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ENCOURAGING FOR FARMERS So Says a Milwaukee Editor of the Outlook in North Dakota. The Reduction of Wheat Acre ages in favor of Stock Ap provingly Noticed. Ail Apparent Increase in De« iiiuml for Farmiutf Lands at Advanced Prices. North Dakota Prospects Looking Up ward. The following is an excerpt from a two column letter which appeared in the Milwaukee Sentinel of June 21st under the Jamestown date line. It was written by Mr. Fred'k. W. Friese, a member of the Sentinel staff, who is interested in Stutsman county realty and who spent several weeks here last month: The outlook for the new grain crop is the beet in live years, and with diversify ing cf agricultural industry prosperity seems attainable. During the past three years farmers have placed considerable stock on their fields, and, although prices here are much lower than in the large markets, the income derived from this source already is considerable. Prices paid here for young «nd for grass-fed cattle are 82.50 to 93.00 per 100 pounds, and as hay is not scarce and the nutri tious buffalo grass on the prairies in abundant supply and costing nothing, farmers find stock-raiBing much more certain and profitable than wheat-grow ing, especially as crop failures have been frequent and prices too low. Beef cattle probably will not be as cheap as they were in the past five years, when the ranchmen sold a large number of cows for slaughtering, on account of the un profitable character of the business un der the influence of the encroachment of settlers on the feeding grounds. The latter will be reduced steadily, and al ready here in this part of North Dakota it is difficult to find extensive fields for grazing, most of the land available being occupied. On a small scale, however, every farmer will be able to raise enough stock to supply himself with money when his grain crop fails. Some of the land devoted to wheat-growing is being used for raising millet, which yields from two to four tons of hay per acre, and is fully as nutritious as the latter product. Cows and neat cattle generally like it and now fat on it. Horses, how ever, shonla not have it, as it develops kidney disease and kills the animals though only when it oontains the seed. The cattle business is developing, dairying and cheese and butter factories are everywhere coming into existence. The chief obstacle to the success of the dairy factory is the long distance at which stock farmers carry on their oper ations, involving the expenditure of con siderable valuable time in carrying milk to their market. At present a sheep craze has taken possession of Dakota farmers, some of whom are investing somewhat beyond their means in the hope of retrieving their losses in a raid manner. About 30,000 sheep were brought into thio county alone from Montana last year, and probably as many more will be put here during the current year. The price paid generally is about 83 per head, and farmers figure on making a profit of 33 per cent, per/ annum on their investment a nice scheme on paper, where the losses are not visible. Sheep require considerable care at certain times, and lambs are deli cate and perishable property. Their ad vent into existence shonla be arranged for with some degree of certainty, and not earlier (in this part of the country) than April 30—May 15 would be much better. Some of the Hooks bought by farmers brought lambs during the win ter, and the result was disastrous to the farmer, who found his prospective profits dwindle away into a possible loss when the little creatures died from exposure to the inclemency of a Dakota winter. The old animals are not sensitive to cold, and require only to be sheltered from wet weather, their fleeces protecting them from the zero temperature, but lambs must be kept warm and nursed carefully during the early period of their existence. The increased production of magnitude is likely to exert some influ ence on the prices of mutton and wool, which have ruled at a remunerative range for some time past. The natural increase from the flocks is ratid, and when the farmers have been supplied and begin to market any considerable number of sheep the price probably will feel the effect. Thus it^vould be well for farmers not to count with too much cer tainty on the reaping of enormous profits from their investment. Sheep can be kept in the summer on land which would not support cattle, and the supply of water required by them is moderate. They feed considerably at night after the dew falls on the grass, which slacks their thirst. WolveB and dogs are enemies of sheep, and in Dakota the former are worse than the latter, though fortunately their number is not large. Sheep will pay a fair profit when well taken care of, but will not enrich everybody who at tempts the business. The amateur farmers have departed, and their lands have been turned over to the holders of the mortgages, who enter into possession of property which is worth much more than it cost them, and they pursue a course, thanks to the dear experience of their predecessors, much better calculated to result in prosperity. The wheat aoreage is being reduced in favor of other products, stock and sheep, There are many successful farmers in this state who haye made money every year, failure or no of crops A promin ent example in this part, the upper, of the James river valley, is the Carrington & Casey land and improvement company located at Carriugton, "bout fifty miles north of this place, aud adjoining the Jamestown & Northern branch of the Northern Pacific. Senator Casey, one of the members of the firm, is one of the oldest settlers of Dakota, and has "grown up with the country," having been elect ed to the United States senate last year. His organization farms half a dozen sec tions, and raises a large amount of wheat yearly. Like all other residents of Da kota, the senator has experienced adver sity and discouragement, but he has faith in the ultimate success of his venture, and says Dakota has seen its darkest days and promises. this year to redeem its promises. The crop outlook now is better than in six years, and this already has caused an increased demand for farming land, some of which has been sold at per acre, according to iuality. Where there are improvements in the form of plowed land, $2 per acre is paid in addition. Localities where there are other settlers are preferred, and there land brings the highest prices. The farms on which mortgages have been foreclosed are not generally offered on the market at this time or at anything like the prices which they cost the pres ent owners. Some of the settlers who became discouraged a year or two ago went elsewhere on a prospecting tour, have returned and are prepared to dem onstrate from personal experience that, on the whole, Dakota is no worse off than other states. Industry, perserverance and good judgment invariably have been followed by success, in Dakota as well as elsewhere. Ill health and special cases of misfortune, of course, are productive of failure, bnt they are rare exceptions. Of the the successful farmers on a mod erate scale, in this country, may be cited Adam Elliott, formerly of Waukesha county, Wis., and now located near Parkhurst, seven miles north of James town. He has raised six crops of wheat on his farm and experienced no failure as yet—has made money every year. I passed by his farm the* other day and noted 100 acres of the finest wheat in this county, but it has taken hard work to make it so. A considerable acreage of wheat in Dakota this year was-seeded on the stubble—drilled in. "What will the harvest be?" Probably "nothing much." District Court. The July term of the district court for this county opened Tuesday morning.The indications are that the term will be a short one. The calendar is one of the lightest ever seen here. Upon it are 47 continued, and only 10 new cases. There is a grand jury this term, however, and the length and expense of the term de pends largely upon the work it cuts out. All of the grand jurors called were present, except A Richmond and Martin Scidmore, th» latter having been exoused by the judge. George Jackson, G. E. Lyman, D. A. Langworthy and Lambert Smith presented excuses and were ex cused. Chas. Brady was not a full citi zen, but took out his final papers in order to sit as one of the jurors. Judge Rose directed Sheriff Sehmitz to sum mon six jurors to fill the places of tnose excused and in the meantime the calen dar was called. It was cleared of con siderable dead wood. Several cases were stricken from the calendar and a number were continued. When the case of Larison vs. Wilber et al was reached Fredrus Baldwin for the defense moved that it be stricken from the calendar be cause notice of trial had not been issued legally. The matter was argued at length by Mr. Baldwin and the plaintiffs attorneys, MesBro. Watson and Glaspell. and Judge Rose reserved his decision until afternoon. In the case of Jas. L. Sharlowvs. Messrs. Stoddard, Hull and Ellison, Manon Conklin for the defense, asked to have the case transferred to LaMoure county. The court issued an order giv ing the defense until Thursday to pre sent facts bearing on the merits of the case. At the opening of court, States Attor ney Conklin stated that L. Blum and Levi Points were under bonds to appear at this term of court and asked that they be called. The court crier called "Louis Blum" three times and then Attorney Baldwin stated that the surety on his bond, S. S. Altschul was ready to pro duce the $200 which Blum forfeits rather than appear and stand trial. Mr. Points was not present, but Mr. Baldwin 6aid he was on his way to town. Points was held over to this term of court on a charge of selling mortgaged grain. COURT NOTES. Attorney Jones, of the firm of Jones & McLaren, St. Paul, was here Monday to look after the cases of the Capital Bank of St. Paul, against certain Barnes county Bchool districts, and arranged to have three of them dismissed, they hav ing been transferred to another court for trial. One of the cases has been settled. The court house now looks very neat and attractive, having recently been painted and calcimined throughout, at tention which it sadly needed. The only prisoner in the county jail is Johnny Van Hest, who last March ap propriated a roll of bills belonging to Engineer Pettey of the Electric Light station. The charge against him is grand larceny. There are three oriminal cases that will be tried this term. The grand jury is liable to make some more oriminal businesp. O. K. Andrus of Valley City, came in this noon to look after some cases in which he appears as attorney. THE forthcoming report of the com missioner of the general land office will show a great increase in business over the preceding years. There has been a notable increase since Commissioner Carter was inducted into office. 'Wf^f VOL XIV JAMESTOWN, NORTH DAKOTA. THURSDAY JULY 9 1891 -.y v* f/v'' 'vl GREAT WAS THE GLACIER. A Government Geologist on Ar tesian Strata and Glacial Movements. Facts Which Seem to Show That the Missouri River has Changed Its Bed. The Mystery of the Old Lime stone Boulders—Whence Cometh They? A Geological Journey. Prof. Robert Hay of the government geological survey, who is detailed to the work of determining the area of and de posits composing the artesian well basin of North and South Dakota, says there is found considerable difference in the pressure of wells bored near together. Near Woonsocket, South Dakota, there are two wells within a mile of each other and the one Inst bored has reduced the pressure and volume of the other. In Yankton county the same result is notic ed. The legislature, which has already passed excellent irrigation laws, should require, says Mr. Hay, that wells be not located in close proximity, and that this matter should properly come under thedi rection of the superintendent of forestry and irrigation, which office is now a reg ularly established function of the state government. To an Alert reporter Mr. Hay stated that for scientific and other purposes every contract for an artesian well should require the record kept of the different formations through which the excavation passes." No artesian well contractor will do this unless stipulated in his contract, and final payment ought to be contingent on the preservation of the record. Th9 importance of The limestone boulders, which are con tinual puzzles to the geologist, present many evidences of oceanic origin. There are numerous fossil remains found in them,—molluscs that lived in the old Silurian age. way oack in the early periods of the formation of the earth's crust. These boulders must be of very ancient origin, because as far as noticed they contain fossils of the early and simpler forms, characteristic of those eras. Among these fossils are the tri lobites one of the commonest of the ex tinct species of molluscs that flourished in paleazoic times. The course of the glaciers southward is plainly marked east of the Missour river. West of that Btream there are few or no deposits of glacial drift. Princi pally on this account, Prof. Hay says that it is not improbable that the Mis souri river once ran through the center of the two Dakotas, possibly where the Tames river valley now marks along and noticeable depression in the surface of the country, and that the present turbid and crooked stream has been literally pushed westward to its present chan nel by the encroaching forces of glaciers slowly moving southward and filling up the depressions of the tract covered with the materials conveyed by them. The great river, which has its source in the mountains, fed by streams of melting snow and ice, probably ran eastward as far as the Devils Lake, be fore taking its old southerly course. The only glacial drift found west of the Missouri is near the mountains and came from them, while the drift east of the river belongs to otner distant and differ ent formations. The present existing streams, valleys and coolies have been formed by the washing of great streams of water, that have followed the melting of the glaciers. The water flowing over the deposits left by the glaciers—earths and shales that were softened and easily disturbed—has •"l,y \W' WEEKLT washed out the valleys and left the pres ent inconsiderable streams such as the James and Sheyenne rivers. The drift or diluvium deposited by the glaciers is easily noticed in the coolies and valleys, along the upper ridge of which are seen accumulations of boulders. The reason why a line of boulders nearly always marks the top of the sides the valleys is that the other boulders originally left in the soil washed away, have also been carried off by the rush of water. It is not belieyed by Prof. Hay that the presence of the large numbers of bould ers that lie piled thick on the shores of many of the lakes in this state can be ac counted for by the actipn of freezing and thawing which has pushed the rocks on the shore. He thinks that many of the present lakes have been the stopping places of glaciers. Some change in the temperature arrested the progress of the ice field, which was again started for ward by a sudden melting, and the de pressions left in the surface, floored with au unusual deposit of boulders, are now our beautiful lakes. This action of the glacier can be distinctly traced in South DaKota, where there are, near Huron, several localities showing distinct evi dences of where the glacier rested, left its monuments of rounded and polished rocks to mnrk the spot and again moved onward unde.* the impelling heat of the Bun. thiB is obvious for various reasons, and will prove of value both in a scientific and practical way. North Dakota presents a very attract ive field for every geologist, and man of scientific turn of mind, particularly in the evidences of the glacial period that are so abundant on every hand. The hills valleys, lakes, rivers and the innu merable boulders that lie scattered over the prairies, the fertile soils, the crop thereon, the climate, fauna and flora all tell, in the plainest language, of the great changes and influences wrought by the passage of the glaciers southward. Their effect on the configuration of the land scape have been tremendous, changing and reconstructing the surface of the country on a grand scale. The glacial direction has been generally south and west. The granite boulders, some of which are very large, and show but few evidences of grinding, are not so difficult to account for, but what is puz zling to the inquirer, is the origin of the limestone boulders that are profusely scattered among the granite rocks.Lime stone is the product of deposits of animals-organisms whose abode was in the ocean. Where these limestone boulders, now found on the prairies, came from is hard to determine. The origin of glaciers is always in elevations, —regions where there are mountains and valleys. The vast and level plain lying north as far as the Arctic ocean, includ ing the Hudson Bay country, over which the glaciers have passed does not present the conditions which aTe necessary to glacial formation and progress. Prof. Hay thinks that different levels have existed from which were begun the glaciers that have passed over North Dakota. The progress of this glacial march can be distinctly traced from point to point by lines of boulders, and other in dications known to geologists. Thoro re other places in the United States wlicro the passage of the glaciers has been traced, and one extremely large boulder in Massachusetts has been tracked over hill and dale, by its stria tions or scratchings on the surface of the rocks, to its original quarry, some twelve miles away. City Council. Regular monthly meeting of the city council Monday, Mayor Fuller presid ing and all the aldermen present except Messrs. Altschul, Adams, Buckley and Hayes. The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. Petition was received from H. A. Nie meyer requesting permission to build 10 foot addition on east end of Gasal build ing, the said addition to be the same width as the building. The priayer of the petitioner was granted. The committee to report a general system of license asked for further time. The report was adopted and further time granted. The finance committee reported that they had employed L. B. Miner to check up annual accounts of the city, and sub mitted' bis report. The total cash on hand was found to be $2,307.03. The re port was ordered placed on file, on mo tion of Alderman Hotchkiss. Ordinance No. 99—the license ordi nance—came up for its third reading and on motion of Alderman Steel action on the same was postponed. Alderman Eager introduced an amend ment to Ordinance No. 41, the salary ordinance, increasing the salary of the mayor and alderman to 82 per meeting attended, conditioned upon their attend ance through the meeting. Alderman Steel moved to amend by providing that the aldermen must be present at roll call. The ordinance was so amended by consent of the introducer. The ordin ance was read the first and second times on motion of Alderman Steel. Alderman Hotchkiss introduced an amendment to ordinance No. 71—the water rental ordinance—amending the same in several particulars. The lental for lawn sprinkling, restaurants and livery stables was reduced. The lawn rate wan fixed at 88 for each 50 feet or less frontage and at the rate of 4 cents per foot for each additional foot of front age. The ordinance received its second roadie on motion of Alderman Steel. BILLS ALLOWED. Josiah Pierson, burying animals.8 8 90 labor in park 8 00 A. Klaus, light for Jnne 132 00 E. I. Barnes, labor on streets 5 75 E. H. Fell, work in park 1 25 Thos. Stevens, hauling gravel... 1 00 Alex. Esler, hauling cinders 2 00 Gieseler, Blewett & Co. hardware 3 61 Josiah Pierson, special police 2 00 R. A. Giese, 2 00 L. B. Miner, checking treasurer's books 25 00 Alderman Steel introduced a resolu tion appropriating $190.71 te pay Jnne liabilities. The resolution was adopted under suspension of the rules. Alderman Steel introduced a resolu tion granting permission to H. A. Nie* meyer to build an addition to the Gasal building in accordance with his petition referred to elsewhere. The resolution was adopted cn motion of Alderman Eager. The council adjourned cn motion of Alderman Fletcher. Advertised Letters. List of uncalled for letters in the post office at Jamestown. North Dakota, for the week ending July 6,1891: LADIES. Dehan, Miss Minnie Johnson, Helen Morrison, Mrs Elizabeth GENTLEMEN. Brudden, Jack Brown, John E Cummins, Jas Holt, Hans Erickson Larkee, Geo McCue, If not called for within 14 days, will be sent to the dead letter office. In call ing for these letters, please say adver tised, and give date. C. P. SMITH, P. M. Estrayed. One bay broncho mare, with 4 white feet, white face, had on long rope. M. J. BARRETT, Jamestown, N. D. ,v AFTER THE FOURTH. The Day was Appropriately Ob served Here and at Spirit wood Lake. Bishop SI in li ley Delivered an Eloquent and Patriotic Speech at the Grove. Uncle Sam's Irrigationists to Commence Operations in N. D. The,Fourth in the City. The Fourth passed off very quietly in Jamestown. A large number of people went to the lake to join the veterans. The stay-at-homes, however, had a quiet, but enjoyable time. Captain Gleason's cannon boomed at intervals throughout the day, but the voice of the noisome cracker was not heard as vquently as of yore. It was one of the quietest Fourths Jamestown has ever seen. It does not follow from this, however, that the day was featureless. It was far from it. The celebration here was in the hands of the various societies of the Catholic church. They arranged a interesting program, which drew a good sized crowd to Elliott's grove. The speaking occur red about noon. After the crowd bad arrived the Jamestown band discoursed several selections and the exercises were opened by President-of-the-Day Fitz gerald. He introduced *he first speaker, Mr. M. J. Barrett, who unfolded tc the audience a panoramic view of the etruggle out of which grew our independence. The address was full of pertinent thoughts and was deliyered with an engaging earnestness. This was Mr. Barrett's first public effort and he acquitted himself in such a man ner as to merit the many compliments he has received. Bishop Shanley followed with the principal oration of the day. He devot ed a few minutes to the significance of the day, which he said would mark one of the great divisions of history. He said that in the future the historian will date the epoch of free and enlightened government from our Independence day, the influence of which he saw in the pro gress of constitutional, and consequent decay of monarchial, govern ment in Europe. The bishop is thoroughly American and Andrew his oration was surcharged with that senti ment. He Baid that while it was once the proudest boast of man that he was a Roman citizen, to be a worthy citizen of the American republic was a greater honor and a prouder boast. Speaking of the nationalism of foreigners who emi grate here, he thus strongly declared himself: "The man who parades his nationalism in this country is a traitor to our fiag." He called attention to the deplorable tendency of our voters to vote for a candidate for office because of his nationality and strongly rebuked the practice. He spoke of the necessity of more civic virtue and lamented that the people give their suf frages to immoral men. The bishop disclaimed early in his address any in tention to do the spread-eagle act but his eloquent peroration partook some what of that quality. He disclaimed any pretentions to being a prophet, but de clared that it was easy to conjure up a bright picture of the future of this coun try—and that without prophetic ken. He said he thought he could see the time when this whole continent from the arctic resting place of Sir John Franklin's remains to the most southernly point of Patagonia would be under one nag and under one republican government. Canadian annexation, be said, is nearly accomplisbed and with reciprocity a closer union is being formed with the South American republics. He closed with a very prettily expressed wish that a few years would witness the spectacle of the children of the whole continent— from the Arctic to the Antarctic—join ing with the children of Jamestown in singing on the Fourth of July that good old national anthem "My Country 'tis of Thee, etc." The bishop's address was as eloquent as it was patriotic. Dinner and supper were served on the grounds by the ladies ot the Catholic church. A number of schemes were devised to furnish the boys amusement in exchange for their silver. Some local artist —Charley Klaus, it is said— designed a nightmare sort of drawing of a coon with an abnormally developed mouth, which mouth figured to a con siderable extent in the sports of the day. It was hung on a hinge and the boys took numerous shots at it—three throws for a nickle. and a cigar for every time it was hit. Billy Maloae and a few ball players were the only ones to get the beet of the game. Henry Niemeyer and Will Gleason ran an innocent sort of wheel of fortune game which somebody drew a prize everytime the big wheel went 'round. Blewett and Sheriff Sehmitz were the boss salebmen in a fruit, confectionery and lemonade stand, that did a land office business. The dinner and supper tables were the source of the greatest revenue. The gross receipts ot the day were between 8300 and $400. The program in the afternoon was do yoted to sports of the time honored Fourth of July variety. There was a greased pole to climb, and there were races of every description. Boys races, and girl races, foot races, running races, .'V'WJ NO 49 walking races, boat races, sack races, etc, eta The winners were presented with articles of use or apparel as prima. Charley Ottinger won the sack race and took a sack of flour for his trouble. George Nichols carried off two prizes—a silver cup and a silk umbrella. The former was for throwing a 25 pound hammer 65 feet and 2 inches and toe lat ter for winning the quarter mile walking match. Thos. Daly made the best jump and received a $3 pair of shoes therefor and Tony Bannon for the second best was presented with a 83 hat. Tony also came in first in the two running winning as prizes a silk shirt and a ball and bat. The elegant fan for the little girls running race was won by Josie Smith. M. Benjamin shinned further up the greased pole than anyone else and won the gold Bleeve buttons. A greased pig was turned loose in the crowd and the man who caught the animal was to own it. Morns Beck captured it. The grove was full of people until evening. The North Dakota Cactus. Several specimens of the cactus plant have been obtained from the prairie recently by amateur botanists. The general impression prevails that this strictly American shrub is a native of tropical countries, and of arid sandy regions, but as long ago as the Lewis & Clarke expedition this fallaqy was ex ploded by the discovery of cacti in even higher latitudes than this. Darwin refars to the fact that the cactus plant grows in 47 degress south latitude, and he describes a specimen which he found in the cold and inhospitable climate of Patagonia. The cactus which is found in North Dakota is a small species, grow ing low on the ground, seldom exceeding two or three inches in diameter. The most noticeable feature is the flower, which is of a beautiful pink color, about the size of a half dollar and spreads out over the center of the prickly and spiney surface of the plant. The flower is short lived 'and in several of the night flower ing species endures only for a single night. In the cactus the spines take the place of leaves, The multiplicity of its forms exceed the imagination. Several species grow on the trees and some flourish near the snow line on mountains. The plants of this order where they chiefly abound are tapped by Indians and the insipid, but wholesome juice drank by both men and animals. Uncle Sam's Irrigationalists, Prof. Robert Hay. the geologist of the commission now conducting the irriga tion inquiry in the Dakotas, was in James town Friday. An Alert reporter found the professor in consultation with Sena tor Casey, who has been the chief pro motet of the irrigation movement at Washington, and learned from him that Col. Nettleton expects to be here in a few days. Prof Hay is making a careful geological survey of the artesian basin. He will spend several weeks in North Dakota, devoting particular attention to the wells in the Red river valley. The professor was with the commission that made the preliminary examination last summer. Col. Nettleton has been in South Da kota for a month past superintending ir rigation experiments at Aberdeen and other places. It is expected that he will conduct similar experiments in North Dakota, but just where or when is not known. Senator Casey some months ago secured an order from the agricultural department directing that an experiment should be made on the asylum farm from the artesian well there. The flow from the well is now barely equal to the needs of the institution. It is probable that the water Bhortage will prevent the experiment there. McCormick Harvesters. Kirk, Allen & Hathorn will sell the McCormick harvesting machines this year. They tell us that the McCormick company are obliged to make at the rate of one complete machine every minute of the day in order to supply their world wide demand—the McCormick being al most as well known on the steppes of Rus sia, the plains of the Danube and in the winter harvests of the southern hemis phere—Australia, South Africa and South America—as it is here. The McCormick catalogue, which, by the way, they keep for gratuitous distri bution, it is a work of art and will repay careful reading, while the lithographic poster of the historic battle of the Moni tor and Merrimac is the finest thing we have ever seen published. When we take into consideration the fact that the McCormick company 6old 105,468 ma chines in 1890 the popularity of their harvesters and mowers and the capacity of their mammoth works affords an inter esting subject for contemplation. Inspecting the Militia Inspector General Creel of Devils Lake, the inspecting officer of the North Dakota National Guard, came in from Valley City Sunday, to inspect Com pany H. He was formerly an officer in the regular army and is probably the best equipped man for his present posi tion in the state. He is also an old timer in Dakota. He platted the city of Devils Lake, and afterwards sold the townsite for 850,000 cash. Mr. Creel is a power in Ramsey county politics. Not withstanding the divisions' in his party in that county, he has never been beaten when a candidate before the people, but has been repeatedly re-elected register of deeds, which office he still holds. Taken Up, July 2nd, one dapple black mare, white stripe on each side of neck, shod in front supposed to have strayed from G. A. R. samp. ALBERT KOKETT. amestown, N. D.