld Be Thosd Freni Ykai* Old Blrdti aa Chicks Will Be Larger and Stronger 1 Than Those ^rotrl Pullets. fny A, i : wilder.) Care should be taken to save for Settings only the eggs from the best hens A very great difference can be made in a flock In a few seasons by the selection of the eggs for hatch ing. largest eggs tbe hy choosing the fowls will be much larger In size, but there Is a great probability that they will not be good layers, The hen that lays an unusually large egg Is quite likely to lay only every other day. By Setting her eggs and again the BCxt Season Setting the largest eggs, you wilt develop a strain of large fowls that will lay very large eggs, but will lay only every ether day, or even less. On the other hand. If yon set the eggs from the hens, that as pullets laid during their first fall and win ter, and continue to set eggs from Such hens, you will develop a strain of early winter layers. The eggs for settings should be from year old hens, as the chicks will be larger and stronger than those from pullet eggs. It is best to mate 7 , am if I - W tor </,' I % n w ■ - Every Poultry Home Should Have Some Convenience for Confining Broody Hens. cockerels Instead of old cocks with these hens, as the eggs are more apt to be fertile and there will be a larg er percentage of pullets. Choose the medium sized, well shaped eggs and be sure the shell Is firm and strong. A weak shell is sure to be broken, and, besides tbe loss of the egg Itself, will likely ruin sev eral of the other eggs In the nest and may even teach the hen to break and eat them. Feed the hens a little air slacked lime In the mash to give the eggs a good strong shell. Be sure the lime Is well slacked and give two tablespoon ful* to 100 hen* every day. Do not force the breeding stock for egg production. Feed them mostly whole grain, wheat, oats, corn and barley. Let the mash be a light feed and give them fresh sweet meat scraps twice a week. Feed plenty of green food, unless the fowls have range where they can find It for themselves. Keep them supplied with pure, clean drinking va. ter and have charcoal, grit, oyster shell and dry hone always before them. Don't forget a little salt In the mash. It should always be salted as much os the same quantity of food would be for the table. The hens must be made to exercise by scratching for their grain in the litter. They must be healthy and In good condition if you are to raiee strong, healthy chicks. A diseased condition of the hen la transmitted to the egg and will ap pear In the chick when hatched. Protection for Trees. Some orchardists have been suc cessful in protecting their trees by smearing the trunks near the ground with mixtures which are distasteful to rabbits. For this purpose white wash, a mixture of glue and copperas, decoction of quassia chips and blood or grease, have been used. Mechan ical protection by means of some wrapping Is more permanent and ef fective than any form of wash. Effect of Animal Husbandry. Live stock make It necessary to diversify crops and grow more crops upon which there Is a wider margin of profit. Animals also distribute la bor, furnish employment In time of bad weather, or when field work la not possible. Animal husbandry Is the logical way to Insure eoll Improve menu as the Increased fertility from manure Is often sufficient to Justify raising animals. Converted Wagon. From the standpoint of conveni ence, the farm wagon that has been made over Into a low-down vehicle with wide steel tires has a strong ap peal. It la easily loaded, and over comes all the objections to high wag ons of the old type. Hearty Eaters. All cows that are hearty eaters are not profitable producers, but all profit able producers are usually hearty estera THE 1913 PARASOL The 8unthade Thai LeoUe Like a Hat. iS V • & fl r " ü » .A ? * inm > ■ L' ■ . tl ' î,f-v f: -r,y. f y ;V : .S; x '1 T.A CAJPUTCE" PABAflOT* ; "La Caprice" Is a chic little nffalr | that Is going to be a favorite model this summer. On a stick of ebony Is mounted the cover of American Beau ty flowered silk, and tho extension top la a very modish new feature. | Influence which the present war In Europe Is having on feminine costume. f° r Balkan frocks, blouses and hats nre all the rage In Paris now. For the tidy price of $12 or $13 may be picked U P a veritable bijou of a Balkan blouse made of French cottou crape with all edges bound with red or green silk braid and a small braid bound breast BALKAN BLOUSES. v > Quite the Latest Effecte In the New Waists. The blouse of cotton crape, voile or some similar soft, clinging cotton stuff with a touch of vivid color Is a feature of the new season. Those models are called Balkan blouse« and reflect the pocket embroidered gayly to match. A flaring directoire collar, also braid bound, and groups of gay buttons down the front, and there you are. not much to show for your $13 perhaps In the way of fabric and trimming, but be hold the chic and the "line," as tbe deft sales person In the little blouse shop will assure you. Some of these Balkans have gay Turkish neckties of crimson or purple silk embroidered In contrasting hues. These tie« are drawn softly under tbe rolling collar and knot ted four-ln-hand style, the long ends passing under buttonholed slashes In the front of the blouse and then fall ing free to the waist line. One of these Balkan blouses made of dotted white cotton crape and bound at the front, sleeve and collar edges with green silk braid was noted the other morning at fa fashionable hotel, the blouse being worn with a smart new tailleur of ! mixed black and white worsted stuff and a black milan straw turban. Fad of the Seaton. Woe be the tailor who neglects the back of bis costumes. Nowadays the perfection of the back Is of more 1m ' >1 l' V. \ A mmm mm L iLMj mm f V ■ •< i ,'i» : • OF MOUSE ORAT OTTOMAN SILK. portance than the grace of the fron! part of a frock and demands special study and attention. The suit pictured Is of mouse gray Ottoman silk and is matched by but toned boots of patent leather with gray suede tops. Fate of Author's Wife. Mrs Andrew I vine says In a recently published volume of essays that the wife of a literary man must be pre j pored to be Ignored, consciously or un j consciously, by people who are either j unaware that she exists st oil or are , profound tv indifferent to the fact, There Is no case on record of a cough, cold or la-grippe developing into bronchitis, pneumonia or con sumption after Foley'a Honey and Tar Compound has been taken. The genuine is In a yellow package. Re fuse substitutes.— N. B. Danforth, Market and Second Sts., Wilmington, Del.* ATHLETIC TU B TO DANTE. The Highland Aihh-tic Club will give a dance In the Odd Fellows Hall, Highlands, tonight.