He Was Not as Jolly
sion by schoolmaster who believed
•w |n sp*
This man v*ad
Life for hundreds of years was made
a burden to helpless little pupils on
account of the power given overbear
ing teachers and I have wondered
that no one came to their relief as
Mrs. Browning appealed In behalf of
the little ones of the factory in "The
Cry of the Children." It Is no wonder
that Horace anathematized his crusty
teacher as Orbllius of the Birch.
Plautus, Rome's greatest comic and
draipatlc genius, who died nearly two
hundred years before the Christian
era, says that for missing a single let
ter in his reading a Roman boy was
stripped like his nurse's cloak with
the black and blue spots left by the
rod. Martial, the witty epigrammatist,
born about 40 or 41 A. D., declares
that in his time "the morning air re
sounded with the noise of floggings
and the cries of suffering urchins.
The famous English schools have in
the past carried brutality to an ex
treme. Goldsmith was often flogged
as a dunce, and was once caned by a
tutor for giving a ball In the attic
story of the college. Whipping in the
earlier American schools was almost
an established feature of the curricu
lum, also—especially in the old field
The preacher and historian—and he
may have been a teacher—Thomas
Fuller, in his work on the schoolmas
ter observes that the ingenious and
idle think, with the hare in the fable,
—-v"' .-'a- •.. V-ii-L.V •••'. iff.••'V \v_^ '.T. -, .. rf !»••. •/.-J,:.
y°u spoil the
Hk® old Ben
one looking west,
or south. That wm. 'u' Httle crea
ture, the chameleon, CKa'ow'nS to the
independent action of W8 ®y®8'
••at the same moment up av." oowj1
ogue of Long Ago
By Witl T. Hale
The April Munsey contained an arti
cle by Dr. Parkhurst on the decadence
of positive authority. He la not In
clined to indorse the action of the
English pedagogue to whom a class of
thirteen was sent, and who took it for
granted that they were to be chas
,T tlsed. He had scourged seven, when
one of the remaining six explained
•_ *hey had had been sent to be exam
5^ *d for the confirmation class! Still
doctor thinks a "measure of sever
thirty-five years a
shoulder on one occa
backward and forward. Th*? ,®vrf*
said and same pedagogue seem.M
be able to do the same. When I W«»'u.la
have Bworn that he was looking tK-e
other way, I began eating an apple
then lo and behold, he of the crooked
eyes came down like a wolf on the
fold. He slathered me with a great
ox-goad, and the welt thereof gave me
pain many days.
Of course it was brutal, as things go
bf school rooms now. But public sen
timent makes a thing good or bad, and
that time public sentiment was with
the schoolmaster and his rod, of whom
it has been truthfully written by John
"And as 'tis meet to bathe ye feet,
Ye ailing head to mend.
Ye yonker's pate to stimulate,
He beats ye other end."
Poet George Arnold Makes
But a Useful Man Withal
that running ^ith snails they shall
soon come to the post, though sleep
ing a good while before their starting,
and "Oh! a good rod," he says, "would
finely take them napping." Notwith
standing he holds in the same paper
that "many a schoolmaster better an
swereth the name of paidrotrlbe (boy
flogger) than paldagogos (boy-teach
er), rather tearing his scholars' flesh
with whipping than giving them a
good education. Their tyranny in
mauling the pupils about their heads
hath dulled those who in quickness
exceeded their masters."
But the good done to learning makes
up largely for the errors displayed
In some of the methods of making the
young idea shoot. Time softens the
memory, as distance lends enchant
ment to the view. We are therefore
rather glad that they have many of
them not been left to oblivion, but
are thought of now and then in con
nection with former pupils who have
An early teacher was Thomas Plat
ter, who began life as a Swiss shep
perd boy and ended it as a famous
Bale schoolmaster. At 9 years of age
he was sent to the village priest, of
V.hom he "learned to sing a little of
the /salve and to beg for eggs, besides
being crufMy beaten and oftimes drag
ged by the ears out of the house."
Let us hops that the memory of his
experiences made him patient with
those under hie charge at Bale.
Another was Roger Ascham born
about 1515. One of his pupils was
Lady Jane Grey, and so was Queen
Elizabeth. He may have used harsh
means toward some of his pupils, but
when It came to truckling to royalty
he was an expert—such an adept, in
fact, that he has given us a very false
picture of the girl Elizabeth: "With
respect to personal decoration," he
says, "she greatly prefers a simple
elegance to show and splendor." It
this was so then, she outgrew the
old preferences, for at her death she
is said to have had about 2,800 costly
suits of all countries in her wardrobe.
She had also eighty wigs. Old Roger
avers, too, that she was "exempt from
female weakness," yet at the age of
16, when he described her, she and the
husband of the queen dowager were
having stolen interviews, in which
much boisterous and indelicate famil
iarity passed. He should have been
aware of this, for there was much
scandalous gossip about "my lady
Elizabeth going in a night in a barge
upon Thames and other light parts."
A valuable book by Ascham is entitled
"The Schoolmaster." Like other of
Us calling, who had such predilec
tions for writing verse that they wrote
their text books—even arithmetics—in
rhyme, he often dropped into poetry.
By too close application in composing
a poem, which he intended to present
to the queen on the New Year's day
of 1569, he was seized with an illness
which proved fatal.
Platter and Fuller and Ascham owe
little of their fame to a reflected light.
Still less did that of Mathurin Cordier,
born in 1478, perhaps the greatest of
them all. Of this native of Normandy
it is written: "He possessed special
tact and liking for teaching children,
and taught first at Paris, where Calvin
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Speaking of Shakespeare, the
world's greatest dramatist, recalls his
friend, John Florio. The latter was a
Tuscan by birth! but after the acces
sion of James 1. of England, he was
made tutor to Prince Henry and be
came the personal friend of Queen
Anne, to whom he dedicated his fam
ous translation of the essays of Mon
taigne, his best known work. Special
interest, by the way, attaches to this
translation, from the fact that of the
several copies of the first edition In
the British museum library one bears
the autograph of Shakespeare and an
other that of Ben Jonson. It has been
suggested that Florio Is the original
or Holopernes, the pompous pedant of
"Love's Labor Lost.'*
Strangely enough, there were some
parts of colonial America where al
most any sort of a man was consider
ed good enough to teach.
It is asserted by the historians that
banished felons from England some
times took to the profession of teach
ing in Virginia. Somewhere about the
middle of the (seventeenth icenturyf
Berkeley, the royal governor of Vir
ginia, exclaimed: "Thank God, there
are no free schools nor printing press
es, and I hope there will be none for
a hundred years." But there was then
going on the first established in North
America—that founded in 1834 by
Benjamin Sym, who devised 200 acres
of laud on the Pocoson river, with the
milk and increase of eight milch
cows," for the maintenance of a learn
ed honest man to keep upon the said
ground a free school."
I should like to know the name of
the first teacher of this school, and
something of his methods. His name
has not come down to us, however,
neither have the particulars of many
of those who, even in the old-field
schools, so instructed (and strapped)
the youth that Virginia was soon to
show up some of the most able soldiers
We do not get all the information
we long for about the second college
established in America, William and
Mary but there taught here a most in
teresting old pedagogue, John Camm
he was, and those who would know
more of him should read John Fiske'tf
"Old Virginia and Her Neighbors."
Washington was graduated from
"the people's college"—the old-field
school. His firsUexperience at school
was in Stafford county, opposite Fred
ericksburg, and his first teacher was
Hobby, the sexton of the parish. While
Hobby was teaching the three R's, and
no doubt treating young George as
though a very ordinary boy, he had
little idea that his own name would
be pleasantly recalled today In con
nection with that of the great patriot.
Another of his teachers of reading,
writing and arithmetic—with a little
geometry and surveying—was Mr. Wil
liams. His school was somewhat bet
ter than Hobby's, thougll both were
humble enough. A peculiar and for
tunate whim of fate Is this—Hobby
and Williams, obscure and unlearned,
being as readily recalled as Ascham
and Florio, the erudite tutors of queen
The Dutch colony of New Nether
was among his scholars, and, after a
number of changes, finally at Geneva.
He wrote several books for children
the most famous Is his 'Colloqula,'
which has passed through Innumer
able editions, being .used In schools
for three centuries after his time."
How Is that for a text book's vitality?
It is supposed that this work was in
the schools In which Shakespeare re
ceived his Instruction.
GRAND FORKS, K.
lands had to pnt up for awhile with a
sorry son, the ftrst teacher. A boose
killer, he from Holland one whose
record In the new world was unenvia
ble—Adam Roelandsen, the first teach
er. A boose-klller, he held his place
six years before the sluggish Dutch
-made up their minds to fire him. This
teacher had to take In washing to
supplement his Income, and it Is hard
ly a matter for wonder that he was
driven Into cultivating the Jag.
Evidently educational matters were
not much better off for many years
after the English gained control for
William Smith, a historian, writing of
his fellow. New Yorkers In 1766, says:
"Our schools are In the lowest order,
the instructors want Instruction, and
through a long, shameful neglect of
the arts and sciences our common
speech is very corrupt, and the evi
dences of a bad taste both as to
thought and language are visible in
all' our proceedings, public and pri
vate." Smith ought to have known, for
he was an associate Justice of the
supreme court of the colony.
Teaching has not been considered
the royal road to fortune, though
many of America's eminent men have
taught. Considering the distinction
of their later years it is amusing if
vain to wonder, If the rod was ever
wielded over unruly urchins by the
one-time pedagogues, James A. Gar
field, Grover Cleveland, Chester A.
Arthur and Franklin Pierce.
The Jews were strictly charged in
the law to educate their children In
ancient times. There were schools of
prophets, and It Is Interesting to learn
that Samuel kept one of these institu
tions, David attending it at one time.
—New York Tribune.
Boston Earthquake of 17K.
The earth at first seemed to be lifted
several Inches and then shaken like a
carpet. The climax came with a heavy
jolt, accompanied with a crash like a
peal of thunder.
Superstitious Bostonians thought
they heard in the midst of the groan
ing and rumblings the shrill toot of
Although the houses of that day
were built "for keeps," many of them
were racked out of plumb and square.
Chimneys, though built regardless of
material, were shattered, twisted half
way round or tumbled down.
Heavy roof beams were snapped like
matches in some houses. The spire
on the Boston market house was snap
ped off like the cracker of a whip and
dropped into the street with the
The water in most of the wells be
came so charged with sulphurated
hydrogen that it could not be used.
Cracks opened in the earth in many
places, and a fine white sand was
blown out by fetid gases.
Extra fine Surrey
Priced so that the wage
earner can make
home what it
WILL KHOWH gCHWBB, fc
xaar Expect t» Attend AaMffaa* A*
"aelatlna Sessions at CemeU.
An unusually large number of sden
tlsts have signified their Intention of
attending the special summer meeting
of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science, which is be
ing held in Ithaca from Jane 28 to
July SO. In addition to the American
association, several affiliated socleUes,
including the American Physical so
ciety, the American Chemical society,
the Society for the Promotion of Rn^
gineering Education, the American
Microscopical society, the American
Fern society and the Society for Horti
cultural Science will meet at the saine
The preliminary meeting-will be ad
dressed by President Schurman of
Cornell'and by Andrew D. White. The
formal opening of Rockefeller hall, the
new physics laboratory of Cornell,
will take place on the first day of
After this the meetings will be
largely In sections, where many scien
tific subjects will be discussed. Tltera
will also be a series of excursions to
points of scientific interest about
THIS DATE Df HIST0KY. A
Colorado Springs, 'where the Union
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OnNHt Opera Heaae.
Beth-Pheaee 47SL. Gnu Fttka, H. D.
1666—Sir Henry Yelverton born.
1693—English under Rooke defeated
by Admiral Tourville off Cape 8t.
1734—Imperialists defeated at Par
1797^—Cisalpine republic established.
1817—Pius VII. condemned Bible
societies by bull.
1840—Luclen Bonaparte died.
1846—Resignation of the Peel minis
1852—Henry Clay, American states
man, died.. Born April 12, 1777.
1861—Elizabeth Barrett Browning
died. Born 1809.
1864—Confederates victorious at bat
tle of Ream's Station, Va.
1873—First reception of foreign
ministers by emperor of China -at
1884—Pall8sa discovered a new as
teriod of the twelfth magnitude at
188—Mrs. Hamersley married to
Duke of Marlborough in New York.
1891—Prince George of Greece ar
rived in Chicago.
1895—Thomas H. Huxley, English
scientist, died. Born May 4, 1825.
I have a strong grudge against
cliitM) of amateur aetora, because they
habitually insult the art they dabble
In by assuming that it is a sin which
can only be covered by charity. It
Is quite a common thing, writes G: B.
Shaw In the LondonTribune, for or
ganisers of amatenr performances to
appeal to the author, to forego his
fees on the ground ithat the proceeds
he Kljen to some charitable
institution. That is to say, a^ popular
author Is asked to hand over some
hundreds a year to amateur societies
to give to their pet charities and that,
too, wtthont the slightest guarantee
that the management of the perform
ance will be business-like enough to
realise for the charities the .whole
value of his contribution, or Indeed,
any part of it at ail. A more unrea
sonable demand :oan hardly be Imagin
ed within the limits of practicable hu
man audacity. -Even professional
millionaire philanthropists Uke Mr.
Carnegie and Mr. Passmore Edwards
reserve the right to choose for them
selves the objects of their endowment.
Besides, the charity of amateurs is
hardly ever really charitable 'In -its
motive. It is a mere coat of whitewash
for an indulgence which is regarded .as
questionable, If not positively disreput
able. It Is also
for the patronesses of charities. And
the economic effect of the performance,
when the expenses leave any surplus,
is simply to relieve the rate-payers of
their social obligations by helping to
keep hospitals out of public hands and
In private ones. Why on earth should
a playwright be expected to contribute
to the rates of places he IUB never
What makes this additionally ex
asperating is that while there is
little difficulty In raising vast sums of
ransom and' conMStence money from
the rich in the form of charitable sub
scriptions It is hard to get a farthing
for the starving art of the theater
either,from public or private sources.
If all the money that has been wasted
on charities by amateur actors had
been devoted to theatrical art by build
ing up local dramatic societies with
repertoires, wardrobes and even
theaters of their own, not only would
dramatic art be much more developed
than it is now in England, but other
arts would have grown up round the
local theaters. Just think of what
a playhouse would mean to a country
town If it had its own dressmakers,
its own tapestry .wearers, its own
armorers, its own embroideresses and
its own dress designers and painters
and machinists. What is to be said
In defense of the stage-etruck stupid
ity and ignorance that is content with
a basket of soiled second-hand clothes
and toy swords sent down by a London
costumer and hired out for. a night at
about treble the price the whole par
cel of rubbish would sell for in.
HoundBditch? Do you expect me or
any dramatic author.to be lenient In,
the matter of fees to people who keep
up these nasty, vulgar, ignorant
practices? Rather let us heap crush
ing exactions on them and starve their
folly to death.
Almost all amateurs desire to imitate
the theater rather than to act a play.
They actually call their performances
"theatricals," and are as proud of that
Illiterate insult as any genuine dram-
W '5?^* ten*
Life Is what we make it
something]we all love
—can't do with*
Shaw j)n AttoiW
He Veati Spleen on Their Theatncab and
SflF. rartUfa»|rlH0k the Ai^SS
The Artistic Krell Auto Gnuid
to his health ahd growtfc. Oar
Urn to shovn with *11 th* uv
designs sad latest lmprorawsat#
sttocts the jd*»*
salves ap to what tiey prhratfly tfaiak"
Is the sin of jMsdag. Ton geetleSE^.
who are mdrhU^ parUeiSlMr abowt
out Mad At at their eoata aad trpaasfti
walking on the nge la ludiornoattyw
misfitting tunioe n$si the ooataawrts
amateur ragbag. Yon see the amatear
carrying a Umritoppad pantomlma
spear, for the Mre of whi^ h*
paid more than the looal blaeksmitfc
thi}h ha dowdy In etofcreh or at
garden party face the footttg&ts 1*^*
ee, reach-me-down scenery, nachvnw
down equipments are ooKsMsrstt goodJ
enough tor dramatic tnaatofrpleosa
Id haye charged Idm for a
r. Women win would die ratftar
Black Art In Another
A German gentleman and his young
son, Frits, were on an express* tralfc
bound for the seashore
A. B. Chase Poole & Crown Pianos
While Frits was snoosing. U* father*
who-occupied the window seat, snatch
ed his cap uid seemingly threw it out
of the open window,..
"Aha," the Joking: father said, "your.i
cap 1BS on de outside. Never mtod^i'
Frits, I'll vlStle und lVll come- o& de
inside agin mit qnfckneas
W O E S A E I E S
A Few Household Necessaries
y^^B^.Eoom Snits New Dining Boom 8ets
^1* Da^nports, Dressers^ r#
Brass and Enameled Beds Mission and Fancy Rockers
Leather Backers and Couches
Parlor Furniture Library Furniture
The father whl*tled and„at the same
moment deftly placed the cap OB hla
attentlve's son's head. Fits vu.
speechless. He pulled off Ma head
covering and gand at it ib wonder
and at his paterfamlltae In de«p admir^.*.
atlon for several mbtutes. ..
As the train neared a bridge the lit
tie chap was Inspfred. Leanbtg far
out of the open window he .dropped.,
the cap and,- tarnfog to hla 'father coni
fldently said, "Vlstle,
awuiia which am seif-r
In a penny wixwoA
beautiful things because they tin a0.
much more theatrical.
As to plays, they, too, moat ha
second-hand reach-me-downs Yo«r
amateurs dont want to bring plays to
a correct and inoving- representation:!
for the sake of the llfe they represent
they want to do Hawtrey's part la lUl
or Ellen Terry's part in tint, or Cyril
Maude's part In the other,.not to men^--'
age -possesied by amateurs—the ad
vantage of being free from commercial'
pressure and having unlimited1 time for
rehearsal—Is the iast one they -think
The commercial plays, which1,are th*
despair of actors, but which' th»y mnat:
produce or starve, are the favorttee of'
our amateurs. They do out of sheer
folly and vulgarity what our real
dramatic artists do of necesstty aAd'
give some aavlng grace.and charm tov
In the doing. Richard Whgner said'
that the music of the great mastanr
Is kept alive not by professional con
certs and opera speculations, but on
the cottage piano of the amatmr. I
wish I could say as much for the
amateur theater. As I cannot, I shaU
only beg your amateur olnba to- let
my plays alone and to assure ,them
that as long as they persist lb -their
present ways the only part I shall
play In the matter of 'fees Is- the part
ot Shylock. V.f&s
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