FAEM AND GARDES
LESSONS FROM EVERYDAY LIFE :iN
JL ltack for Feeding
and Grain, with an
Prevents Seeds and Filth
the Sliccp When Fed.
A SHIPPING COOP.
A coop built on this plan need not
-weigh over three and one-half to three
and three-quarter pounds, and be largo
enough to carry a trio of games or fowls of
medium size anywhere. The coop can bo
made larger for Asiatics and not weigh
over half a pound more.
Take two barrel hoops and six slats or
pieces of lath cross two of the pieces in
the bottom hoop fasten them together in
the middle with a clout or wrought nail
fasten the other four to the top hoop
•with clouts fasten the lower^ends to the
bottom hoop by driving two small nails
through them into the hoop end into the
ends of the crossed laths, and your frame
is completed. Take a piece of coffee sack,
or similar stuff, and cut it round and a
little larger than the bottom hoop lasli
or sew it to the bottom hoop and to the
cross pieces. Take canvas, muslin, tick
ing or whatever you wish to cover it
with, and draw it round and lash it to
the bottom and top hoops cut a piece
of cloth round to cover the top cut the
top piece 111 two across the middle after
it is put on: this will give an opening to
put tne fowls into the coop, after which
the aperture can be laced or sewed to
gether. It the fowls are to go any dis
tance, feed will be necessary, of course
To provide lor this, sew a pjeket 011 the
outside that will hold a pint or more in
side sew another pocket, with the bottom
just even with the bottom of the outside
pocket, the inside pocket to be but about
two inches deep. Cnt or punch a small
hole through the side of the coop to con- in themselves as
nect the 1 wo pockets put the feed into
the outside pocket and it will run through
only as fast as the fowls eat it from the
inside pocket. Wire a drinking cup to
one of the upright slats and to tlis top
hoop, so that it will project half out and
half 111 the coop.
A coop 2(J inches across and 22 inches
high will weigh
pounds and be large
enough for a trio of games. If the fowls
are to go 011 a short journey do. not put
in the feed and drinking cup.
In the New Flat.
Mrs. Honeymoon—Oh. Charlie, what a
small room this is!
Mr. Honeymoon—Very. Spare room, I
s'pjse. bparest room of the lot,.—Harper's
KN3. 1—SU.i:i:i' li.U K.
The accompanying -figure (I'ig. 1) repre-'
sents a feeding where 1 he sheep eat from
the troughs on each side below. The
tight board prevents Lay seed from fall
ing into the wool. The troughs also allow
.feeding with roots and grain.
FIG. 2—SUEKP HACK.
Fig. 2 is across section. The feet A A
should be thick, durable plank, and
notched at L5 to receive the boards of
the troughs. If desired, the wide board
may answer as a cover.
A Word About Feiiccs.
In spdioiis where rail timber is near at
hand the cheapest fence is the old fash
ioned Virginia worm fence, except in cases
where there is a market for the timber
that makes it more valuable for other
purposes. In that case the regulation
board fence, with two posts to a sixteen
foot length, and which is too well known
to require a description, will be the cheap
est a:u! best. In localities where timber
is scarce the wire fence is increasing all
the time in favor. Farmers who fear in
jury to stock from the barbs are many of
them making a combination fence" of
boards and wire.
For a hedge fence, the osage orange, all
things considered, is the best for all sec
tions where it is not liable to be winter
killed. It grows from the seed more
readily than the thorns, and in a few
years makes an impenetrable fence. It is
difficult to root out when once estab
lished, and for this reason should not be
used for division fences unless they are
expected to remain permanently. Hedges
require attention and frequent pruning
to keep them sightly ajid under subjec
tion. While they are still well thought
of by many, it is doubtful if the hedge
fence is increasing in general popularity
for farm purposes. I11 the older settled
sections of'the country fewer highway
fences are being made every year. The
opinion is constantly gaining ground that
stock should be fenced in instead of being
A California Shipping Coop.
The California Cackler describes the
shipping coop here illustrated. The dia
gram is simply an illustration of the
Warnings ffoui the Spirits
eil—Gloomy Forebodings—Fate of the
Good Ship Friday—Birds of the Sea.
In response to the query of a corre
spondent for some good plan for a feeding
rack for sheep—somo arrangement that
prevents seeds and filth from hay drop
ping 011 the wool while the animals are
feeding—Country Gentleman replies .by
furnishing the jfollowing:
Sailors believe that the spirits of the
departed, as in life, possess all their own
peculiar ways of warning or communi
cating to their friends on earth such in
formation as they deem essential to their
welfare and happiness. It is not an un-
triflng lil.tle changes in the flowing and
ebbing of the sea as indicative of some
prospective ill luck or joy.
1 Lirelv does it happen that the etymol
ogy of their superstition contains a pre
cursor for jov. Such gloomy forebodings
as they are capable of interpreting are in
variably omens of misfortune. Truly
may it be said that superstition forms the
alphabet of the seafaring man as one
jgnorant of its varied branches is gener
ally looked upon as "green," and becomes
a butt of his moro fortunate and enlight
Their transformation into the ethereal
realms of space does not, in the belief of
those whom they have left behind, alter
their ideas one iota, and hence it is that
the several trifling mishaps and other cir
cumstances incidental to a voyage are in
terpreted by the sailors into realities
which would iill a volume in themselves.
In justice to them, however, be it said,
tfcut-such fatuitions conceptions are not
without foundation, as the loss of tho
steamship Friday many years ago will
FATE OI'' TIIH FlirOAY.
This vessel was a huge ironclad, built
in Scotland regardless of expense, and
named -after tho unlucky day. She was
manned and commanded by capable and
experienced oliieers, selected for their
capabilities, and altogether thoroughly
adapted for such a task as the trial voy
age of an ocean steamer. She set sail on
Friday, and when Hearing the Cape of
IX AWE OK TIIE SirAKK.
The common barnacle which adheres to
a, ship's side becomes, according to their
belief, later on in life a goose. But among
ill those signs nothing is so well calcu
.ated to fill them with awe as the appear
mce of a shark. When this monster of
:he deep is seen to follow a ship for
several days a death is to occur on board,
lud while clambering up the rigging
xtra pains are adopted in making their
journey a safe and successful one. The
ship is then evidently haunted, and the
faces of her crew, but recently smiling,
ire now decorated with expressions at
-jnce thoughtful and lugubrious.
The cc-mmon mirage fills sailors with
Iread, and betokens an early death to
some of i's observers. Carrying a corpse
or board appears to them to be inviting
iisaster. ilid eases are on "record where
the crew have become mutinous and re
fractory until the distasteful freight was
.ovvered 111 to the sea.
Norwegian si-ilors are inveterate slaves
a form of superstition exclusively their
JWH. They believe in the existence of a
iieck or merman, a sea animal represented
is having a. fish body with tile head of
man and the flowing ringlets cf a boy.
The lnernia'i sits upon the v.aves, plays,
the harp. and. following the example of
many of the Norse fishermen, wears a red
ap. It is never seen more tinln once iu
seven years, and 110 matter how many
vessels appear i:i its sight they ali must
The crew, according to tlieir belief, are
then transplanted in the merman's re
gions, where, after a brief stay, they go
to swell the shoal of hecks, and aro then
disastrous as the origi
nal:*. The kraken, a sea monster whose
existence I13sheen so often attested by
the evidences of alleged eye witnesses
that one is at a loss to know whether it is
real or has a being only in the minds of
superstitious sailors, is a constant sourco
.f alarm to them.
Jinny assertions which have been made
at tiroes regarding tho existence of this
leviathan, which occasions so much dread
in the minds of the Norse fishermen, havo
been rejected as mere superstition. Still
some aut.hentic grounds for a belief hi its
existence are 011 record. Tho Norwegian
differs from his English brother only in
this particular belief, but in all other es
sential respects sailors of all ages and
nationalities worship tho same supersti
ti .us creed.-- .Tames W. Oavun in New
common occurrence for them to credit the anee, and 110 turn your back to the bow of
shades of some friend with many of those the boat, while speaking the words." Only
Hope a few weeks afterward on that ver»
same day, sank, drowning ail her crew.
It hi believed that owing to this disaster
seamen have considerable fear of puttiv.g
to sea on Friday, and some go so far as to
say that their fears date from this sad
cata.s'rophe. Captains of small vessels
have always dreaded the prospect of sail
ing on Friday, while those of larger ones
look upon that day with the greatest non
chalance and unconcern.
The sailor on land and on sea are two
distinct characters, each possessing his
JV.-U singular attributes. On land 110
other being has a more utter disregard of
premature danger or mishaps, as his daily
actions and nocturnal orgies demonstrate,
so when once 011 sea he blossoms out
again into smiles of excessive obsequious
ness. There when danger dogs his foot
steps at every track superstition is his
idol to it I10 sacrifices every selfish senti
ment,, and in it he trusts for those happy
presentiments which may afterward vav'o
him from destruction.
Even while paKJtking of tlieir meals
sailors rarely lose an -portunity of dis
cussing and rehearti.ig 'stories which the
average man would regard AS the product
af a maniac's brain. The day's happen
ings are interpreted by each and notes ex
changed. The most gifted romancer is
then looked upon with feelings of rever
ence and respect. A visit to their sleeping
quarters will reveal a miscellaneous col
lection of horseshoes, nails, palmlike
leaves and numerous other articles, each
of which has a history of its own. When
birds are swept aboard in a storm they are
invariably left untouched, as sailors eye
them with delight and satisfaction as tho
spirits of some dear departed friend met
amorphosed. The birds of the sea,
notably the petrel, immortalized by Proc
tor, _iid the seagull, are held sacred in
ronsequence of the latter apparently rest
ing on the surface of the sea after the
manner of the Saviour 011 tho Lake of
Whenever this occurs in the immediate
v-iciraty of a ship a calm is predicted, and
the jolly tars lose little or 110 time iu
notifying the captain of their glorious
vision. In sailors' eyes the porpoises aro
never pleasant objects to contemplate.
When they suddenly appear during a calm
the sailors look for another wind from the
same quarter as that which was blown
Kit, and if they skip about it means that
1 gale is coming.
THE TUAVI'UiR'S LUCK.
SUPERSTITIONS CONCERNING THOSE
WHO START ON A JOURNEY.
"Good Luck" at the Parting—People Wboin
It Is Lucky to Meet—A Negro Supersti
tion— A Chinese Notion—The Hump
.There is an old superstition which says,
"You must never watch a traveler out of
sight," and still another, "You maun
bid him godspeed thrice and good luck
I a few weeks ago. while making one of a
throng of people who were bidding adieu
to friends bound across the Atlantic, I
noticed that the words "good luck" were
oftener used iu one form or another than
any other expression of farewell it was:
"(iood luck go with you," "Good hick to
you," "Luck to you," "Good-by and good
luck" and one old h-ish grandmother,
after devoutly crossing herself, called out
to her daughter, "The blessed Virgin
bring you and good luck back to me,"
while 1 among the rest found myself say
ing, "A lucky trip to juu. captain," as
that monarch of all he surveyed stepped
onboard his kingdom, a big ocean steamer,
although 1 am afraid 1 was tempted to
say it not so much in my belief of the
good it would bring him as in a lore
knowledge that he was not only honestly
superstitious, but firmly believed in such
a wish bringing the safe, quick voyage he
hoped for, and I aui glad to say that in
this case the omen proved good.
With some sailing masters, however,
such an expression would foretell any
thing but good luck, and in fact many
people, dislike to havo luck given them in
this way. believing that it is ill luck to
speak of luck at all and there are others
who, whether they believe in it or not,
like to have pleasant things prophesied to
them, or, in oth.'rr words, "they are not
superstitious, but they do like to have
the signs on the right side."
STAIiTINti OX A .IOUHNKY.
There are plenty of wise men and women
who will on no account turn back after
starting 011 a journey if compelled to,
they must sit down or change some gar
ment before going out again others who
think it the luckiest thing in the world
to have left something that they really
need, for then they say, "We are sure to
go back," especially a pair of slippers or
an undergarment. Scotch people aro very
superstitious about the first person they
meet 111 the morning 011 going out for tho
day or starting 011 a journey. If it is a
woman, and she is well dressed and pleas
ant looking, then it is good a beautiful
child is rare good luck, especially if you
can get the little one to notice yon a
business man with a quick, brisk walk,
or a workman with his loois and filled
lunch pail, is also lucky to meet while
the postman, policeman, doctor and priest
are all forerunners of anxiety, and you
"need be unco canny and unco warv, for
there's inuckle depends 011 your prudence
A universal negro superstition—and
have found it existing among the Israel
ites of New York city—is to ask a question
of any stranger who strikes their fancy,
and if answered satisfactorily, they be
lieve they have taken that person's luck.
I once asked an old colored aunty who
had been eying me for some time, and
who 1 saw was about to make somo in
quiry, why she wanted my luck. She
looked at me a moment, and seeing I was
in earnest, said. "Well, honey. I don't
want all your luck, but you's young and
kin get more, and I's gwino to see my
daughter, who am expecting a little baby
girl, and I wants her to look just like
you." The compliment was appreciated,
and so when she left the cars 1 carefully
dropped a silver dollar where she would
sec it. Picking it up and holding it out
for me to see, she exclaimed. "1 knowed
you'd bring me luck."
A German superstition, and out said to
alter your luck if it does not please you,
is to change or remove some article of
If you are not tlpnking of taking a
I journey and find a key, you may expect
very shortly to have to pack your trunk.
To start on a journey with thfcncw moon
is by far the luckiest thing one can do.
A white mark on the nail of the little
finger of either hand is said to foretell a
journey, the old saying, "A gift, a friend,
a foe, a lover to come, and a journey to
go," being firmly believed in by more
than one wise woman. Cut your nails on
Haturdav if you wish to travel, for to cut
them 011 Monday is to cut them for health,
:m Tuesday for wealth. 011 Wednesday for
II letter, on Thursday for better, on Friday
for woe, on Saturday a journey to go.
It is considered very lucky by some to
meet a humpbacked person when starting
on a journey, and if you would have rare
good luck be sure to touch his hump.
When starting on a journey remember
to put your right stocking on first and
your right foot out of the house first, and
do not look back at the house after tho
front door is closed.—Harper's Bazar.
i:^w Material of
"The human boy," says Tho London
Evening News, "is a potentially important
member of society, in that ho is tho raw
material of man but only a prejudiced
xast'i can put him 0:1 a par with tho
ilowcir of the field r.s a thing of beauty
cud joy forever." Hero wo have tho
English article pictured.
But the wild, unkempt American speci
men—we mean the composito product—is
a rrtndy of more than passing interest.
What he lacks iu fine qualities is made up
Lu\. robustious, full orbed love of mis
chief. In him you have the miniature of
•f.cioiis. restless, rcsourcei'ul man
always eager and ready to vent his
spirits, sometimes at his own
coil, but chiefly to the disadvantage of
others. But there is the making of a man
ia him every time under our free and un
fettered institutions, and that benelit in
heres in American life as contrasted v.-itli
the crowded condition in which tlieso less
favored sons r.ro born who live and die c:i
British soil, with scarcely a hope, in tho
vest majority cf cases, of rising abovotho
dead level of their early career.—Boston
When a Cincinnati husband was asked
in court if he dragged his wife out of bed
ly the hair ho said he couldn't really re
member, as that was a very busy morn
ing with him.—Detroit Free Press.
clothing, such as the right cuff to the
left arm. or your earrings or finger rings,
or take off your hat, being careful to put
it on straight.
A CHINESE NOTION.
The Chinese believe that when starting
011 a journey it is great good luck to have
an insect or reptile go out before you, or,
better still, to cross your path coming
from the left side.
I 111 '. 1 7
WOMEN'S RIGHTS IN AFRICA.
Mr. Pauli, who lived for some time in
the Cameroon region, West Africa, tell§
of a highly successful woman's rights
movement a while ago in the Akona tribe,
illustrating the fact that when women
unanimously assert them in savage lands,
as well as elsewhere, they are a great
power in the community. I11 that be
nighted region women are not supposed
to have any rights. When a girl is 13 or
14 years old sho is sold to anybody who
has property enough to pay tho price her
father asks for her, and thereafter sho
works like a slave for her board and
lodging and is subject to all the caprices
of her lord and master. Eveu the bonds
men in tho community havo more priv
ileges than tho free, women, and somo of
them in time are able to support rather
extensive harems of their own.
It happened that there were some strong
minded women among tho Akona people,
and thev lifted up their voices in public
places in favor of some radical social re
forms that would make tho lot of woman
kind rather moro endurable. They were
jeered at, as women reformers lmve been
in some other lands, and \yerc advised by
tho superior sex to keep 011 digging in the
fields and pounding manioc root and
thank fortune that their lot was not less
tolerable. Reform was evidently not to
bo secured by any amount of feminine
protest, and so these strong minded
women put their long heads together and
decided upon radical and far reaching
The tribe is a small one. Nearly all the
adult females in it enlisted under the ban
ner of women's rights. One day there was
an enormous commotion in that little
community. It was almost wholly con
lined to tho male population, the fact
being that there was hardly a woman there
to share tho excitement. The mothers
and wives, in a most unexpected and
heartless manner, had suddenly dropped
their implements of drudgery, and with
their children in arms and marriageable
daughters had hied them through the
forests to tho territory of another tribe,
where, at a distance of eight or tea miles
from their own garden patches, they were
prepared to open negotiations with tho
lordly chapel they had left behind them.
They knew beforehand that they would
meet with a hospitable reception in the
tribe vtith which they took refuge, it
happened that this tribe was larger than
tho Akona, and did 110't like them very
well, and it tickled them half to death to
see the pickle in which the Akona men
suddenly found themselves. The women
set themselves to work earning their
daily bread, and waited without a bit of
impatience for an embassy from home. It
was not long before the embassy put in an
The Akona tribe was of the opinion that
they could not continue in business
without the female members thereof, and
they wanted tho women to como home.
Tho particularly strong minded spokes
man of tho refugees said sho was glad to
learn at last that the women of their
tribo were regarded as a desirable ele
ment of the Akona people. As the women
had taken care of all the men, it was evi
dent they were able to take care of them
selves, and they hadn't tho slightest in
tention of going home except on certain
important conditions, which she specified.
Then the embassy went homo to consult
the chief men, who, as their harems were
tho largest, were the greatest sufferers by
the flight of tho fair sex.
The women stipulated that they would
come back if a considerable part of the
agricultural duties of tho community
were in future turned over to the slaves,
if tho mothers were permitted to have
something to say about the disposal of
their daughters, and if several other con
ditions were complied with. It did not
take longjfor the' gentlemen of Alcona to
decide what to do. A day or two later
the women went back in high feather,
having achieved a complete victory, and
they have been treated wry well ever
since.—New York Sun.
:Uplu(iis Broken Artio.be*.
In the majority of families there is no
such code as v.-110 break pays. If it were
universally obeyed there would be less
broken glass and china for tho city health
department to surreptitiously cart away
Jroni our kitchen doors. For, though the
unique article cannot be replaced in kind,
it may have its substitute that will
answer quite as well. Occasionally an
honest soul takes upon herself to repair
the mischief she has committed, without
making confession, as happened not long
since in one of tho most artfully decorated
interiors iu a fashionable locality. The
little maid who has charge of tlieso valu
ables is a quaint foreigner, aud as
as she is reliable and honest. It was her
bad luck to break a certain piece of hand
painted china which bore the auto
graph of the giver and artist. Know
ing the great store set upon this
fragile souvenir. the poor little
maid was iu despair, and her courage
failed her. Sho could not confess what
havoc her duster had made among the
bric-a-brac. That was beyond her
strength but she could go down town
and match it at 110 matter what cost to
her meager purse. But. alas, the work of
the poet artist could not be duplicated, as
sho soon discovered.
What, then, was to be done? Visions
of prison, of lie scaffold even, Kise be
fore lier. until it was suggested at one of
the shops that she have another piece
made like it. Exactly? Well, then, why
not, and, armed with the address of a
skillful decorator, away she flew to know
if this lovely china painting, autograph
and all. could be reproduced. The result
of her inquiry stands at this moment on
the Louis XV cabinet in milady's parlor,
and no one. not even the original artist,
will ever be the wiser! Besides, the out
lay for tho replica was only $l.oO. Ah,
yes! hone.-ity is the best i.oliev.—Kostoil
Collections of Butterflies.
One of the three finest collections of
butterflies in the world—the two others
belonging to the British museum and a
Paris institution—has been made by Mr.
Berthold Neunoegen, of the New York
Stock Exchange. It contains 100,000
specimens, and has cost twenty years in
time and $35,000 in money Livingstone,
Stanley, Schwatka and other explorers
have contributed to it.—Once a Week.
Tho Trade in Sealskins.
The seelskin sacque is a great institu
tion. During the time the Alaska Fur
Seal company has had the privilege of
taking seals from the waters of that ter
ritory it has paid over $8,000,000 to' the
government, or a sum exceeding by over
$1,000,000 the price paid for the whole of
Alaska, with the seal islands included.—
OBIN W. FRANCIS, H. C. SOUTHARD.
FRANCIS 1 SOUTHARD.
ATTORNEYS AT LAW.
Attention given to Land Office
Rooms 1, '2 and
J. R. WINSLOW,
~L UMBE R.
Lath, Sash, Doors, Mouldings,
Building Paper, Etc., Etc
anu 1 alio, main ji., \ji. nOiuicm JuaisAJta UiCVdlUi.
Selling Out at Cost!
J. M. TRENAKY
Coal and Wood,
Gull River Lumber Co.
MANUPACTUKEHS AND DEALERS
Lumber, Shingles, Sash, Door s.
Mills at Gull River, Minnesota.
Yard—North Sicle, near N. P.
RUSSELL, MILLER MILLING COMPANY, Proprietors
Manufacturers of FLOUR AND FEED.
THE CELEBRATED BRANDS:
IMIe of Jamestown, "A" Patent, (Johlou Kortlnvesl
Bed River B&Lk
JOHN F. VENNUM, PROPRIETOR.
All kinds of Hauling and Freiglitit
Jone on short notice. Will also tal«
contracts for building Claim Shanti*
Breaking and Tree Planting.
Till-: nilMCCT f.IN'K BI5TWKEN
Minnesota, Dakota, Montana
Idaho, Washington Territory,
British Columbia, Puget Sound
Kxprcss Trains l) ii!v, to Uliicli are attached
Pullman Palace Sleepers
AND ELEGANT DINING CARS.
No Change of Cars
St. Taul and Portland,
t)X ANY CLASH OK TICKET.
EMIGRANT SLEEPERS FREE.
The Only All Rail Line to the
For all information as to Time, liates, etc..
CHAS S. FEE,
General Tass. 4.g't, St. Paul, Minn.
KNTIUK STOt'K OF
WATCHES, CLOCKS, JEWELRY,
Must be sold out before No
Now is the time to set bar
gains in the Jewelry line.
Houghton & Williams
A. W. Kelley & Son,
Wholesale and Retail Dealers in
Oat Meal, Bolted Corn Meal, Etc
MINNEAPOLIS & ST. LOUIS
AND THE FAMOUS
"Albert Lea Route."
Two Through Trains Daily
From St. Paul and Minneanolis
Without change, connecting with the FastTrai»,
of all lines for the
East and Southeast!
THE DIRECT AND ONLY LINE RUNNING THROUGH
CARS BETWEEN MINNEAPOLIS AND
DES MOINES, IOWA,
Via Albtrt .T.ea and Fort Dodge.
DIRECT LINE TOJ/ATERTOWN, DAKOTA.
2 SOLID THROUGH TRAILS 2
MINNEAPOLIS and St. LOUIS
and the Principal Citie* of the MitM«ipp Valley
contectinK in Union Depot with a
pointHsouth and southwest.
MANY HOURS SAVED
ning two trains daily to 1/ AMCAC f»ITV
Leavenworth and Atchi-**™'"®"® 1/1 I T,
son, making connections with the Union Pacific
and Atchison, Topeka & Banta Fe railways.
t2T*Close connection* made in Union Depot
with all trains of the St. Pan., Minneapolis A
Manitoba, Northern Pacific, St. Panl & Dnlnth
Railways, from and to all points north and ccrth
St. Lonis railway
ar composed of Comf rtable Day Coaches, mag
nflcent Pullman Sleei ing Cars, llorton Reclining
Chair Cars, and onr justly celebrated
PALACE DINING CAKS!
ISO LBS. OE BAGGAGE CHECKED FREB.
Fare always as Low as the Lowest. For Time
Tables, Through Tickets, etc., call npon the
nearest Tet Agent or write to
S. F. BOYD.
Pen'!*1!"'. "-lit. Minn
SUBSCRIBE FOR THE
xml | txt