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i|:i •Z :.:•?• Wl- ft 1 Recommendations of Mr. Cleve land to the Fifty-third Congress. REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENTS. Tariff the Principal Topic The Sherman Law Civil Service. To the Congress of the nited States: The constitutional duty which requires (like president from time to time to give to ,tke congress information of the state of tfee Union and recommend to their consid eration such as he shall judge necessary is fittingly entered upon by commending to the congress a careful examination of the detailed statements and well supported recommendations contained in the reports of departments who are chiefly charged with executive work of the government. In an effort to abridge this communica tion as much as is consistent with its pur pose I shall supplement a brief reference to thecontents of these departmental reports by the mention of such executive business and incidents as are not embraced herein, and by such recommendations as appear to be at this particular time appropriate. FOREIGN RELATIONS. Tliey Have Not Ueen Entirely Free From Perplexities. AVhile our foreign relations Lave not at all times during the past year been en tirely free from perplexity, 110 embarrass ing situations remain that will not yield to tLe spirit of fairness and love of justice which, joined with consistent firmness, characterize a truly American foreign policy. My predecessor having ac cepted the office of arbitrator of the. long-standing missions boundary dispute, tendered to the presi dent by the Argentine Republic and Brazil it has been my agreeable duty to receive the special envoys commissioned by those states to lay before me evidence and arguments in behalf of their respective governments. The outbreak of domestic hostilities in the republic of Brazil found the United States alert to watch the in terests of our citizens in that country, with which we carry on important com merce. Several vessels of our new navy are now, and for some time Lave been, stationed at Rio de Janerio. The struggle being between the es tablished government which con trols the machinery of administration and with which we maintain friendly re lations, and certain officers of the navy employing the vessels of their command in an attack upon the national capital and chief seaport, and lacking, as it does, the elements of divided administration, I have failed to see that the insurgents can reasonably claim recognition as beliger ants. Thus far the position of our gov ernment has been that of an Attentive but Impartial Observer of the unfoAunate conflict. Emphasizing cur fixed policy of impartial neutrality in such a condition of affairs as now exists I deemed it necessary to disavow in & manner not to be misunderstood, the un authorized action of our late naval com mander in those waters in saluting the re volting Brazilian admiral, being indis posed to countenance an act calculated to give sanction to the local insurrection. The Chilian Affair. The convention between our govern ment and Chili, having for its object the settlement and adjustment' of the de mands of the two countries against each other, has been made effective by the or ganization of the claims commission pro vided for. The two governments failing to agree upon the third member of the commission, the good offices of the president of the Swiss republic were invoked as provided in the treaty, and the selection of the Swiss representative in this country to complete the organization was gratifying to the United States and Chili. The vexatious question of a so-called legation asylum for offenders against the state and its laws, was presented anew in Chili by the unauthorized action of the late United States minister in sheltering in his official residence two persons who had failed in an attempt at revolution and against whom criminal charges were pending, growing out of a former abortive disturbance. Not .Sanctioned by Best Precedent. The doctrine of asylum as applied to this case is not sanctioned by the best prec edents, and, when allowed, tends to en courage sedition and strife. Under no cir cumstances can the representations of the government be permitted, under the ill defined fiction of extra-territoriality, to in terrupt the administration of criminal justice in the countries to which they are accredited. A temperate demand having leen made by the Chilian government for the correction of this conduct, the minis ter was instructed to no longer harbor the offender. The Geary Law. The legislation of last year known as the Geary law, requiring the registration of all Chinese laborers entitled to resi dence in the United States, and the de portation of all not complying with the pro vision of the act within the time prescribed met with much opposition from China men in this country. Acting upon the ad vice of eminent counsel that the law was -unconstitutional, the great mass of Chin ese laborers, pending judicial inquiry as to its validity in good faith, declined" to apply for the certificates required by its provision, and a te»t upon the proceeding by habeas corpus was brought before the supreme court, and on May 15. 1X!«, a de cision was made by that tribunal sustain ing the law. It is believed that under the recent Amendment of the act extending the time for the registration of the Chinese lalwjrers thereto entitled who desire to reside in this country will now avail themselves of the renewed privileges thus afforded of estab lishing by lawful procedure their right to remain, and that thereby the necessity of enforced deportation may be. to a great degree avoided. It has devolved upon the United States minister at Peking as dean of the diplo matic body, and in the absence of a repre sentative of Sweden and Norway to press Upon the Chinese wiveru merit re-iH for the recent muixler of Swedish mis sionaries at Sung Pu. This question is of vital interest to all countries whose citizens engage in missionary work in the interior. African Slave Trade. By Article XII of the general act of Brussels, signed July -, 18110, for tho sup pression of the slave trade or the restric tion of certain injurious commerce in the independent states of the Congo and in the adjacent zone of Central Africa, the United States and the other signatory powers agreed to adopt appropriate means |or the punishment of persons selling arms and ammunition to the natives and for the confiscation of the inhibited ar ticles, It being the pli«f(|i duty of this government to aid in suppressing the ne farious traffic, imparing as it does the praiseworthy and civilizing effort now in progress in that region, I recommend that an act be passed prohibiting the sale of arms and intoxicants to natives in the regulated zone by our citizens. Extradition Treaties. Costa Rica has lately testified its friend liness by surrendering to the United States, in the absence of a convention of extradition but upon duly submitted evi dence of criminality, a noted fugitive from justice. It is trusted that the negotiation of a treaty with that country to meet re curring cases of that kind will soon be ac complished. I11 my opinion, treaties for reciprocal extradition should be concluded with all those countries with which the United States has not already conven tional arrangements of that character. Our Relations With England. The questions affecting our relations with Great Britain have been treated in a spirit of friendliness. Negotiations are in progress between the two governments with a view to such concurrent action as will make the award and regulations agreed upon by the liehring Sea tribunal of arbitration practically effective, and it is not doubted that Great Britain will co-operate freely with this country for the accomplishment of that purpose. The dispute growing out of the discrimin ating tolls imposed in the AVelland canal, upon cargoes of cereals bound to and from the lake ports of the United States, was adjusted by the substitution of a more equitable schedule of charges, and my predecessor thereupon suspended his proclamation imposing discriminating tolls upon British transit through our canals. A request for additions to the list of extraditable offenses coveted by the existing treaty between the two countries, is under consideration. 31r. Bilker's Good Offices. Nicaragua lias recently passed through two revolutions, the party at first su ccess ful having in turn been displaced by an other. Our newly appointed minister, by his timely good offices, aided in a peace ful adjustment of the controversy in volved in the first conflict. The large American interests established in that country in connection with the Nicaragua canal were not molested. The canal company has unfortunately be come financially seriously embarrassed, but a generous treatment has been ex tended to it by the government of Nicar agua. The United States are especially interested in the successful achievement of the vast undertaking this company has in charge. That it should be accomplished under Distinctively American Auspices and its enjoyment assured not lolv to the vessels of this country as a channel of commercial communicatiou between our Atlantic and Pacific seaboards, but to the ships of the world in the interests of civil ization. is a proposition which, in my judgment, does not admit of question. Russian and Norwegian Treaties. An extradition treaty with Norway has recently been exchanged and proclaimed. The extradition treaty with Russia signed in March, 1887, and amended and confirmed by the senate in February last, was duly proclaimed last year. Should Give Thanks for Caravels. The reproduced caravel, Santa Maria, built by Spain and sent to the Columbian exposition, has been presented to the United States in token of amity and in commemoration of the event it was de signed to celebrate. I recommend that in accepting this gift congress make grate ful recognition of the sincere friendship which prompted it. Minor Foreigu Matter*. The president treats at considerable length of the troubles of missionaries in Turkey, and briefly of less importance with minor powers of this and other con tinents. In all cases the belief in an ami cable settlement is stated. HAWAIIAN MATTERS. The Present Trouble on the Inlands Discussed. It is hardly necessary for me to state that the questions arising from our rela tions with Hawaii have caused serious em barrassm en t. Just prior to the installment of the present administration the existing gov ernment of Hawaii had been suddenly overthrown and a treaty of annexation had been negotiated between the pro visional government of the islands and the United States, and submitted to the sen ate for ratification. This treaty I with drew for examination and despatched Hon. James II. Blount of Georgia to Honolulu as a special commissioner, to make an impartial investigation of the circumstances attending the change of government, and of all the conditions bearing upon the subject of the treaty. After a thorough and exhaustive examination Mr. Blount submitted to me his report, showing be yond all question that the constitutional government of Hawaii Bad Been Subverted with the active aid of our representative to that government and through the intim idation caused by the presence of an armed naval force of the United States which was landed for that purpose at the in stance of our minister, Upon the facts developed if seemed to me the only honora ble course for otir government to pursue was to undo the wrong that had been done by those representing us and to restore as far as practicable the status existing at the time of our forcible intervention. With a view of accomplishing this result within the constitutional limits of executive power, and recogni/.ing all our obligations and responsibilities growing out of any changed condition brought about by our Unjustifiable Interference, our present minister at Honolulu has re ceived appropriate instructions to that end. Thus far no information of the ac complishment of any definite results has been received from him. Additional ad vices are soon expected, and when received they will be prompty sent to congress, to gether with all other in''rnia»'on »"»njj ."iifij-p k*. accompanied by a special executive mes sage fully detailing all the facts necessary to a complete understanding of the case, and presenting a history of all the national events leading up to the present situation. TREASURY DEPARTMENT. Extract From the Report of Secretary Carlisle. The secretary of the treasury reports that the receipts of the government from all sources during the fiscal year ended June 80, 1898, amounted to $401,710,501.04, and its expenditures to 1459,374,074.29. There was collected from customs $305, 355,010.73, and from internal revenue$101, 037,623.93 our dutiable imports amounted to 1421,856,711, an increase of $52,453,907 over the preceding year, and importations free of duty amounted to $444,544,211, a decrease from the preceding year of #18, 455,447. Internal revenue receipts exceeded those of the preceding year by #7,147,445.32. The total tax collected on distilled spirits was #94,720,260.55 on manufactured to bacco, #S1,880,711.74, and on fermented liquors, #82,548,083.07. We exported mer chandise during the year amounting to S847.ti65.184, a decrease of #182,612,951 from the preceding year. The amount of gold exported was larger than in any previous year in the history of the government, Amounting to #108,680,844, and exceeding the amount exported during'the preceding year by #58.485,577. The sum paid from the treasury for sugar bounty was f9,375,130.88, an increase over the preced ing year of $20,335,309. It is estimated upon the baws of present revenue laws that the receipts of the gov ernment for the year ending June 30, 1894, will lie 3430,121.3fu.3S and its ex penditures resulting in a deficiency of i:}s,(Hio,ooo. IVr Capita Circulation. On the 1st day of November. 1893, the amount of nivney of all kinds in circula tion include* treasury holdings was #1.7IS,."44.1 82, an increase for the year of #112,4(U.'.'47. Estimating our population at 5T.4xI(),*XKJ at tlie time mentioned the per capita cir culation was 525.49. On the same date there was in the treasury gold bullion amounting to fvi'., 657,273 anil silver bullion which was pur chased at tt cost of silver Purchases. The purchases of silver under the law of July 14. IM'O. during the last fiscal year aggregated 54.008,102.59 line ounces, which cost #45,53}.474.53. The total amount of silver pure ascil from the time that the law became operative until the repeal of its purchasing clause, 011 the 1st day of November, 1893, was 108,674.590.46 line ounces, which cost 155,930,940.84. Be tween the 1st day of March, 1873, and the 1st day of November, 1893, the government purchased under all laws 503.003.717 line ounces of silver at a cost of #510,622.!48. The silver dollars that have been coined under the act of July 14, 1890, number 30, 087,285. The seignorage arising from such coinage was (1.977,078, leaving 011 hand in Uie mints 14i"U'.99,700 fine ounces of silver, wliic1.! cost .sl2(i.57S,21N. Production of Precious Metals. Our total coinage of all metals during the last fiscal year consisted of 97,2SI.S75 pieces, valunl at #43,685.178.80, of which there was.#.'0,038,140 in gold coin, #5,343, 715 in silver dollars, #7.217,220.90 in sub sidiary silver coin and #1,086,102.'.Hi in minor coins. During the calendar year 18! 12 the production of precious metals in the United States was estimated to lie 1,590,375 line ounces of gold, of the com mercial and coinage value of #33.000.000, and 58,000.000 fine ounces of silver, of the bullion or market value of #50,750,000 and of the coinage value of #74.989,900. It is estimated that 011 the first day of July, 1893, the metallic stock of money in the United States, consisting of coin and bullion, amounted to #1,213.559,169 of which #597,097,685 was gold and #615,861, 484 was silver. National llanks. One hundred and nineteen national banks were organized duritig the year ending Oct. 31, 1893, with a capital of #11, 230,000. Forty-six went into voluntary liquidation, and 158 suspended 65 of the suspended banks were insolvent, 86 re sumed business, and seven remained in the hands of bank examiners with prospects of speedy resumption. Of the new banks organized. 44 were lo cated in the Eastern states. 41 west of the Mississippi river and 34 in the Central and Southern states. The total number of national banks in existence the 31st day of October. 1893,was 3,7!*, having an aggregate capital of #695, 558.120. The net increase in the circulation of these banks during the vear was #36,886, 972. ______ THE SHERMAN LAW. Its Repeal Mas Changed the Complex ion of Our Currency Laws. The recent repeal of the provision of the law requiring the purchase of silver bul lion by the government as a feature of our monetary scheme has made an entire change in the complexion of our currency affairs and do not doubt that the ultimate result of this action will be most salutary and far-reaching. In the nature of things, however, it is impossible to know at this time precisely what conditions will be brought about by the change, or what, if any, supplemen tary legislation may, in the light of such conditions, appear to lie essential or expe dient. Of course, after the recent fiuau cial perturbation Time Is Necessary for the re-establishment of business confi dence. When, however, through this re stored confidence- the money which has been frightened into hoarding places is re turned to trade and enterprise, a survey of the situation will probably disclose as safe a path leading to a permanently sound currency, abundantly sufficient to meet every requif.nent of our increasing popu lation and its business. In the pursuit of this object we should resolutely turn away from alluring and tempting expedi ents, determined to be content with noth ing less than a lasting and comprehensive financial plan. In these circumstances I am convinced that a reasonable delay in dealing with this subject, instead of being injurious, will increase the probability of wise action. The Monetary Conference. which assembled at Brussels upon our in vitation, was adjourned to the present year. The considerations just stated and the fact that a definite proposition from us seemed to be expected upon the reassem bling of the conference led me to express a willingness to have the meeting still fur ther postponed. It seems tome that it would Ire wise to give general .i .thority to the president to invite other nations to such a conference at any time when there should be a fair prospect of accomplishing an international agreement on the subject of coinage. Authority to Issue llonds. I desire also to earnestly suggest the wisdom of amending the existing status in regard to the issuance of government bonds. The authority now vested in the secretary of the treasury to issue bonds is not as clear us it should be, and the bouds inthorlzed are disadvantageous to the government, both as to the time of tliMr maturity and rate of interest. As to Immigration. The superintendent of immigration, through tho secretary of the treasury, re ports that during the last fiscal year there arrived at our ports 440,793 immigrants of these 1,063 were not permitted to land un der the limitations of the law and 577 were returned to the countries from which they came by reason of their having be come public charges. The total arrivals were 141,034 less than for the previous year. Quarantine Regulations. The secretary in his report gives an ac count of the operation of the Marine hos pital service f»nd of the good work done under its supervision in preventing the entrance and spread of contagious dis lases. The admonitions of the last two years touching our public health and the demonstrated danger of the introduction of contagious diseases from foreign ports has invested the subject of national quar antine with increased interest. A more general and harmonious system than now exists, acting promptly and directly every where, and constantly operating by pre ventive means to shield our country from the invasion of disease, and at the same time having due regard to the right and duties of local agencies, would, I believe, tuld greatly to the safety of our people. THE POSTOFFICE DEPARTMENT. Large Deficit Instead of the Surplus An cl|Hilril. The report of the postmaster general contains a detailed statement of the oper ations of the postollice department during the last fiscal year, and much interesting information touching this important, branch of the public service. The busi ness of the mails indicates with absolute certainty the condition of the business of the country and depression in financial affairs inevitably and quickly redr.ues the postal revenues. That there was a larger discrepancy than usual between the post office receipts and expenditures is the ex pected and unavoidable result of the dis tressing stringency which i.us prevailed throughout the country ui.il.a much of the time covered by the postmaster general's report. At a date when better times were anticipated it was estimated by his pre decessor that the deficiency on the 30th day of June. 1893, would be but a little over a million and a half dollars. It amounted, however, to more than five millions. At the same time and under the influence of like anticipations esti mates were made for the current fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, which exhibited a surplus of revenue over expenditures of #872,245.71, but now in view of the actual receipts and expenditures during that part of the current fiscal year already ex pired, the present postmaster-general es timates that at, it is close, instead of a sur plus. there will be a deficiency of nearly eight million dollars. THE INTERIOR. Report of the Secretary Contains Much of Interest—Pension* and Indians. The secretary of the interior has the su pervision of so many important subjects that his report is of especial value and in terest. The 30th day of June, 1893, there were on the pension rolls 966,012 names, an in crease of 89,!*44 over the number on the rolls June 30, 1892. The number added to the rolls during the year was 123,634, and the numher dropped was 33,690. The first payments on pensions allowed during the year amounted to #33,596,549.98. Pension Frauds. The president discusses pension frauds at considerable length, and concludes: I am unable to understand why frauds in the pension rolls should not exp and corrected with thoroughness nd vigor. Every name fraudulently put. upon these rolls is a wicked imposition upon the kindly sentiment in which pen sions have their origin every fraudulent pensioner has become a bad citizen every false oath in support of a pension has made perjury more common and false, jyid undeserving pensioners rot) the people, not only of their money, but of the patriotic sentiment which the sur vivors of a war fought for the preserva tion of the Union ought to inspire. The sum expended on account of pen sions for the year ending June 30. 1893, was #15*5,740,407.14. The commissioner esti mates that #165,000,000 will be required to pay pensions during the year ending June 30, 1894. As to Indians. Our Indians number alxJtit 248,000. About 110,000 of these Indians have, to a large degree, adopted civilized customs. Lands in severalty have been allotted to many of them. Such allottments have been made to 10,000 individuals during the last fiscal year, embracing about 1,000,000 acres. The appropriations on account of the Indian bureau for the year ending June 30, 1894. amount to #7,954,962.99, a decrease as compared with the year preceding it of #387,131.95. As to Land Laws. The secretary's recommendations re garding land entries and the opening of reservations are recommended to careful consideration. AS TO AGRICULTURE. What lias Been Done in the Bureau Pre sided Over by Mr. Morton. After reviewing, with a word of com mendation, the efforts at economy made by Secretary Morton, the president details the work which has been done in the mat ter of stamping out contagious dieases. Much progress has been made in the di vision of animal pathology, but the work should be extended. The exports of agricultural products from the United States for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, attained the enorm ous figure of #800,000,000 in round numbers, being 78.7 per cent of our total exports. In the last fiscal year this aggregate was greatly reduced, being 75.1 per cent of all American commodities exported. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. Some Changes Which the President Thinks Badly Needed. The report of the attorney general con tains the usual summary of the affairs and proceedings of the department of justice for the past year, together with certain recommendations as to needed legislation on various subjects. I cannot too heartily indorse the proposition that the fee system as applicable to the com- pensation of Tmted States attorneys, marshals, clerks of federal courts and United States commissioners should be abolished with as little delay as possible. It Is clearly in the interest of the com munity that the business of tho courts, both civil and criminal, shall be as small and as inexpensively transacted as the ends of justice will allow. The system is therefore thoroughly vic 1 ious,'which makes tin compensation of court officials depend upon ttie volume of such business, and thus creates a conflict between a proper execution of the law and private gain which cannot fail to be dan gerous to the rights and freedom of the citizens, an irresistible temptation to the unjustifiable expenditure of public funds. If in addition to this reform another was inaugurated which would give to United States commissioners the final disposition of petty offenses within the grade of mis demeanors, especially those coming under the internal revenue laws, a great advance would be made toward a more decent ad ministration of the criminal laws. THE NAVY. A Satisfactory Account of the Progress Made During the Year. The report of the secretary of the navy contains a history of the operations of his department during the past year and ex hibits a most gratifying condition of the personnel of our navy, lie presents a sat isfactory account of the progress which has beeu made in the construction of ves sels and makes a number of recommenda tions to which attention is especially in vited. Many Calls for Cruisers. During the past six mont lis the demands for cruising vessels have been many and urgent. There have been resolutions call ing for vessels to protect American inter ests in Nicaragua. Guatemala, CostaKica, 1 Honduras, Argentena and Hrazil, while the condition of affairs in Honolulu has required the constant, presence of one or more ships. With all these calls upon our navy it became necessary, in order to make up a sufficient fleet to patrol the liehring sea under the modus vivendi agreed upon with (ireat Britain, to detail to that ser vice one vessel from the fish commission and three from the revenue marine. Construction .Somewhat Slow. Progress in the construction of new ves sels has not been as rapid as was antici pated. There have been delays in the completion of unarmored vessels, but for the most part they have been such as are constantly occurring even in countries having the largest experience in naval ship building. The most serious delays, however, have been in the work upon ar mored ships. The trouble has been the failure of contractors to deliver armor as agreed. Difficulties seem now, however, to have been all overcome, anil armor is being delivered with satisfactory prompt ness. The president recommends that 110 new vessels be commenced until some of those already under way are completed. WAR DEPARTMENT. What Hits Keen Done ami What Could lie Profitably Accomplished. The secretary of war reports that the strength of tho army 011 the thirtieth day of September last was -3,"76 enliste.l men, and 8,141 officers. The total expenses of the de partment for the year ending June 30, amounted to $jl,!KSti, 174.^1) of this sa in $1,91)2, 5S1.95 was for salaried and contingent ex penses, #23,3.'7,S2S.'Jj for the support of the military establishment, St),077,(t:3.18 for mis cellaneous objects anil $-0,518,631.41 for public works. Tliis latter sum includes S15,^J0,s76.40 for river and harbor improvements, and $3, 266,141.-0 for fortifications and ottier works of defense. The Militia. The tot il enrollment nf the militia of the several states was, on ie31it of October of the current year, 112.597 officer* and enlist men. The officers of the army detailed for I the inspection and instru.-tion of this reerve of our military for report that increased in terest and marked progress are apparent in the d.scipliiie and efficiency of t»e organiza tion. A Peaceful Vear Internally. Neither Indian outbreaks or domestic vio lence have called the army into service during the year, and the only acuve military duty required of it has been in the department of Texas, where vlulations of the neutrality laws of the United States and Mexico were promptly and efficiently dea.t with bv the troops, eliciting the warm approval of the civil and military authorities of both coun tries. The operation of wise laws and the influence of civilization constantly tending to relieve the country from the dangers if Indian hos tilities. together with the increasing ability of the states through the efficiency of the national guard organizations to protect their citizens from domestic violence, lead to the suggestion that the time is fast approaching when there should be a reorganization of our army on the lines of the present necessities of the country. This change contemplates neither increase in number nor added expensa, but a redistribu tion of the force and an encouragement of measures tending to greater efficiency among the men and improvement of the service. The adoption of battallion formations for in fantry regiments. the strengthening of the artillery force, tho abandonment of smaller and unnecessary posts and the massing of the troops at imiortant and accessible stations all promise to promote the usefulness of the army. Coast Defenses. It is irratifying a ne that we have begun to attain complex resu ts in the comprehen sive scheme of sea coast defense and fortifi cation entered upon eight years ago. A large sum has been already expende 1, but the cost of maintenance will be Inconsiderable compared with the expense of construction, and ordnance. At the end of the currentcal endar year the war department will have nine 12-incli guns, 20 10-inch and 34 8-inch guns ready to be inoanted on gun lifts and car riages and 7."» k'-inch mortars. In addition to the product of the army gun factory now complete at Watervllet, the government has contracted with private parties for the purchase of 100 guns of these calibres, the first of which should be delivered to the de partmentfor test before July 1, 1894. The manufacture of heavy ordinance keeps pace with current needs but to render these gnns available for the purposes they ure designed to meet, emplacements must be prepared for them. Progress has been made in this direc tion, and it is desirable that congress by ade quate appropriations should provide for the uninterrupted prosecution of this necessary work. Infantry Equipment, After much preli iiinary work and exhaus tive examination in accordance with the re quirements of law. the board appointed to select a magazine rifle of modern type to re place the obsolete Springfield rifle of the infan try service, conipl ted its labors during the last year, and the work of manufacture is now in progress at the national armory at -Spring field. It is cnflucn ly expected that by the end of the ourrent ar our Infantry will be supplied with a weapon eiual to at of the most progressive armies of tho world. Chlckainauga and Gettysburg. The work on the projected Chlckainauga and Chattanooga national military |ark has been prosecuted with zeal and judgment, and Its openlag ad! be celebrated during the coming year. Over nine square miles of the Chickamanga battlefield have been acquired, miles of road way have been constructed and permanent tablets have been placed at many historical iwHtits, while the invitation to the states to mark the positions of their troops participating ij/ dhe liattlo has been very generally accoptotA The work of lo, at ing and preserving the lines of battle at the Gettysburg battlefield is making satisfactory progress on the plans directed by the last congress. The reports of the military academy at West Point and the several schools for special In struction of officers show marked advance in education of tho army ami a commendable ambition amonj Its officers to excel in the mi itary profession an 1 to fit themselves for tho highest service to tlie country uuder the supervision of the adjutant. CIVIL SERVICE. The President More Then Ever Its pressed With Its Benefits. The continued intelligent execution of the olvil service law, and the increasing approval by the people of its operation are most grati fying. The recent extension of its limitation and regulations to the employes at free de livery postofflees which has been honestly and promptly accomplished by the commis sion with the hearty cooperation of the post master general is an immensely important advance in the usefullness of the system. I am, if possible, more than ever convinced of the Incalculable benefits conferr-d by the civil service law, not only in its effect upon the publio service, but also what is even more important, in its effect in elevating the tone of political lite generally. TARIFF REFORM. The President Wants Tariff Reduction at Onee, At this time, when a depleted public treas ury confronts us, when many of otr people are engaged fn a hard struggle for the neces saries of life and when enforced economy is pressing upon the great mass of our country men. I desiro to urgo with all tho earnestness at my command that congressional legislation be so limited by strict economy as to exhibit an appreciation 0* the condition of tho treas ury and a sympathy with the strained circum stances of our fe.ilow citizens. The duty of public economy is also of im mense importance in its intimate anil neces sary relation to the task now in hand of pro viding revenue to meet government expendi tures and yet reducing the people's burden of federal taxation. After a llanl Struggle tarirf leform is directly before us. Nt thine so important c.aims our attention and noth ing so clearly presents iUelf as both an oppor tunity and a duty—an opportunity to deserve ihe gratitude of our fellow citiz 11s, a duty im posed upon us by our oft repeated professions and by 1 lie em]) aiic mandate of the people. After full uiscussion our countrymen have spoken in favor of this reform and they have confided the w.irk of its accomplishment in the hands of those who are Solemnly Pledged to It. If there is anything in the th ory of a rep resentation in public places of tho people and their desires if public officers are ready the servants of the people, anil its political prom ises and professions have any binding force, our failure to give the relief so long awaited will bo sheer recreancy. Nothing should in tervene to distract, our attention or disturb our effort until this reform is accomplished by wise and careful legislation. Discriminating Care Necessary. Whilo we suould staunchly adhere to the principle that only the cessity of revenue justifies the imposition of tariff duties and other federal taxation, and that they should be limited by strict economy, we cannot clo^e our eyes to the fact that conditions have grown up among us which in justice and fairness call for discriminating care in tho distribution of such duties and taxation as the emergencies of our government actually demand. .Manifestly if we are to aid the people di rectly through uiriff reform one of its most obvious features lould be a reduction in the present tariff charges Upon the Necessaries rf Life. The benefits of such a reduction would be palpable and substantial, seen and felt by thousands who would be better fed and better clothed and belter sneltereJ. These gifts should be the willing benefactions of a gov ernment whose highest function is the pro motion of the welfare of tho people. Not less closely related to our people's prosperity and well-being is the removal of restrictions upon the importation of the raw materials neces sary to our manufacturers. The world should be open to our national ingenuity and enter prise. This cannot be while federal legisla tion, through the imposition of high tariff, forbids to American manufacturers as cheap material as those u*ed by their competitors. It is quite obvious that the enhancement ai the price of our manufactured products re sulting from this policy not only confines the market for these produ ts within our own borders, to the direct disadvantage of our manufacturers, but also increases their cost to our citizens. The Interests of Labor are certainly though indirectly involved la this feature of our tariff system. The sharp competition and active struggle among our manufacturers to supply the limited demand for their goods soon fills the narrow market to which they are confined. Then follows a suspension of work in mills and factories, a discharge of employes, and distress in the homes of our workingmen. Even if the often disproved assertion could be made good that a lower rate of wages would resuU from free raw materials and low tariff, does uot the in telligence of our workingmen lead them quickly to discover that their steady employ ment permitted by free raw materials is the most important factor in their relation to tariff legislation? Wilson Bill Commended. A measuro has been prepared by the appro priate congressional committee embodying tariff reform on the lineB herein suggested, whicu will be promptly submitted for legisla tive action. It is the result of much patriotic and unselfish work, and I believe it deals with its subject consistently and thoroughly as ex isting conditions permit. I am satisfied that the reduced tariff duties provided for in the proposed legislation, added to existing Internal revenue taxation, will in the near future, though perhaps not immediately., produce sufficient revenue to meet the needs of the government. The Tax on Corporations. The committee, after full consideration and to provide for a temporary deficiency, which may exist before the business of the country adjusts itself to the new tariff schedules,have wisely embraced in their plan a few addi tional internal revenue taxes. Including a small tax upon incomes derived from certain corporate investments. These new aasce» ments are not only absolutely Just and easily borne, but they have the further merit of being such as can be remitted without un favorable disturbance whenever the necessity of their imposition no longer exists. In my great desire for the success of this measure I cannot restrain the suggestion that its success can only be obtained by means of unselfish counsel on the part of the friends of tariff reform and as a result of their willingness to subordinate personal desires and ambitions to the general good. The local Interests affected by the proposed reform are so numerous and so varied that if all are insisted upon the legislation embody ig the reform must inevitably fail. In Conclusion. In conclusion, my intense feeling of re sponsibility impels me to invoke for the manifold interests of a generous an 1 confiding people the most scrupulous earo, a .d to pledge my willing support to evert legislative effort for the advancement of the greatness and prosperity of our beloved country. UtlOVKit Cl.^VELAND. Executive .Mansion, Wa-hiuutoii, Dec. 4, latM. Awakened by ICIeetrieiljr. ST. PAUL, Dec. 5.—Mungu.s Anderson •lept 21 hours and was awakened by electricity.