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THE MOKMXti ASTOKIAX, PKIDVY, M'KIl 19, 1901, BUDGET STATEMENT War Has Brought England to Verge of Ruin. HEAVY LOAN IS NECESSARY Iftcaaie T Increased Export Duly on Coal tad Tariff oo Sujaf Levied -No Help From Traasvaal at Pre scat. LONDON, April 18. The new loan will be In consols. The chancellor of the exchequer proposed to suspend the sinking fund and to borrow 60.000,000. The total experted yield of the new taxation la 11,000,000, of which 2.100. OOO will be fro-n coal. The national balance sheet for 1900 1901 stands as follows: Revenue 1M.3S3.000 Expenditures 1S3.592.000 Net deficit 53.MT.ttOO The chancellor of the exchequer. Sir Mkha Hloks-Beach, rose at 4:18 p. m., amidst rounds of cheers, and com menced the budget statement. "During the last five years," said the chancellor, "we have been invariably able to congratulate the house on a gen eral Increase in the prosperity of the country, but .the year 1900. especially the last six months, showed symptoms of a change. Our foreign trule during the year considerably Increased, but In value rather less than in volume." It was mainly derived, the chancellor said, from the high prices or certain articles, notably coil, which naturally mu?t have Injured important industries, es pecially railways. The chancellor then proceeded to re view the various Items of revenue, men tioning that the revenue from beer was 4,000.000 less than the estimate. "That decrease." said he, "is probably attributable to the fact that very many beer drinkers are in South Africa and also to the decrease in the spending nower of the peiple, owing to the high nrlce of coal. Experience has shown that we have practically reached the limit in the profitable taxation of spir its. 'The prolongation of the w.ir and the absence of buyers on the stock ex change are responsible for the unsatis factory yield for stamps." He stated that the national debt on Anril 11th was 687,700.000. an increase of 55.000.000 on account or the war. "As to obtaining contributions from the Transvaal," said the chancellor, "Sir Davis Barbour's reports are not en couraging at present. I think the house will see that the war has brought the country to the verge of ruin" (opposi tion cheers greeted this remark.). This can no longer be concealed. A small war has cost 151,000.000. double the cost of the Crimean war. "It becomes necessary to put our ex penditures on a broader basis. The I country ha reached a point when it is necessary to widen the scope of tax ation, but the great tax-payers must bear their share of the burden. I pro nose that two pence shall be added to the Income tax. making one shilling and six pence In the pound. The extra two pence will realize 3.800.000. There will be no addition to the beer, wine, tea, spirits or tobacco dues. ''I am not disposed to opjiose a cus toms duty on manufactured imported goods, as suggested by Sir Howard Vincent. The average consumption of sugar is 56 pounds per head. Sugar la taxed in every other community in Europe and Is taxed in the United States. In this country the taxes re mained on sugar long after the insti tution of free trade. What I propose la not a protective duty but an ade quate public necessity has arisen for some duty for which the laboring class es should bear a fair share." A duty of 4s. 2d per cwt Is imposed on refined sugar. A duty of 2s. per hundredweight la imposed on moUsses. West India sugar is not excepted. A duty of Is. 8d per hundredweight is Imposed on glucose. A shilling per ton duty Is Imposed on exported coal. BUDGET SPEECH AWAITED. NEW YORK. April 18. Ministers and members of parliament are already gathering for the budget speech today, says the Tribune's London correspon dent. Sir Michael Kicks-Beach is revising his estimi'.es and putting the finishing touches on the budget. Lord Lans downe has returned and there will be a full attendance at the cabinet meet ing tomorrow. Sir Michael Hlckx-Beah has kept his official secrets so closely! that the budgt speculators are work ing in the dark. Export duties on coal, increased duties on tea, tobacco, and spirits, the Inclusion of sugar m the schedules. :ndirect taxation and increased taxation of Incomes are pre dicted on the eve of the resumption of the session; but there Is no authoritative Information and some of these guesses will prove Incorrect, for the chancel lor of the exchequer la certain to find It more comfortable to borrow money than overwhelm the country with fresh taxation when the end of the war is not In sight. Uncertainty prevails in the Welsh and iAncashlre coal districts and the Liv erpool sugar market and commercial circle generally. Sir Michael Hicks Beach will be faced with a united Lib eral front bench. Sir Henry Campbell r.uuiernian having returned In Improv ed health and Sir William Vernon Har court being in tine fighting form. Much depends upon the reception of the budget speech by the country. The lro:i,!tl.in of Mr. Chamberlain lo the leadership of the common and the ele vation of Mr. VUlfour to the pierage will be ha-tened if the budget proves highly u!isatlsfae;ory to the nation. Mil iary clubs are also agog over i.tvral Roberts' dispatch on the war and the long list of commendations. Lord Methu.'ti's friends are jubilant ml Ceneral Puller's partisans are dis concerted by the coolness of (icuerU Uiberts' refer 'nee to him. I' Is har.llv credible that to neial Pul ler desired his successor In t!ie chief command to pa'r.mixe him. He attend ed Winston Churchill's lecture at the United Service Institution with many other military men and seemed to b' hearlnc no bravel OUJECT TV XEilKOES. White Bricklayers Refuse to Work With Them on Mississippi State House. CHICAGO. April IS. The Tribune say st Bricklayers from Chicago and other Northern cities have tied up building oeratlons m the new state house at Jackson. Miss., by striking because of the presence of negro bricklayers on the work. Advices of the trouble were received by Chicago labor leaders last night. There were but two negroes on the j 'h and they are said to bo non-union men while the Northern men are union, but the trouble, it is said, is due n t so much to union Ideas as to rhe color line. The Northern men demanded the ne groes be discharged and when the fere, man refused to let them go, the white men quit work. Chicago labor leaders are at a l"s to understand why the bricklayers hid btsed th-Mr refusal to work on the color line, as the bricklayers' union d.ves nV draw the line against the admission of negroes. They call attention t the fact that at the last annual convention of the International Bricklayers and Stone Masons' Uni m. held in Milwaukee, thet-wer- two colored delegates present. There are many negroes in the h.xl carriers' and building laborers' unions and th-? secretary of the local Granite Cutters' Union !s a colored man. The American Federation of Labor prohibits unions affiliated with it from drawing the color line and less than a yeir ago the Chicago Federation of La bor went on record as appealing to the negroes tJ join unions. WILL BUY MEXICAN ROAD. Pacific Improvement Company to Pur chase Monterey and Mexican Gulf Railway. SAX FP.AXOSCO. April lS.-The Ex aminer says: The Pacific Improvement Company is negotiating for and in all probability will soon purcha.se the Monterey and Mexican Gulf Rpilway in M-xlco. It comprises 287 miles of road running from Trevlno by the way of Monterey to Tampico on the Gulf of Mexico. The proerty will greatly strengthen the Mexican International road, now ownM by the Pacific Improvement Company, by giving it a gulf port and a profit i He Fyst-m of feeders In northeastern Mexico. The Monterey and M-xican Gulf is owned by Belgian capitalists. I:g ac quisition as a feeder to the Mexican In ternational is thought by the knowing ones to be the forerunner of the sale of both properties to the Southern Pi clflc. ATTACKED PROTESTANTISM. Sensation Created by Heir-Apparent or Austria. VIENNA, Apr. IS. When accepting the oatronage of the Austrian Catholic Schools' Association yesterday, Arch duke Frincls, the heir-apparent, caus ed a sensation by delivering a speech in the course of which he declared that he would "willingly assist in combating all efforts directed toward injuring the Catholic religion and disintegrating the Austrian empire." The Radicals interpret the speech as ar. attack on Protestantism and the archduke's incursion into politics Is ex- pect-'J to lead to stormy debates in the relchsrath. ttlEuLASS of Baldwin's Celery Soda ara headMh at mm. It ! t pla. 1 parkllnf, cffarTMMB 4riak that MtalaaiMliaulr. UtlaaaaaadBBrifllM . ?",oh' ftmf ?' " Successor to Th. 01 tern. MM Con. St IRON AND STICK L TRADK. Trust Will Furnish Bettor Service, Im proved Quality and lnvcr Prices, XKW YORK, April IS. The Iron Agv to lay says; By many In the Iron trade the an nouncement of the low prices for ore Is n w interpreted as prtHif of the fact that St in lard Oil principles are to guide the management of the United Slates Sic I Corporation. As one of the bright est sale m magois of one constituent con cern puts It. those principles m be sutmuarixed lirictly: Better scrvliv, improved quality mid lower prUvs. This, so far as the last named tire concerned, would be break ing with the traditions of quite a num ber of leulers In the Iron Industry who have believed In making the best of the opportunity of the moment. A flurry h is b en created by the threat of the Amalgamated Association to force a debt on the recognition of the union In the sheet mills. It Is pieity icrta n, h nvever, that the matter will be ad Justed. The markets continue strong but. as is natural, have quieted down some what In pig Iron after the long period of activity. Reports of large sales of bessetuer pig in the central West are untrue, but. on the other hand, there die's not apH-ar any foundation for the reports of weikness as the result of IV' lower inir of the price of lake or. s. The steel market is rather dull, chiefly Ixvaiiso, while the demand Is restricted, the sup ply Is even narrower and premiums are still paid for pnmpt delivery. In all branches of the finished trade, the I reports of heavy deliveries continue and there Is evidence -shi a good deal of n-w work Is being taken. The t,vl rail makers report some what of a revival in orders. In the Kat almt SonnI tons were placed, while a W. stern estlmat" is fully IOO.oinI t,,ns f,.r t?i- whole country. In other direc'.iot.s. too. there Is a snvwhat larger demand from the rail rod'. Some good blocks of railro.i I bridge work have been recently taken, includ'ng orders for the Mexican tVn rai. for the New York. Ontario & West- i ern. the Xickel Plate and for the Penn sylvania Railroad. The American lirldg" Company has also taken an order for ?) tors of bridge work In Cuba. The activity In building large structures in the lending cities and In manufactur ing1 buildings continues unaba'el and in the aggregate the tonnage Is very large. From Chicago comes the report of some very larire sales of bars to the manufacturers of agricultural Imple ments for for ml delivery, the quanti ty Involved being eO.000 tons. The small er concerns are expected to follow and to swell the total. As an Indication of the condition of affa'.-s in the plate trade, the fact is noted that the Chicago mills are delivering along the Atlantic coas: and In Xew England. ' "H O L A I : S H I PS AWARDED. Announcement Made by Council lumbla University. NEW YORK. April lS.-The uuive,-, siiy council of Columbia University has ! announced among others the award of; the following scholarships In value from j to $1500: j Robert Henry Bradford, Silt Lake I I'ilv t'tnh ma! allnrtr- I William Austin Cannon. Washington. Mich., botany. William Jones, Sac and Fox Agency, f'kla.. anthropology. Henry Raymond Mussy, Port Byron, III . economics. Walter Stanborough Sutton. Kansas City, Kan., zoology. Harvey Watermin Thayer, Sf. Louis, German. David Yancey Thomas, Conway, Ark., history. Samuel Marion Tucker, Spartanburg. S. C, Englh. Alternates: From the faculty of political science; Robert Carlton Clark, Austin. Tex., his tory: from the faculty of pure and ap plied Kt-ienre. Satoru Tetsu Tamura, Io wa City, la., mechanics. Honorary fellowships without emolu ment' William Harry Heck. P.alelgh, N. C. Endowed fellowships: Schiff Fellow ship T.'Irich Bonnell Phillips, Athens, Ga : George William Curtis Fellowship James; Wilford Garner, Peoria. 111. MORE RAILROAD RUMORS. Deal Reported Between Pennsylvania Rail mad Company and Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe. XKW YORK. April 18.-The Tribune says: ) Representatives of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, It Is said on good authority, will soon be elected to mem bership In the board of directors of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company. No Atchison secur ities appear In the long list of stocks and bonds owned by the Pennsylvania, but it Is understood thit heavy pur chases of Atchison stocks, principally the preferred, have been made of late bv Interests identified with the Penn sylvania Railroad Company. The latter road has long had, close traffic relations with the Burlington, the two companies Jointly owning and operating the Toledo, Peoria & Western Rillwav which connects the systems, but in view of the Increasing probabil ity of the acquisition of the Burling ton by the Northern Pacific-Great Northern intercuts, th Pennsylvania, it is said, some time ago begin to make preparations for alliance with another Western line, choosing the Atchison. The latter road touche Kansas City, but does not extend to St. Louis, which is the western terminus of the Penn- svlvanla system, ihe two roads meet ing only In Chicago. It is said that there will be no con nection built hetwivn the two tiMds by extension of the Pennsylvania system westwird of St. Louis, and It Is not believed that any Intention exists of ob taining control of the Atchison by pur chase of a majority of the hitter's stock by the Pennsylvania; but, It Is said lo be possible (hat a t rathe arrangement might without gieat dltllcully be ar ranged by which t radio could be moved from iH-ein to ocimii oxer the Pennsyl vania and the Atchison with, say, one of the lines of the Si. Lniis ; San Kranelsco us the connivtlng link. EXCURSION RATES FIXED. Transcontinental Passenger Ass.viatlou in Sess on in California. Pl.l. MONTE, Ail . April IS - The Transcontinental Passenger Association hi session here lias decided that the rate from Chicago to San Francisco and return for Ihe Episcopal convention, hlch Is to be held In San Francisco, shall be T'O for a (list -class ticket. The rate from rhe M'ssoiiii river will le (.' and from St. Louis and New Or leans H.'.iO. Tickets for this conven tion will be on sale east of Colorado from September It! to 27. In Colora In an'l points west they may le purchas ed ft nt Sept liber 24 to 27. Children will lie allow.' I half-fare prl lieges. The round rlp rate from California to the Piii Ainerican rXosltlon at Buf filo will be made on a Imx'.s of $iiO lo the Missouri river added to whatever rates may be an le east of the river. Ii was leel ed to abolish skeleton tick ets. The foil wliig road have Joined the Association: The Burlington. O.-dar Itii'i ls - Noi-'i ei 'i. the Burlington & Xorthw cs'ern and the Keokuk West ern. The association now numbers lh;rty si roads and It Is annouuiiied thit :h ii i mi )-! may he Increased t" f itu -llv - it the next ini'' ting. The Ciie.U Northern. ".iri.t'll in Pacifl, association. Northern Pacific and ale still oil! of the ENGLISH CARRIE NATION. I "ike of Newcastle Likens John lenlt f (lie Amercan Smasher. NEW YORK. April is. ..-The Duke of N'ewiiistle. who Is r'itarde.1 .is one of the iea l rs of the Ritu ilistic uiove iii n: in ingland. In an interview ,e noun.. -I the brawling that prevailed at the installation of the blsh. p of L.u don. "I think t Is typical of the Anglo. Saxo.i f,,r the minority to attempt lo overthrow the majority by lawlessness," said his grace. ''.Mr. John K.-nslt. th moving rau-e In all th-- unruly church demonstrations, declared several month air i that he would break up the In stallation .,f the ,onl bishop of Lon don. "Mr. J.ibii k'etisit Is lik- your Mis. Carri- Nation of Kansas. Both are Ir responsible and dangerous. Neither one Is truly epris -illative of any diss, ci-'ol or ihilitical principle. Lik" Car-n- Natl .n. .1 dm K'-nsit Is a free lane, d 'In;,- injury to the cause that lie ex tols. Yh"n 111 -ho;, Crelgh'.on was confirm ed lord bishop -if liiiilon, Ki'iislt caused a sini lar seen- of disorder. Th" l-r-gy may eW.(t another repetition at th- enihion-inent of the lord bishop of 1. indon in St. Paul s Cathedral In May next. There are some hun-hes in Lon don .vh-ie Kenslt would not dare to raise his voice. He usually only cre ates a disturbance where he Is sure that his hkin Is safe." Dr. Ingram, the new lord bishop of London, Is a high churchman but he is not a Ritualist. His predecessor was a low churchman. Dr. Ingram was second bishop of Stepney and suffrigan to rhe bishop of Ivmdon. He was ap pointed bishop of Iondon on March 7. succeeding the Right Rev. Mandell Crelghton, who died on January 14, last. PRICE OK SILVER. XEW YORK, April 1.-Silver, Js'j. Fisher's Opera tfoase I.. K. SEI.IW, LMaBii Mantr. ONE NIGHT. WEDNESDAY, APRIL 24 Farewell Tour of die World's Greatest Spe-tacular Dancer. LA L0IE FULLER Who will be seen 'n her New and Marvelous Creations. THE ARCHANGEL and THE TEMPEST In conjunction with an especial ly selected company or hlgh cI.ihs players, who will appear In the charming comedy The Accidental Sweetheart and the screaming farce His Last Chance In which Misa Ad Lewis. Miss Trln der. Miss Ida Banning. Harry Braham, Ohas. Arthur and others will appear, F'.eflned and unique specialties. ADMISSION Reserved seats. $1; gal lery, 50 cents. Seat sale opens Tues day morning at Griffin Herd's. OREGON'S IMONEliR DAYS tConilmicil from Third Page) Cray hi his good ship Columbia. We are now soon (o hive the centennial of Ihe cXtdol 'lilon which i untll'liI'M to us ihe great country tvaclnM by the dis covery. The history of (hose- I rail actions, us (he beginning of the Amer ican empire on the Pa 'iilc coast, is a record of piofouud Int'ivst. It has lis place among the evens of first Import nice In th'i development of the Culled Stales. "The actual discovery of the mouth of ihe river was mule May II. 17!'.'. by Capialn Itob rt, Cray, a New Kuitland navigator, who says In his log-book, under tint dale; "H-held our do'livd port, bearing east sou' heisi. a din nice of six leagues. At s a. in., UdnK a llllle to the windward of the cntranie of the harbor, bore away and run In east-northeast hoiu vn the breakers, hiving from five to seven fathoms of water when we were over the bar we found this to he a :arg river of fivsli water, up whlon we steered. I'apta'n Ciuv remained In the river from Hie llth to the I'Oth of May. lie ascended It nb on :'.'. miles. . Me lies b-it as a memento of bin falluiv the name of Ct Dlr-appiCitlincnt to the promolm y on the north side "tirnv, nailing; out if tin- river to l'e northw inl. in-t Vaiiiiniv er. w h li.i.l sailed Int. i th" Itral.s of Euca. mid compli-t ng his examination of Pugi'i sound -so called by Vancouver f r .1 in Midier of his party. Later In the veir Vancouver sail.sl for the Hay nf San Kranelsco. y.ivlng his llenten int. Itroiighton. t cx iml'ii- the Columbia river. I!rou!iton. In Ihe Chatham, en tered the liver In N'oveiiiber. I7H2. P 'idlng it diltlcult to imii-ml the river with his bark, small as it was. be took his launch and made his way up the sivam too miles To the ultimate point he leachel he give the name of Van. couver. All the way up mid down he spiinkl"il names plentifully. Walker's Island H iiuni-d for one of his men. To Tongue Point he gave the niiini" It bus lo this day. Young s river and bay h" call -,1 f,i Sir ileorge Young o th" liiiilsli navy. To ttiay's bay lc it.ive he name hears, is u compli ment lo the discoverer whose ship had I. mi in it some motohs befoie Wh'-n H: "ii ,-h'."i entered the river he found i iv .i 1 1 Kngllsh esnel which bad b"'n up the coast lo the iioithwai I "ii i Hading voyage, and en its return soulli- ".ill h I I turned I II to I lie Coin id II. I III 'I This ves.se rcir.iiucd .11 ille river lill Itr.uighton is ready to sail vvllh his own brig. I lie Chatham. It vv ih. bark .b iriv, an I Ic r commander w is 'plain It.iker. 1 1 Is n line Is pcrpc: u.ll -e in Hiker' Vn The Chatham an I the J.-inv nt t" s,-,i log.ohei and I'.ik'-r. though disappearing then .nil there from history, has bn his i.anie to lS forever. I'll" I Ml lii l . . II. . I i .lie t'mted States "f obtii.nnient ( a footing tip..n the I'aclllc was n even at this early lay: but It was apple lited only bv u feiv of i. or s:atesmen 'o Thomas Jet f"ison the honor Is due of ,iii, k anl enlv apprehension of the Higtililcinee of Cray's ,.s,-o ery. i 'onllrmutloii of our title to i iregon u.im ass.h lale. In his mind with the acitiillioii of lm Isiana The l w's and Clark party yas organixt-d oulcklv after the lynilsiana Piiri ha.se, and started up the Mlsouil river In the y-ar .mi Wlnteiing at Mandan on the .rtssourl. It prsed on In Ixi'i. pasec over the oiKy Moun tains In the summer of that year, des cended the Kooskoivklo biaillll "f 'lie West, till on the 7iti of Xovmlier. 1 ':,. the horl.on of the Pacific iH-e.ni burl Upon the View between the I VV o lilies of breakers thai marked (lie debouch the givat rv.r Into the gi.nt Paelilr sea. The roinriy .,s 1 1 ready oalli-l 'I'legon.' though th" nrii.- had as ( obialned very little itinemy In Car ver's Travel.., p:iliih,-, r.oii.lon , 177V. the mi hid fir-; app aie, 'h" orlg tl of the nao.e s otle of the ei- iii is of histoiy Carver iioreHsed to have ic -i.ed It f,,iii the Indians In th.. oiin'ty ..r i,e I'pper Mis.Nssiip, Where he had been pll-hUlg Ills explo- ri'ions. The Indians, he siys. told him of th- Itlvr firegon. flowing to Ihe W.T,'e: i ocean; but hovv imn ii of til- t.lle IV IS ,S oVV 0 .IVeto t H illipos llllle l l S.I V. Jeff'-lS.!,, lS'l til.' word In his instructions to U-wlM and Clark showing .hat it whs b-ginning to have a vogue l'f'iV "Th.'llllltopNln" was written; but It was Itryanl's noleinn poem, with Its Honor 'us verse, vvlili Ii appear I lii the year 1S17, tint famll-I.irUi-1 the word "Oregon" and soon put it on every tongue. Various a, counts o? th- lwls and Clark expedition had appeared bicn in the fnlfed S;aleM and Kurope bef ire the apfM-araiiee of "Tlian atopsls," but undoubtedly It as Dry. ant s exp: s.slon, "Where rolls (he Ore. gon," tint did init to spivad the name before the wol'ld, "The men of the f,ewl and Cai k ex pedition w-Te the first Amerlcnim who cairv across ihe continent to the Or, iron country iml the Pacific mean. Ale.xonder Mackenzie, twelve veais ear lier, had come from Canadi, a.HMlng through th- continent and over the mountains from peace Ulcers. M,l(.. kenzle iiiHs.'. i,n west to the si ream which liter took the name of Kruser river, and after following this rlvi-r for some dlstan-'e struck directly west for i lie I'aclllc, wlilcti he reached In Julv ITS". Mackenzie was th flrt man who crossed the continent to the Pacific ocean north of Ihe Spanish noshes. sions. On the results of the expedi tion or Mackenzie and or the voyage r Vinrouver ;he lirltlsh girtrei-nnient wits alien, iy basing a 'arge und general claim to sovereignty on the Pacific. President Ji fTers.m hiistcned the organ ization of the exploring expe,tl to K0 over lanu rrom the united Stales, ror uie purpose of Ptr-'ngthenlng the rights re nan aeiuirca through Grays dls- covery, and of anticipating further ex pedlflons and idalms of frn-at Urltaln. i.ewis and i.iarg were not here too soon, for the Kngllsh ahvidy hiul other exi' dltlons in preparation, and their exolor- ers were on the Ppper Columbia but a little later than the return of Lews ami Clark rrom the mouth or tin stream. Simon Kriser In ISM-K fob lowed to the sea the river that bears ms name, believing at first, as Mackln zie before (,1m had believed, that be was on the Columbia; and another Kngllshman, David Thompson, whoae name Is perpetuated In the well-known tributary or the Fraser, was the first man who explored the upper courses or the Columbia river, and some ye;lrs later he rollowed ll through Us whole cours? to the sea-arriving at Astoria In July, ISM some rour months after the occupation by the Americans. Pres ident Jcffrn had X'en exceedingly anxious that the Lewis and Clark ex pedition should escape the notice of Or"ut Pritaln ami or the lirltlsh North west Company, with whom disnuten about terrltorUi rights, were feared but m ract, the expedition did not escae their notice; for no sooner did ImI and Clark appear on the Missouri than tneir expedition was discovered hv th British, and in 1806 the Northwest Com pany sent out Its men to establish nosfa and oecupy territories on the Colum- hia. This pirty, however, got no fur ther than the Mindan vtllagen on the Missouri, But another party, despatched In 1801. crossed the Kocky Mountain by the passage of Peace river, ana formed ii sin.il Ira Hug establishment mill' the Mill degree of latitude, till' Ills' Hi It bill post west of tlx IbVkV Mountains. Hut It was pot until IMI that auv lingll ''uiicn ciinie Ihroiigh o Ihe country of the Lower Columbia, and then ihe Paclllc Pur Company, or Aslor purl)', was already established here. Hill north of ihe Columbia river there was basis for the claims of Ureal Itrlt'alti; mil the controversy known In our history as the Oregon uueslloii. a lose. Neither pa'ly wus, In truth, abe wholly lo exclude the other; but It W.O the expedllloii of Lewis and CI nk that r.avo us ih" strength of om ii i u ii in 1 1 The iiilk mi our lie of ' llfiy-foiir. forty or light" was merely Ihe civ of a party; rather ihe insolence of partisanship .for Ureal Hrllaln's claims i i a standing below "ilfiy-fnii -fortv" i"sleil on a basis too soil I to b" disposed of In Ibis way; and. besides, our el aim of "llfly-foui-forty" rested merely upon a conyiitioii between tne Culled S ii is and Itiisslu. through which th" latter hud named hfty foiii forty' is the southern boundary of her American possession. Ureit liiiialn, by retiMceiioii of Aslorla lo the full ed S'ates, after the war of isi:1. had ackliow lodgi d our right III Ihe coiiulrv She had. Indeed, never made any ser ious pretension lo the territory south of the Columbia river, but had Insisted on that sirc'ini as the boundary Hue. We had. however, in limy's dlscoveiy. in the explor ill iii of Irfovin and Cbuk and lii the setileiiient of Asora u chain of Idle that made It Impossible for us lo consider this claim. Still, there could b" no termin i! loll of (he dispute till the Hi i v migration of our people p, ihe Ori gon country gradually eslabllshe Aiiiei'lciin Inlbience here; and flnnlly 111" consider ibl. migration of 1SU gave the American a decided preHinderiiiice. especially In Ihe country south if the Columbia Hut (he boundary iioosiloii drigged along, the lirltlsh clalmliu as far sitMh as ihe Columbia and we cl.iliiilnn as far north as nfiy-foiir-for-Iv. till Ihe dual sel lleiu -nt 'n the vai I Mil "The III l rtiallon of tn Lewi ucl ' Ink pirtv n pint I'bitsop is a fainil I ll story; 'lele. especially, .luce No many of he people have visile. Ihe spot and are peifivtly acuualu'.'d w.th the siirround ngs 1 1 it li.-rto the .loiirual of Lewis and ''lark, with !l de rlp llons if hi r country in It vviin I hen of I Ihe Indians and '.Ilea- mod,, or Ife h is I ' I'll Phi Utile it (I'll d by nil- a-ople I V.'e are .omlng to th" llisl ceiiieiinlal i o 'h "Vpe.l Hon and Intend lo cele I br tie It. but vv.- Hhall not kn 'v inn, Ii I .iliont it mil.-.- we siu ly ihe Journal i t l.e.v is an I i 'lark i " Hist i n,, aiitho-ity fo,. in,. ,on,t ' lion ,.f aft ii's at As'oita. fi"in jhe u . I rival ,.f th,. Asioni ,arly In Man h, ' lsll MM iband 'Hinent ,,f the en'ei.ilse ' I" ! is ' ialu-el rr.in. ',ere, ,o. I l""k. iv lit n In Pi- u, h and publlihed I' M' llll.al III ISI.I. W IN tia.l'l.lled III- , to Ki glUh ind i'eiublllie I in New Voik j l i ix'.l. f rancher-, it I. well l.ii,mii. i ' ' In th.- Ton ioln and remained In , I'l tint i I'M A si or it part t here 'ld ' lit th- Inl -Hi ns to agents of ihe frltish Northwest ,'oiii'.in, when to- le'nrne.l horn , across ,he contliienl. It i w is i large party that left Astoria , April I. IMt In all there wne nlmty j persons. wh iin'.i,nk"l In i.-n racoi s I'r 111,'here reche, Montreal I'l Seplelll- , her Ills station, .n: make ll certain I the partner ., could have i iii.t ii t .t i it , ih,.r posiu iii iii the lsiuntry, j had tli -v pos .' riMolutlou and mur age to .a vv i not in fact captured j by the lirltlsh but was transferred un , der a hiiNlhess an. not Hiimii lo auenl of the NiirihweH. Company, True, the Pritlsh sloop of war Unci n, "f 'twen- iv-slx guns, arri.-.-d at AstnOa routi af ter Hi- lirimfer had ! n male ami I ll WOIIM Hot hlV'e I , pilHNlhle (,, hold j Asiorla after that, even had the Amer- I lean deslr I. "The priic.i In ,h, U lr.iyal ..f Vr Asior's 'ii'hvb'.. .in as ll , "f tb I'nlf'd States. a,is Don Un M, . Doiiinill. ah., had left the N'.nthwe.t , Company in hpi to ..nler Astor's ser vice He came out m the Vonuuin, ' and soon after t,N,k to wife the .laugh e of old ColllMlllly. chief ,,f tin. Clnf. sops. M. l lougall leimilni-l here ml j Allll. ISI 7. Wh.-M Je fill y left Put , Oeorge' and returned to Canada In selling Mr. Astor out he s ems p, hav i be... ovci'mhho bv the sii,erlor t.n i and ',('' f J .'i MoT.ivInIi. the prlnclial anein ,,r j,,. .orinw est i 'ompiiny. t me of his ass.Nla'e In ihe Pacific Pur Coiiminv lAleximler lloNsi Nays that McD iiigill wan a man of but ordinary rapacity, with an Irritable, peevish tem per, th- most unfit man In the world lo he i an i-xp "dill. ni ur lo coiuiciind men "Incomparable among th.we who have 'out rllnlle o the i 1 1 i'l ll I ll 1 of ,hl lime Is Irving; but the historical ele ment In his 'Astoria' I overlaid on ul ni'Mst evrv page by the nmiinHc. ,. Is every. vhere on he borderland of ,n inanoe, vvh-n not wholly within 'in realm. Hut ih an Is of so high ipial liy. slinnle and unobstruslve, that the reader sca-cely sippects the narrative. which Is true. Ind I. In I; outline,' and apparently Hie perfection of truth from the way It appeals lo ihe Imagin ation, through th" attractive dresw in whli Ii It Is ir''iill, Irvlng'N sloiy Is an epic. "The only desc-ndant. ho far us I know, of any member ,,f the original Astor nariy, iovv living In Oregon. Is Coloiiel Crooks, of Portland, who holds in oltb lai poslton 'n :he o. It. g, . Compa.iv. Ills father, Ham-ay Crooks, cam w ith the overland or Hunt party, mid returned 'n the same way. Much of the Jmirti"y, both ways, whs made in the winter, and Ihe suffering, of the nart f ro n destitution, fatigue and cold, were extreme. Uamsay Crooks and John Day were separated for a time from ihelr main parly, were rob bed by the lndlins and strlp-d of Ihelr elolhlng. and as he weather was still wintry fit w,i early spring), they were saved only by simple good for. lime. Perhaps vve should my i H 'one of ihoHe nilraoilo'is escapes.' Sonip of their companions whom they had not seen for a long time and were not known by them lo be In the vlclnlly, appeared, a-d they were rescued. Day became Insane mid died. II Is believed at Asto ria; for to that place he was sent hiu k. after Ihe par'y hud started on Its return to (he Kast. Crook lived lo an old age. and dlel In the state of Now Y.yk, In the year ixr.9. "It hns come to paas now In the course of nature, ihiit the citizens of longest residence In Oregon were born here prior to 1X40. With the single ex ecution of the memorable William fjel-g'-r, of Forest (drove, I know of no survivor of the Immigrants of Ameri can nativity, who came previous to that year, or perhaps I should say, 1X4:!. "Hut I her,- is a man still living nt Port HIM, In Ihe Kootenai country, in N irthern Idaho, who saw Oregon be fore any other person now living In It. This Is David MoIughlln. son or Dr. McLoiighlln; now over 80 years or age. "And fo the missionary effort that preceded the general Immigration a debt is due that never should miss acknow ledgement, when the story or the ac- (pilslilon and settlement or Oregon is recited. The missionary enterprise be gan with Jason Lee In 1834. Next came Samuel Parker In 18.15. Whitman and Spauldlmf. with W. H. Gray, followed in 1M. In 1838 came Walker and Kells. IJv 1848 there were In Oregon thirteen commensurate with Its national and bo lsters, thirteen lay members of the Pro- tesinnl missions, three Itotimn Catho. He missionary priest, und a consider able number of ( 'aiiinllan settler of the, Itoman Ciilholli' fiillh, If hr iiiIkmIoii. in v effort did not Hiii'ied a Its au thors hoped III ll illl'ecl plirpoee of helping I he Indians lo uplift and regeu crnle, It did ucceed greatly In its seo olidary purpose, which the American missionaries ever kepi III view; namely, In lending aid to the foundation of a commonwealth llllder the miyeli'lglll y nf ihe I'liliel Hlali'H, for a long (Inni llli'li' Wit illNlllidllllttloil lo give the mis sion. II v work In I iregMti the crclll Hint luslly was Us due; fol' nfler the I uli of liiiiiilgnillon began, Ihe mlNNlouary people vveie ,so to speak. Inundated by It. ii inl what liny had done wa for a lime overlnokisl, Hut going buck as now we iiiiihI. to the study of oiir,'ot. glim ami we shall do this more ami limit vve ale ritilipellisl lo Ci'cogtila'l Ihe greal work which I be mliwloiuit e did I do not say that Oregon woiibt not h ive been held W ithout I lli'lll . but liny wen a powerful factor 111 hold ing 11. Tin nIii.Iv of inir own history Is i hlcMv v ii I u il.lt fur it moral signifi cance an I lutliii'tii'f . It fixe our at teniloii upon the oi gaulaatloit and Ntiu -line of our aoclely. and call I the In fluence of other time on Into our own. It ullrs up to activity the fore' and agencies that bulbl up charucler, that indicate diiiv. Unit prompt to sctlon Thine 'lie III'' fi liven we want. ItuSleif only with our own time and thu con dliions they inett'iil, we fall Into levity; vve forgel whit we owe In our prole ccnnoin, and ihc-n-fiire do not know wlnn we p,iNe. nor reallae It value. Only can vve know what we have , where we me by study or the ismrnc through which our present mmIUoii ha I n atliilned. Vit live nearly In the lO'neiit without regard to the kil, I lo he Clueless of I he future. Jf , poo. Pl" di not know their own hlntory It 1 the same a If they ha.! no history. Kn'. as Macon niv. In one of hi preg n im wnieiice: 'Tbe truth nf knowing and i lie truth or lieliig I all one, the m in s w lia l he knovseth ' "This I a iiimblliig aldrei. Intend ed meiely I i ciilitrlbllte a llllii' t the inter.stN of ihe Hpcvlal iM'aloii by passing be fme Hie mind oinn of the lli"l,eli! and event madlly offeivd to the gle.inor of mir eirllei rtvords Jt wis the l.ewu and CUtli expedition lh.it euibb'l un to follow up the claim base. upon Ihe il'-ivi-ry of the Colum bia river, and enabled us. morrowr to n il, ipate the I'ligiinh ,i their further M'I"i Ve.n and tl!m-..vr'. It eiiabln. I' lo 'loll t,.' country Wesit of the I". h kv Mountains und oiith of ln 4'itli p.nallel, to the I'lllle.l Stale, It gave u the r.i. t ng that i liable, u lo lie. KOlle W Spilll for the 0the! h.iun liy of the iiii-ht,,,, country, which w is tit -. I at Ihe 4.'ii, i.uallel ' The L-v.U and .'lark X --Ilt Lui. to whl, h Hi" gn at I' sulls no idallily iuii ha. k. 'ands th- i fire as on,, of the le.-utliig' episode .,f ir national hlsiory We mii-i , .-l bnle It ceiif. nnlal In lMtii, and 'i-lehi.il.. tt in a manner and on a .rale co.nm tiNuraie vvbli Its ii.il'oln i and bl toilial ltiii..rtance Oregon, of coure. must t ike the leu.l III Ihe i.r.ou. r . , I. I f ,r tin- vent, It i worth while, then. to U" .Very , ,rl 1 1 y (, BBl.n lll- t' iet In the history of the Ix-gltiiinig ,.f mer , an ), t l til-n in (he Pacific North it .'Nt ' It Is In I Ills sp, i, .l4t I ,4V, p.,. I". ide to Ihe Invllatl HI for the pre,.,,! '' "'I nidi a .iibj.vt It I nt- im.t mil in id lo fall In Ilmisnesw. or prolixdv. bv alteiiiilng to cover f.i much g,o, m,..rt r-..av, r e.-iUJ-" III sel. oft..,- ,,11 excellent method for l-'pulir treatment .if thU gr.til sub )" I. and ihlN .it,, lie'doiie with s . lal th,,r .iighn. NN under directloi, of , slele ,-lu. a'loiil vNtein." M Un- cm hisi.iii ,,f the iiddrt-i., s-n- oi. if I'llllol, .poke lell. eXpte.MUK th KIltKul- of (lie l,e,nM.1( ,,( ,,e b'-IIUite and oil,,,, who had itene, p. ll for th llllle llll l colli ise rt llie of Is Inl'-r.-silliig n ,(. hi!oiv The audi,-m e ang "Am.'i -"hi. h Mr Scott held all epllon mm 'I Hi.it "f lll.gon :. a " a r .-I lufoiinal , l.icil l:. ' liiiTHWKM, DKAh. "s' l'io,nei Mining KiiKlne.-r the i lined statisi I S:V VnilK Ap.ll s Itleh,,,,) v- f l"T.,l!le Kothwell . ,e,,. , ,l li,e I '" '".v. A a iiilntiig engineer t bstlnction in , in profession ,,,i a a loon alisi few ni.,, his genera Mo n ( mailed Mr. Itm liwell', service In I III" cause ,,f Industrial science. f' II" was born m Ingeisoll. lint Miyl. I. KIT. ' I Af'er ., pii'llmlnaiy education In ihls? country he i,.,k u lliree.year' course! i the Imperial Sch , , of Mine at Par-) ! ranee, ami In Ixiil e,ilere, Hie min ing academy at Pre.rg, Saxony. "I'l iiiim p. Anierti'.i, he in xii4 i..J Kan vvotk . .., hruelie r-ulo.. ..ft PeiiiisvKania at i:,hley, Drlftoi, -n,( U llkcsharre und there contlnu.il un-f HI MTI. Meaiillme be hid engineer- lug charge of a large number of col-f llei'le ,iu, was also engineer In Ihe' Dixird Maniifactiii'lng Company. rm-J which he d signed ami built what l I'i'obiibly ihe largest wire rope plant In', lb- world. Ill designs Were eii;lrey; nov.-l at th.. tin,,, and the midline h built are silli In active, use, rter a per-': lod or lwei,v.fvi. yeiij-a. In the fKbl of m iiiur.ii luring, of mining and in ih Ireatinini of ore. Mr. Kotliwell maila many notable Inven.lons. In I Hoi. Mr. rtoihwell's practice a cons'iltlnK nlnlng englm-r, probably the largest of any In his profession Hi A 'h'a, hud so Increaaed that he re- niov-d to this dly. Shortly afterward b" ac'iulred an IntereMt In "The KngL neerlna and Mining Journal" of which lie was editor and general manager to the day of his death. Mr. ! tot h well whi a member or many dubs and ms'lell'-a, und he reciveii high recognition both at home m, abroad. In 171 h organized the American In ' stlliile of Mining Knglneers at Wilkes., harre, Pa., and In IN:.' became lis pres. dent. He wus a meiuber of the Hoce4) de I'lndiisirle Mlnerale and the Cleo- ' logical Society of Prance, Paris; an honorary member of the Institution of Mining Knglneers, N. S. W. lie was f. follow or the Oeologlcal Hoclely or In don, of the Imperial Institute, Tindon, Kng., and of the Itoyal Stnllsllcal So-y cb'tv of (ircal Hrllaln and a member ' or the l-Vd-rated Institute of Mining; Knglneers, ('.real Hrllaln; or the Socle l.v or Che ideal Industry. London. Kng.; or the American Society r Civil Kngl n. crs, or the American Htailntlcal As sociation; of the American Trade Pre Assoclitlon and or the. Xew Kngland Free Trade League. i lie had charge or (he statistics or gold and silver ror the United States cen u In 1890. At the Paris exposition In 18118 the Hoelete d'Kncouragement Pour I'Industrle Natlonale de France awarded to his annual publication, "The. Mineral Industry," a gold medal In rec. ognltlon of Its rvlces to the world'! Industry and commerce. His death was due to raneer of th storrach after an Illness of five weeks. .