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"itSfi PAGE SIX ,! I® Why had he pitched PURE MILK AS PURE FOOD STORY OF ITS ORIGIN AND FIGHT TO SECURE IT LESLIE'S WEEKLY. "You can't be sure about anything you eat or drink these days," I heard a pessimistic acquaintance moaning over his daily paper. "It almost makes a man sorry he was not born sooner— before the water all sot full of typhoid germs, and the meat to be so much frozen cholera, and the milk •The train stoppeil at my station, and 1 l»n(! to get out before this unhappy •'Citizen could say what was the matter with the mtilv of our days. But that last word of his set me thinking about those things—water, meat, and milk. 011 these three as if they were the principal elements •o£ human diet? My friend was a good American, and therefore a water drinker as compared with the Europe an. and a human carnivore as com pared with men of the Asiatic races. When one sifts it all down to the last tacts, these three are not the main essentials of human food, taking "hu man" in its broadest sense. Tlie staff of life—the solid support of manhood at large—is bread but adult man hood is a state to which only certain percentage of the human beings born into the world ever reach, and the most ticklish part of the interval be tween birth and manhood—the stage of early childhood, where death meets so many—has to be negotiated on milk. The same reasoning may almost un iversally be applied to all forms of animal life, beginning with the active, ever-present microbe, including domes tic animals, and ending with the man eating lion and tiger, the gigantic ele phant and hippopotamus, and the mam moth whale. Water as to quench thirst, but those other two are the indispensable raw materials for build ing up the baby's body and then sus taining the man's. 1 had been weighing against each other for some time the comparative importance of Yhese two—milk and bread—when Jo, dawned 011 me that the former Is, on the whole, far the more essential to our race, seeing that a baby cannot eat bread, but a grown man never gets quite independent of milk. Even the man who is so un fortunate as to acquire the habit of drinking his coffee black must use a certain quantity of butter, which is one product of mill and should eat a good deal of cheese, if his health is to re main fairly robust. As a matter of fact, of my own experience, I knew that the men whom we crawling dyspeptics of the city sidewalks ad mire and envy as marvels of health drink prodigious quantities of milk in one way or another. The train of thought started by my pessimist had led me to the conclusion that men, from babyhood to old age are woefully dependent upon cows. And this con clusion again reminded me of the inter mittent discussion of the pure-milk question which has been awakening the echoes of the press at such fre quent intervals within the last six months. I called to mind United States government bulletins, public statements of high ofticials, articles in the papers to which had given little or no attention at the time, and out of it all came the question, where does Leslie's Weekly stand in this discus sion? The answer to this question is what started me on the investigation that has issued in the present article. That answer was found in the files of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper two generations ago. Frank Leslie him self was alive and active in those days, and here was an article in the "issue for May Sth, 1K5S, headed: "Startling Exposure of the milk trade of New York and Brooklyn." In his introductory article he pro posed to develop the subject fully, and stated that he would "give pen or pen cil illustrations of every establishment where distillery milk is manufactured the routes of all the distillery milk carts the number of every house to which they supply milk the location and the number of the depots which dispense the milk as 'pure country milk' the names of the owners of the cows the cows, their diseases, their suffering from unwholesome food, and their constant confinement, which Rents, Real Estate and Surety Bonds «V S •f- t- only ends in their death statistics of the trade statistics of the mortality among infants attributted by the facul ty to the use of distillery or swill milk," and "the names and false' in scriptions upon the carts which carry the swill milk about the city, and such other points as may arise in the course of our minute investigation." The perusal of that article produces more than a startling effect upon the reader it is unwholesome. Follow ing the old files, I found that this was no mer$ isolated outburst of Mghteous indignation the paper-had only set out upou its crusade on May Sth, 1558, and kept it up. It instituted a system atic investigation of the distillery stables—if they were worthy of the name of stables—where unhealthy cows were then being fed and milked for the wholesale poisoning of man kind, especially of human babies. The detectives sent by the Leslie paper were detected by the conscience-bur dened and angry proprietors of this nefarious business, and they and the artists who accompanied them were violently assaulted by the male help ers, always referred to by Leslie as "the Hibernian milkmaids." As a re sult, however, he had the satisfaction of seeing his lead followed by the New York dailies, and reporters from the Times, the Tribune (them the great Horace Greeley's paper), and the Her ald, as well as Frank Leslie's artist, accompanied the committee of the city government, which made its tardy in vestigation on June 5th, 1S58. Note Frank Leslie's prophetic ut terance in answer to a multitude of questions from anxious subscribers, late in the summer of 1S5S, when it was apparent to all that the objec tional milk traffic was broken up. The chief concern of parents was expressed in the questions so frequently asked, "What are we to do when this milk is abolished'.'" "Where shall we get our milk from?" and the additional fear that, "the supply from the country will not more than half meet the de mand from the city!" His well-timed reply shows remarkable foresight in the mind of this writer of fifty years ago. Extracts from his vigorous editorial give us the following per tinent reasoning "Abolish that baleful manufacture, and the pleasant hillsides, the teeming valleys, and the luxuriant bottoms will be covered with beautiful crea tures—God's milk fountains for our children's health and succor "Take a circuit of twelve miles around the limits of the city "it would furnish grazing-grounds" "enough to supply all the pure, healthful, life-saving milk that we can consume." "Then there are the rich countries opened up by the lines of railroads— the Hudson River, the Erie, the Harlem, the New Haven, and the Long Now all this must be, and is, even to tiiis day, very flattering to the feel ings of Leslie's Weekly but it is one tiling to prevent .rogues from selling milk in a lethal form another thing to find such milk for the babies and Springfield Springfield New York Underwriters Pennsylvania German Alliance United States Fidelity & Guarantee Co. German Alliance United States Fidelity & Guarantee Co. I Mr- A A 4r 4 grown-ups as shall not be poison but food. At this early point In my investi gation I recurred to that impressive, if not novel or original, conclusion that milk is, on the whole, the most important constituent of human na ture's daily food, and it was not ap parent that in the fall of 1858. at the close of the successful crusade of Frank Leslie, he had provided any pure milk to take the place of the distillery-fed article—nntil my atten tion was attracted to an advertisement in the issue of May 22. 1858 where in appeared for the first time what may have been the first advertisement ever written by the late Gail Borden, re lative to his condensed milk. As a matter of timely interest and. in con nection with the discussion of pure milk as pure food, the following fac simile of the notice referred to is introduced: Uordnn'H Condensed Milk, Prepared In I^itehtteld County, Conn., Is the only milk over concentrated without the ad mixture of sugar or some other sub stance, and remaining easily soluble in water. It is simply Fresh Country milk, from which the water is nearly all evaporated, and nothing added. The Committee of the Academy of Medicl%s recommend it as "an article that, for purity, durability and economy, is hitherto unequalled in the annals of the Milk trade." One quart, by the addtion of water, makes 2 1-2 quarts, equal to cream— 3 quarts rich milk, and 7 quarts good milk. For sale at 173 Canal street, or de livered at dwellings In New York and Brooklyn at 25 cents per quart. 129 Here was the man, surely, who ought to have shared with Frank Leslie the gratitude of the mothers and children of New York. As a matter of fact, neither New York nor any other section of his country had at that time realized that any gratitude was due to this man. The short but effective advertisement states that he did business "chiefly" on Canal Street, for his milk—much the same quality of that still made by his successors, for which the wary householder nowadays has to contend strenuously lest his grocer substitute something alleged to be "just as good and one cent cheaper"—was then actual peddled by Gail Borden and an asistant through the streets of New York and Brooklyn. Doubtless many a housewife, ignorantly content with the distillery product, objected to the noise of the bell which Borden himself used to ring to attract attention to his wholesome and necessary com modity. The advertisement was an ef fective substitute for the itinerant bell. But before reaching even the stage of the peddling-cart and bell, he had already labored much and .thought much in the interest of pure food for 1 Island all these would pour in a tide of wholesome lacteal fluid. New York would be the depot for the richest milk in the world our children would gain the privilege of retaining the life breathed into their nostrils, and New York would cease to be the city of wholesale infanticide." We are now in a position to judge the extent to which these prophecies are fulfilled by pointing to the information contain ed in the parapraphs to follow. It was in the days of Buchanan's presidency that these things happened. The crusade resulted in victory for Frank Leslie and humanity the hor ror of the distillery-fed, plague-strick en, and plague-spreading milch cows was swept out of existence, and—to cut this part of the story short—the originator of the campaign had the ad ditional gratification of receiving, on Christmas day, 1858, a beautiful gold watch, with this inscription on the in side of its back cover: "Presented to FrankLeslie in be lifilf of the mothers and children of New York as a grateful testimonial of his manly and fearless exposure of the swill-milk traffic." civilized man. He was only a little younger than the century—being well on in his fifty seventh year—when Frank Leslie be gan the Pure Milk crusade in May. 1.85S, and he had lived his life strenu ously and well. Since the beginning of that life, in that picturesque and productive Chenango valley surround ing Norwich, N. Y.'this birthplace), our public benefactor had seen American history in the making and at close range. Down in Texas, when those in ternational troubles were brewing which ended in the addition of Texas, California, and other vast territories to this Republic, Gail Borden, farmer and stock owner, was one of the delegates to the convention of San Felipe, which in 1S33 presented what may now be regarded as the Texan declaration of independence to the Mexican government, and, curiously enough, the district which he repres ented in that convention bore the name of La Vaca—"The Cow." Life on that border, amid the perils and difficulties of travel and warfare in the great wildernesses, impressed him very deep ly with the importance of providing pure food for man in a portable form, and the mind of the practical genius— for such he unquestionably was—show ed itself in his earliest nutritious in vention, the Borden meat biscuit. This admirable contrivance for supply ra tions to caravans of travelers and to armies on the plains, destined, as it was. to be eventually appreciated at its true value, was not a commercial success in the early 'forties of the last century. Not only the meat biscuit appeared in the world—like other great improvements in the means and ways of human living—a generation too soon. This might appear disastrous in truth, it was a blessing, if not to the Texan settlements and the pioneers of the West, certainly to the mothers an dbabies of New York, for it trans ferred his effective activities of mind to the great, question of milk supply in thickly populated countries. writer of Liverpool & London & Globe Norwich Union Liverpool & London & Globe of N. Y. 1IH »3 mm .. \"•••.£. -•«••,• .•!:* THE EVENING TIMES, GRAND FORKS, N. D. The Texan delegate from The Cow district was not a theortzer, nor scientific treatises. opinions and his aims. Instead It seems almost incredible, but is absolutely certain, that this anticipa tor of twentieth century hygienic methods knew nothing about "germ theories" as such it is remarkable that in practice he applied those theories more than sixty years ago. To put his whole plan into a few words, he simply proposed to give his customers perfect milk in the same perfect state in which it came from the cow's udder, and to do this by ex cluding the air from it from the very first moment of its extraction out of the natural source. This logically led him to the vacuum principle of evap oration. And the method of evapor ation led to its conversion into a portable form. Others had their own ways of experimenting with so-called granulated milk. His method was, briefly, a real condensation by the re moval of superfluous water. The quest, for purity led him to the secret ol' both purity and portability—at least, so it seems to me, studying the subject at this distance of time. But the problem was not easily conquered it revealed one obstacle after another in its practical details, and all these had to be overcome before the inven tor reached the point of beginning his struggle for a patent. As an illustra tion, he was obliged to raise the sell ing price of his condensed milk from the published, but unprofitable, figure of 25 cents per quart in 1858 to 4S cents per quart in the early 'sixties. The United States government pur chased vast quantities of this pre served milk in cans for use by the union soldiers during the civil war. Professor S. L. Goodale, the expert of the Maine st&te board of agricul ture, who was a personal friend of Gail Borden, gives an interesting ac count of the difficulties whrch arose in both Great Britain and the United States when it was sought to protect the discovery by legal means. The objection raised by the commissioners was not. concerned in the least with the claim to originality it was ac tually based on the argument that this process was of no particular ad vantage in the preservation of milk. At length, however, the last barrier in the way of success was thrown down both the American and the Brit ish patents were sealed in 185G, and thereafter, when continued commer cial success proved that the projected plan was the golden key of the situ ation, the only difficulty was to keep unscrupulous and misguided competi tors 'from*ersuading the world that they, and not Borden had discovered the way to victory. This last difficulty has now* been settled by the declara tion of the highest authority known to English-speaking readers,- the En cyclopaedia Britannica, that the late Gale Borden was the first to hit upon the evaporating plan of preserving milk. So much as this I had dug up from the old Leslie's files and other sources EVERY COMPANY REPRESENTED IN THIS AGENCY Will Pay Their San Francisco Losses in Full From Their Surplus Without Impairment o£ Their Capital WE REPRESENT THE FOLLOWING COMPANIES: rire, lornaao Si Plate Glass T1VVIITtt a lvr^F1 A -y Kv.. S:.. Ills of being abstrusely expressed In essays or In volumes of hygienic preachment, crys tallized themselves into what may be fairly called his personal codA—the practical rules for the production of sound milk and it's transportation in sound condition, which are the law to this day with the interests that perpetuate his work. As to the former problem—the safeguarding of the pro duct itself—it is easy and very inter esting to observe how, by some privilege of intuitive genius, he an ticipated the conclusions which the best-trained reasoning and experiment in the service of the United States government have reached in the last half-centmj' with the aid of all the bacteriological discoveries of ranee and Germany. A glance at the latest department of agriculture bulletins from Washington, comparing them with the rules embodied in their con tracts by the Borden Condensed Milk company—rules which are now gener ations old in substance and which real ly only formulate the principles fol lowed by the founder in 1858—displays the lagging efforts of governmental science to keep pace with the inspired perceptions of genius But of this I may say more later on, when the time comes to speak of my prying into the contemporary operations of his suc cessors in the business: just at present it is in order, to notice the more definitely and demonstrably original scientific discovery, that of the preser vation of pure milk in all its purity through the trials and chances of transportation from cow to consumer. iH v^i accessible to newspaper men within city limits. I read half a dozen bulle tins .and reports of the.United States department of agriculture, and there found, in more scientific phraseology, powerful confirmation of my own un sophisticated Inference that milk is the most important type of human food. No wonder that babies can thrive on nothing else, and that healthy adults never outgrow the need for milk, if, as one high authority informs nlle, milk contains all the materials for building flesh, bone and muscle in the most easily digestible form of all known foods for the normal stomach I learned wonderful facts about 'pro teins" and "albumins" from the ex perts employed by the government and the leading agricultural states of* the union, and marveled at the strictness of the rules which they recommend for the feeding and general care of cows, and then I went down town and asked President William J. Rogers of the Borden company, to show me "what they were doing. After repeated re quests made in person and by tele phone, he reluctantly promised to aid me in securing practical information from a working standpoint, and An ally granted permission for an inspec tion on my part of any of the various dairies and platrls operated by them In the preparation of milk in its varied forms, including bottled milk, cream, and buttermilk for city supply, con densed milk (sweetened and unsweet ened,) and evaporated cream in cans, and malted milk in glass jars. s. These requests, seldom, if ever, granted now adays, were complied with only when it was understood that my motive was to glean wholesome information rela tive to a wholesome food and for the benefit and enlightment of such unen lightened members of the human fami ly as might read or learn of it after publication. The first surprise in this quarter was that at which I have already hinted The company—that largest of its kind in the world—was not waiting for in structions or recommendations from Washington on the care of cows on the contrary, it had been leading the way for our legislators and adminis trators in this direction ever since its beginnings before the civil war. I was shown a form of contract with the farmers w^io supply them with their fresh milk in scores of rural districts all over this country, one that has been substantially the same, and strictly ad hered to, ever since the time of their founder. Without disrespect to Wash ington, I should say that they have for many, years been Instructors of the Department of Agricuulture. Not that the Washington or state standards even yet quite equals theirs in sever ity. In answer to possible quiries on that head, I would point to this clause In the farmer's contract previously re ferred to:: "Not to feed the cows on ensilage." A recent Washington bulle tin declares ensilage (the partially fermented product of the silo system of storing fresh fodder) to be perfect ly sound and wholsome food for cattle the Borden people differ with scienti fic authorities in this respect based on their knowledge of the subject, and therefore eliminate from their supply ensilage-fed milk. Perhaps here, too, the various authorities will follow the New York lead, as they have in regard to the details of lighting, venetilating, heating and cleaning of cow stables. It was a satisfactory result of the inquisitive frame of qiind which a chance remark of a companion on the "L" train had aroused in me, that it lead me to the great concerns, begin ning with the model plant located at Gail Borden's birthplace. I was cour teously received by superintendents and managers. I had almost said that. the management threw everything open to my inspection, but a regard for strict accuracy checks me at that point fhere are processes, or im provements in the details of propesses which they wisely, perhaps, refrained from explaining to a greenhorn. I visited dairies, stables and milk-hous es, and noted the care with which the. cows were cared for and fed on the farms and was also shown the receiv ing-room, the well rooms, the bottling rooins, the cooling rooms, and the seal ing-rooms at? several points, and had every opportunity of noting the almost inconceivable care withv which the del icate fluid is guarded from every possi ble tint, not only of actual dirt or dust, but of atmospheric impurity. No one must use tobacco or drugs in any form within these jealously guarded precincts. The thousands of men and women employed in these institutions Eh 'Vvv' SEE US BEFORE PLACING YOUR INSURANCE HOLMES & LEIDMAN "7, ."• :/"r'~" v'^'^•^''• v^V ^'V.',r- ..:/.?v.• -T'/SCf,• Phoenix of London 1 have, their comfort provided for In many ways, in separate bulldlnga, but within therooms whfere soman? mil lion gallons at milk are being either bottled for shipment or conveyed to the great vacuum pans for condensa tions or evaporation, absolute cleanli ness prevails. Thcr Immaculate white linen suits universally worn by the brlgty- faced, healthy, and intelligent employes are donned befbre entrance to the operating room. Writing in New York City for aNew York illustrated weekly, it has been natural enough to emphasize the im portance of the business in New York and the east. Yet it must not 4e for gotten that in the Chicago section and other other sections of America ere produced results precisely similar to those brought about in this section of the country. Elgin, as is well known, Is famous the wbrld over for the but ter she makes, and it may. surprise yOu to learn that the excellence of this butter is due directly to bur inventor's efforts »f nearly a century ago.\ The high standards referred to elsewhere —introduced by him among the farm ers and dairymen of the two richest American grazing spots—New York and Illinois—made possible the pro duction of the rich and pure fluid milk required all these years for the mak ing of Elgin and New York state but ter. On the whole, speaking as an Amer ican, one cannot but be thankful that the enormous importance of pure milk to/the health of millions was recog nized so early in the history of our country and by a man so well able to grapple with the difllculties of the sit uation. It seems well nigh certain that not only could no other country in--the world afford so ample and sd excellent a supply of the raw mater ial, but in nb other country could that supply be so advantageously treated, whether fqr shipment in the herme- North British & Mercantile New York Plate Glass Co. 1 i. tit 1 Talk with Twamley National ... National ... /Aetnai:^ Maryland Casualty Co.Vr i, /. New York Plate Glass Co. Maryland Casualty Co. Vr 'j i, /. •£.-*%% fm r- 1 y.«v iV PFOISl ,. WEDNESDAY, MAV 2, 1906. fear /ictlly-sealed, sclentlflcally-sterlllzed glass jars, or in the, several canned tornis. It Ip certain that nowhere else in the world Is the business car ried on upon so large a scale, and this fact has an important bearing upon that topic of health with which this discussion began. The application of the present vastness of the practical operations in pure milk Is two-fold: First, that the elaborate precautions would be Impossible, In a business sense, for a smaller concern. Toktake one example, the interfests previous ly referred to. carry out the humani tarian policy of refusing to use any milk from an infected ..dairy or com munity. By Infection. I mean that a owladge of an unhealthy cow, of an impure water supply, or illness: of any character in the dairyman's* fam ily prompts them at once to constantly safeguard the health of millions of people. Due'to these unusual precau tions, I believe no illness has ever been tracable to this source of sup ply. Second, the great number—amount ing to hundreds of thousands In round numbers—of the cows which supply the brands of milk is In itself an ad ditional guarantee of quality ..for Scientific experts are now pretty well, agreed that their family cow'suplied them vlth milk the year round 1b based upon misinformation in the phy siology of mily. In short., so far !s the dweller in cities for having cause for such alarm as my friend expressed that the city man, with' an abundant supply of pure milk of all kinds within easy'reach, is really, it seems, much better off in respect to this chief arti cle of diet than is his farmer cousin, who depends more upon his own (per haps unenlightened) resources.7 There is everything In the right person making a request you wouldn't grve your empty tin cans to some people. HOTEL DACOTAH Tie Finest 1» the Northwest—Rates $9.00 to $4.00 Per Dar. Grand FiftL Nortt Dakota. OWN YOUR OWN FRANCHISE Gas One Dollar per Thousand Feet. -I A I J- .$sh ^,'i NO INTEIEST oa 'Stock or Binds, Yoi own (he BEST Gaimade lor above price. Hachiae is aatoaatic. Yoajcaa Ufbt one burner or filly. Yoa can ase YOUR GAS IANGE at (he suae time. beare mock 4 2v t't I & K- .t. I* tfS. •J#! Vxr 1 I 'ar/l !V i.iw -If I sym $• -V YiV *5 if AS*. u',J* tfbetb 1 Successors to Holmes & H|as and the Gordon Agency 1, t~- mmi Sft •4* ji si it*'