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The herald. [microfilm reel] (Los Angeles [Calif.]) 1893-1900, March 03, 1895, Image 16

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85042461/1895-03-03/ed-1/seq-16/

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14
our lady with her blessed son in her arms,
and told them that she was the mother of
God and lived in the skies, and the Ca
ciques said that it appeared to them to be
good, and asked him to give it to them
for their town. Cortes said he would,
and he caused an altar to be made and
placed a cross on it.
When they were asked where they got
their gold," they pointed towards the
getting sun and said."Mexico, Calcutta,"
but we did not understand them, and
Francisco, another interpreter, baid Mex
ico was very far off. and then we placed
the blessed image of our lady on the altar
and also a cross, and Friar Burtolome
Olvedo said mass and preached to the In
dians. Cortes divided the twenty Indian
women among his captains, and he gave
Dona Marina, who was very bright and
engaging, to Alonzo Hernandez Puerto
carreao, who was a tine cavalier aud cousin
to Condedo Medellin, and afterwards,
when Puertocarrero went to Spain, Dona
Manna lived wltb Gortee and he had a
child by her, who was called Martin and
who was afterwards a Commendador of
Santiago.
V
How Dnna Marina Was a Caclca and the
Daughter of a Great Lord and the Owner of
Many Towns, and How She Was Brought
to Tabasco
§T appears that the father of
Dona Marina was the Lord of
the town of Painalu and had
other towns besides that were
subject to him, about eight
leagues from GttactfOUalOO. Her
father died while she was still
very young, and her mother then married
another Cacique, by whom she had a aon
of whom she was very fond. At
length it was agreed between the
Cacique and his wife to send Marina away,
and thus to secure everything for the son.
Therefore.one night they gave her to some
Indians, merchants of Xicalanga, and as
the little daughter of one of their slaves
died about this time, they gave out that
Marina was dead! The Indians of i
jTicalanga gave her to those of Tabasco,
and the people of Tabasco gave iter to
Cortes.
I knew her mother arid her brother,who
was a man grown when I knew him. He
ruled his town jointly with his mother,
his father being dead.
Both became Christians:, and the mother
was called Marta and the son Lazaro.
After the conquest of Mexico, when
Cristoval de OH rebelled in the Higueras
against Cortes, Cortes passed through
Guazcualeo marching against Oli, and
many of us who were stationed at
Gtiascualco joined him, and Don Marina,
wbo was an excellent, woman and a good
interpreter, also accompanied him on this
expedition.
It was on this same occasion that she
married a cavalier named .luan Xara
millo at a place called Orizaba, in the
Presence of certain witnesses, one of
whom was called Aranda, a resident of
Tabasco. No one in New Spain had such
influence over the - Indians as Dona
Marina, for she was much respected by
them and commanded them absolutely.
While Cortes was at Gnazcualco be called
a parliament of all the Caciques of the
neighboring towns, anil the brother ami
mother of Dona Marina came with the
rest.
Dona Marina had told me long before
that she was of this province and the
daughter of a chief, and Captain Cortes
and Aguilar also knew it well, but when
I saw the mother and brother I could
readily see the resemblance.
The brother and mother were afraid ami
came with tears, for they feared that
Dona Maiina would have them killed.
But when she saw them thus she consoled
thenr and said that when they gave her
to the Indians of Xicalanga they did not
know what they were doing, and tbat she
forgave them, and she made them pres
ents of gold and clothing and sent them
back to their town, telling them besides
that God had been very good to her in re
leasing her from the bondage of idolatry
and making her a Christian and giving
her a son by her Lord Cortes, and finally
in making her the wife of a cavalier liko
her husband. Juan Xaramillo. And all
of this which I state here I heard and
saw, and 1 swear that it is true. Amen.
Dona Marina understood the language
of Guazacualco, which is tbe same as the
Aztec,and she understood that of Tabasco
also, as Geronimo de Aguilar did that of
Yucatan and Tabasco, which are also the
same language, and thus, at first, until
Marina learned Castilian, we spoke to
Geronimo de Aguilar in that tongue,
and he to Marina in the language of Yu
catan, and she to the Aztecs in their own
language. And thus it seemed that God
had so ordained it that Marina sbould*be
sold into bondage in Yucatan by an un
natural mother and that Geronimo Aguilar
should be cast away on the same coast,
that, they might learn the same language,
and that Hernan Cortes should afterwards
be the instrument to bring them together
in order that the word of God might be
explained to the heathen, and that they
might assist us in the conquest of these
rich lauds of Tierra Firnia.
Under the Violets
OLIVKB WEM>EI L lIOtJIES
Her hands are cold, her face tl white,
No more her pulses come and go;
Her eyes are shut to life and light-
Fold the white vesture snow on snow,
And lay her where the violets blow.
But not beneath a graven stone,
To plead for tears with alien eyes;
A single cross ot wood alone
sihall say that here a maiden lies,
In peace beneath the peaceful skies.
And gray old trees of highest limb,
Bhall wheel their circling shadows round.
To make the scorching sunlight dim,
That drink the greenness irom the ground,
Aud diop their dead leaves on her mound.
■'lien o'er their houghs the squirrels run,
And through their leaves the robins call,
And, ripening in the summer sun,
The acorns and the chestnuts Call,
' Doubt not that sho will hour them all.
For her the morning choir wili sing
Its matins from the branches high,
And every minstrel voice oi spring
ihat thrills beneath the April sky,
Shall civet her with its earliest cry.
Wnfei) turning round the d'.al
eastward the lengthening, shadows pass,
lier little inourne; s clad iv black,
Thu ci Ickets sliding through the grass,
Shall pipe for her an evening mass.
Ai I'st iho rootlets ol the trees
pibail and the prison where,she lies,
Kn-\ hear the hurled dust they seize
In leitvuii anil blossoms to the skies;
So i.my the sou! ihat warmed it rise)
If nny. horn of kindlier blood.
Should »sk, "W hat maiden lies below?"
huy only t.,is.. "A tender hud,
riiat tried in blossom iv the snow,
Lies withered tflioru the violets blow."
'.'ao envelopes "toe 1 ., renin writing paper at
I* jixsladlur, Ud7 N. Ms. a • .•. tiaber block.
THE LOS ANGELES OIL WELLS
Novel Scenes at the Old Second
Street Park
STRANGE TRANSFORMATION
Cosy Cottages Surrounded by Groups
of Oil Wells'
The Perfume of Flowers ningled With the
Odor of Petroleum-A Growing
Industry
Board a westbound electric car at
Spring and Second streets. In almost
less time than it takes to ioil it, you will
be landed at Second-street Park, the center
of the Los Angeles oil field. You will
have enjoyed the ride, too, for' from the
window or platform of the car you will
have obtained a birdseye view of the
greater part of Los Angeles and its en
virons a most beautiful panorama.
On alighting at the park, ascend the hill
at its east boundary to State street. From
this eminence look down State street along
Ihe north boundary of the park, and you
will behold a remarkable scene. Not
only will you see strange sights, but you
will hear unusual sounds. A forest of der
ricks and groups of oil tanks will greet
the eye, and the rumble of hull wheels
the roar of furnaces and the thumping of
drill ropes will for the moment deafen
you. Your olfactories will have detected
the smell of pertolettm even from afar off,
and if you have not been careful where
you stepped you will perhaps have a coat
ing of blackstrap on your shoes. You will
also have it. on your hands, face and
clothing if you venture too near the drip
ping rigging of the oil wells.
Such sights and sounds and smells may
have become familiar to you in Pennsyl
vania, Ohio or other oil producing slates,
perhaps, too, in California, but never be
fore, if this is your-tiirst visit lo the Los
Angeles city oil Held,,have you witnessed
a sight quite so novel as this. You may
search the world over and not find another
spot where rose-embowered cottages are
surrounded by groups of oil wells -where
the rose,the heliotrope, the violet and the
orange mingle their perfumes with the
odor of petroleum fresh from the bowels
of the earth.
At the corner of Slate Street and Lake
Shore avenue you will notice several neat
cottages with nicely terraced lawns, bor
dered with a profusion of flowers—calla
lilies, roses, geraniums and nearly every
other varietyy found in Los Angeles gar
dens. Such exotics us the orunge, lemon,
tig, palm nnd banana lend their foliage
to add charm to the locality.
All the botanical surroundings of the
cottages indicate that the occupants are or
were people of rebthetic tastes, but now
towering oil derricks stand at the back
doors and huge tanks for storing the liquid
mineral product disfigure the lawns. On
tbe grounds surrounding some of these
houses the drillers are at work with tbeir
noisy machinery, keeping up an incessant
clatter day and night. In other front and
back yards are finished wells, and the
premises are literally soaked with oil.
Some of these bouses are deserted, but
mostof them are occupied—many of them
by the. original owners, who located there
before such a thing as an oil boom in the
neighborhood was foreshadowed. Such
of the more fastidious residents as could,
moved away when they saw that the oil
development could not be arrested. Oth
ers caught the oil fever themselves and
decided to endure the discomforts of liv
ing among the oil wells, for the sake of
engaging in the industry and being handy
to their work.
As the oil underlying the land is worth
more than the surface and the improve
ments thereon, in most cases, very few
of the property holders have lost money
by the encroachment of the oil drillers.
Quite a number bave been able to sell
out at a handsome profit on their original
investments. Some, however who hud
mude expensive improvements are dam
aged considerably by the operationi of
the oil men and are not yet done fighting
them by legal process.
As a residence quarter the hill country
bounded hy Court, North Figueroa, Sec
ond and Lake Shore streets, has unques
tionably been greattiy damaged. Yet on
your rumbles through the little oil city,
you may observe in the door yards, tidy
housewives apparently oblivious of tbeir
oleaginous surroundings. You may en
counter oil-besmeared urchins playing
hide-and-seek among the tanks and der
ricks or making mud pies of crude petro
leum.
You will see scores of workmen- -great
brawny fellows, most of them—daubed
with oil from bead to foot, but all evi
dently satisfied with their occupation. A
host of engineers, drillers, machinists,
plumbers, carpenters and other skilled and
uuskiled laborers are furnished remu
nerative employment by the oil industry.
Thus contentment and prosperity go
band in hand in the Second street park
oil city. The industry has grown marvel
ously since its inception, less thun two
yean ugo. From a few shallow prospect
holes have evolved .more than a hundred
oil wells, some of them more than a thous
and feet deep and producing barrels of
liquid wealth.
A Herald representative who recently
visited the distrct mude a careful count of
the wells and discovered that there were
all told 152, incuding those in course of
construction of which there ure about fif
teen or twenty. There probably ure one
hundred und thirty-five finished wells and
not a dry hole among them. A number
of them arc closes down, however, for
luck oi storage room und market for the
product. This enumeration does not in
clude the wells on the Lust Side and those
scattered throughout the northern und
western hill section. There ure probably
in nil one hundred and seventy-live oil
wells, finished und unfinished, inside the
city liniiis.
The daily output of all of the wells, if
they were pumped to their full capacity,
is variously estimated at from 1000 to
1500 barrels.
The former figures are considered a con
servative estimate. Some new wells when
the pumps were first started huve yielded
over 2UO barrels in twenty-four hours
but it is only by allowing the oil to ac
cumulate in the bole for several days that
the operation can be repeated.
A well that will yield ten barrels a day
is a good oue, und one that will average
forty or fifty is exceptional. There ure
several wells it is cluiined that will main
tain this average. The yield of the
majority, however, is under ten barrels a
day.
LOS ANGELES HEBALD: SUNDAY MORNING, MARCH 3, 1895.
The principal groups of wells are those
of the Doheny, Connon-Owcns Company
Bayer and Last, the Metropolitan Com
pany, Van Blyke and Perking and Turner
Brothers. Besides these there are many
individual owners who have from one to
throe wells. Some of the large compan
ies have quite extensive plants. The der
ricks, engines, boilers, tanks, tank
wagons, and machinery of various kinds
represent quite a heavy investment of
capital.
An interesting feature of the oil field is
the pumping machinery. As many as
half a dozen wells are pumped by the
same engine, the apparatus connecting
the engines with the pumps being a very
ingenious contrivance.
Considerable difficulty is experienced in
pumping the deeper wells, as the suckers
of the pumps wear out very rapidly owing
to the pressure of the gas and oil and
the friction of the sand. The delay
cuused iv repairing the suckers is one of
the causes of the restriction of the out
put, but the chief cause of the restriction
is overproduction and lack of storage
facilities.
As a matter of fact, the Southern Cali
fornia oil wells are producing more crude
petroleum than there is a home market
for at present. Although it has generally
replaced coal in the generation of steam
power in the city, there is still a surplus
of oil,and there would be a greater surplus
if all the wells were pumped to their full
capacity. The use of crude oil ns fuel is,
however, rapidly increasing, and as it
seems to he only a question of time when
it will take the place of coal on locomo
tives on all the California railroads, it is
absolutely certain that there will be a de
mand for a fur greater quantity than is
now being produced. It is on this
hypothesis that new territory is being
developed and faith put in the future of
the industry.
Thus far the local oil producers have
been entirely dependent for a market on
Los Angeles city. They do not even have
a monopoly in this limited field, as the
Puente and Ventura oil wells are supply
ing a good portion of the crude oil used
In the city. The local producers ure also
handicapped by the lack of storage anil
handling facilities. The entire product
of the Second street park district is now
hauled away in tank wagons—a slow and
expensive process of handling.
It Was to overcome this difficulty that
the Producers Oil Company was incorpor
ated. This company is composed of a
majority of the producers in the Second
Street Park district who have agreed to
pool their interests with a view of build
ing a pipe line and storage tanks and con
ducting an oil exchange, thus establish
ing a uniform price for petroleum, in
stead of each producer hawking his oil
about and selling it for any price he can
obtain. The contract for a pipe line and
a large storage reservoir on the river
front has already been let, and the work
is expected to be pushed to early com
pletion.
In the meantime several other pipe line
companies have been incorporated and
franchises applied for. When one or all
are completed, it will unquestionably
prove of great advantage to the producers
and go a long way toward establishing a
steady market.
The price of crude oil at present ranges
from 75 cents to $1 a barrel as against $1.50
a year ago. The producer can make
money at $1 a barrel and oil is cheap for
fuel at that figure. Coal will have to be
laid down in Los Angeles at $3 per ton to
beat petroleum at the present prices.
The permanency of tbe supply of oil in
the Second Street Park district, was for a
long time doubted, as it was considered
a mere seepage, lying near the surface
that would soon be exhausted, but deep
borings have demonstrated that the
volume of oil increases with the depth of
the well, and it is now pretty generally
believed that it will take a good many
years to pump the field dry. Professor
Watts, an expert in the employ of the
State Mining Bureau, after a careful
examination of the territory has made
a very encouraging report as to its char
acter and extent.
Mr. Joseph Bayer, one of the pioneers
in the oil business in Los Angeles, and
the owner of Second Street Park, says the
value of the output of the district would
soon amount to $1,000,000 a year, if the
stuff could be sold at a fair price as fast
as produced.
The transformation of the little park,
which was a few years ago a pleasure re
sort and the surrounding residence lots,
into a hustling oil field, is one of the
wonders of Southern California.
Tlie like of the strange admixture of
picturesque homes and homely oil wells
cannot be found anywhere else in all the
length and breadth of the land.
DO YOU BELIEVE?
That this world was made for your spe
cial benefit?
Tbat your baby boy is really the bright
est child ever born?
That you would be really happy if you
hud everything you want?
That an education of mind and heart
makes a Woman any less the good house
keeper?
That men really believe one-half of the
smart things they write about women?
That any two mothers will ever have the
same ideas about the bringing up of
children?
That it really is so much harder to say
the pleasant thing thun the disagreeable
oner
That we can give money to the Lord ac
ceptably while our legal debts remain un
paid?
That the average man will know what
to do with himself when the millennium
That a taste for neatness, tidiness and
general sniigness lessens one's taste for
things intellectual?
That the world would be as wicked us it
is if Satan was us indolent in doing evil
as many Christians are in doing good?
That the time will ever come when an
editor does not receive every day on an
average three important letters requiring
aii answer, but without a signature?
That man is such an inferior creature
after all?
That St. Valentine was selected as the
patron of all lovers because he lost his
heud?
Great progress has been made in rail
road building in Switzerland within four
years. Ten mountains huve railways to
the top, the Brienzer-Rothhorn, ' 72H8
feet, being the highest. An interior rail
way, tunneled up to the top of the Jung
frau, is now proposed.
A severe rheumatic pain in the left
shoulder had troubled Mr. J. H. Loper, a
well known druggist of Dcs Moines, lowa,
for over six months. At times the pain
was so severe that he could not lift any
thing. With all he could do he could not
get rid of it, until be applied Chamber
lain's Pain Balm. "1 only made threo
applications of it," he says, "und have
since bean free from all pain." He now
recommends it to persons similarly af
flicted. It is for sale by »ff & Vaugbn,
Fourth and Spring sts.,and 0, F. Heinze
man, 'J.TI N. Main St., druggists.
Di. D. 3. Differbftcher, dcutiat. rooms 4 and
5, lit) o. Spring st., Los Angeles.
BY THE SALT LAKE ROUTE
Across the Plains to Los Angeles
IN 1849
BEFORE THE RAILWAY CAME
Judge Van Dyke's Paper Before the
Historical Society
The Natural Route for a Railroad From Salt
Lake to the Pacific, ac Demonstrated by
One Memorable Journey
I have been requester! many times hy
members of your society to furnish a
sketch of my trip overland ami some pio
neer experiences. My time, however, is so
fully occupied that I have very little time
to devote to outside matters; besides, I
have hesitated to repeat the events of pio
neer days, as they have been so often told
that there can oe Rt this time very little
interest in their repetition. I say repe
tition, because the experience of one was
pretty much the same as that of the
thousands who Hoi ked to this state at the
time of the overland route. The wise
I lysses was made to say to Achilles, while
sulking in his tent, that "to have been,
s to hang quite out of fashion, like a
rusty mail in monumental mockery."
The world cares very little for the past of
those who figured in it further than the
recital of the events may either instruct
or amuse those of the present.
Abont the time I was admitted to the
bar in Cev'eland, Ohio, the whole country
was electrified, as it were, by the accounts
of rich gold discoveries in California, a
portion of the country then recently ac
quired -from Mexico. A company of
young men, including some of my friends
and acquaintances, was organized in
Cleveland in the spring of 1804 to come
overland to California; and, being in the
right frame of mind for a little adventure,
it did not require much urging to induce
me to join It, which I did.
We left Cleveland on the last of May, by
steamer for Chicago, where we organized
an outfit for the plains. This city at that
time was one of the dirtiest and muddiest
imaginable; streets unpaved, excepting a
few where plank were used; and the
ordinary roads leading from it nearly bot
tomless in mud. The place gave very
little evidence then of becoming the lead
ing city in America during the lifetime of
many of the Agonauts.
We left Chicago June the 6th, taking a
direction to strike the Mississippi oppo
site Burlington, lowa, at which point we
crossed June 18th, being twelve days mak
ing tbis distance, owing to the condition
of tlie roads, the inexperience of the men
with that kind of traveling, and tho wild
unbroken stock we had secured for the
trip.
From Burlington we went by way of
Oskaloosa, lowa, at which place we were
obliged to halt and have an overhauling
of our outlil by the abandonment of some
of our heavy wagons and the substitution
of lighter vehicles, and here we spent the
Fourth of July.
Between the Dcs Moines and the Mis
souri we saw no settlements. We follow
ed the old Mormon trail to Council Bluffs,
where we arrived July 16th. There was
a little trading place at on near Council
Bluffs called Kanesvile, established by
the Mormons after being driven out of
the Indian Territory on tbe opposite side
of the river. At this place three of our
party concluded to abandon the trip, and
the company was dissolved or reorganized
and the men thereafter traveled independ
ently, but remained together. The late
Judge 0, A. Munn of San Jacinto (then a
young lawyer from Cleveland, like myself,)
was my especial companion thereafter
during the trip.
We were ferried across tbe Missouri
river above Council Bluffs, opposite the
old abandoned Mormon village called by
them Winter Quarters, from which they
hud been driven by the authorities of the
Government, as already mentioned. We
left the Missouri river July 24tb and
crossed the Elk Horn July 28th, about
where the Union Pacific crosses it, thence
following u|> the Platte valley on the
north side of the river about on the line
of said road, and on August 1, came up
to a train of Mormon emigrants.
We were late in the season compared
with the great rush of overland gold-seek
ers that year, in fact, 1 think one of the
last parties. The great body of the emi
gration went up the Missouri by boat,
and most of them outfitted and left the
frontier from the town of St. Joseph, Mis
souri, striking the Platte near Fort Kear
ney. The route we took, therefore, was
not so much traveled and the feed was
quite good until we reached that point
where the main road came in, after which
our progress was very slow, inasmuch as
the whole country near the road was eaten
off by the stock of the vast mini hers
which had preceded us. As a general
thing our progress was not much more
rapid than the Mormon emigrants, and
■we frequently traveled along with them
and from one*train to another, the rest of
the way to Salt Lake. And for tlie reason
stated we saw very few buffalo along the
route, and saw no Indians till we crossed
the north fork of the l'latte about twenty
miles below Fort Laramie. This was the
lastduy of August. About five miles above
the crossing we found quite a large en
campment of Sioux and Cheyenne In
dians. The train encamped on the river
just above their lodges.
Another member of the party and my
self rode on in advance to the fort. The
road all along above Kearney was like a
highway of nations—so trodden and worn
by tbe immense number that had traveled
over it. As we rounded a point on the
road we caught a glimpse to the west of
us, of the American flag fluttering over
the fort. After two montba' journey
across the plains from the frontier settle
ments this sight was a joyous one to us,
as emblematic oi the presence of the
power and glory of our country even here
in the midst of this vast wilderness. My
companion returned to camp, but I re
mained over as the guest of Major San
derson, commandant of the fort, until
the next day when the rest of the train
came up.
Beyond this point the main road passes
over the Black liills and strikes the north
fork of the Platte near the mouth of the
Sweetwater, the river between these
points making quite a bend to the north.
Inasmuch as the feed along the main road
was all eaten off, our party, as well as the
later Mormons, were obliged to follow up
the river, which lengthened the distance
and caused further delay.
When we arrived at Hock Independence,
a Mormon elder was dispuched to Salt
Lake City, as a sort of messenger to report
the progress of their trains. At his re
quest Munn and myself started with him,
but Munn's horse soon gave out and ho
fell in with another company of Mormons
we overtook on the Sweetwater. From
there the Mormon elder and myself travel
ed alone. We were twelve days coming
into Salt Lake City, and on the way
passed a large number of Mormon trains,
camping with one nearly every night. The
night we reached Fort Bridger it com
menced snowing ami continued the fol
lowing day, so we remained over at the
fort. The altitude there is so high that
snow commences to full curly in the sea
son.
We arrived at Salt, Lake City on tlie Bth
of October. In about ten days or two
weeks the remainder of our purty came
in. I kept notes of our trip and corres
ponded with v Cleveland paper, sending
back letters whenever an oppotutilty offer
ed. While ut Salt Lake 1 sent buck two
letters descriptive of the country aud
these peculiar people who had located
there, then a thousand miles or more
from the frontier.
Owing to the lateness of the season and
from accounts of some Mormons returned
from the gold mines on the American
river, it was evident that before we could
reach the foot of the Sierra Nevada it
would be impossible to cross with any de
gree of safety. The fate of the Dormer
party was a warning against any such
foolhardy attempt in the winter season
The great body of the overland emigrants
by the South Pass route preceded US, go
ing either by. the Humboldt or Fort Hall,
and most of them had already reached
their destination in the land of gold.
While We were thus delayed at Salt l ake,
undetermined whether to remain over
winter or attempt a southern route, some
Missouri trailers I'oineroy Brothers —
having sold out their merchandise,
brought into the valley in early sum
mer, were preparing to take their live
stock and freight wagons to Southern
California. We concluded to join them. A
Mormon, Captain Jefferson Hunt, who
had just returned from San Bernardino,
where they hail located a colony, was en
gaged as a guide. We left Suit the
Srilof November, 1849, pursuing a south- :
erly and southwesterly direction along the
foot of the Wasatch Mountains. The
route is through a series of fertile valleys
to the point where the road crosses the
southern rim of the great Utah basin.
The lirst and largest valley south of Salt.
Lake is the Utah valley. At the southern
end of the Utah Lake'we struck the old
Spanish trait, tlie northern route traveled
hy the Spaniards between the Pueblo of
I-os Angeles and Bantft Fe. A number of
tine streams put down from this range
of mountains, flowing into the desert,
timbered along their banks, the largest
being the Spanish Fork ami Sevier 1
River. Where the range turns westerly '
thire is a low depressior cftlled the Moun
tain Meadows. It was a famous camping
place on the line of the old Spanish trail.
The camp ground is near a spring at the
foot of the mountain on the west side of
the valley or meadow, with timber on the
slope of the mountain. The night we
camped there, it commenced snowing and
we were obliged to corral the cattle and
other stock an,l guard them; and build
tires of the dry cedar hauled down from
the side of tnS mountain to keep our
selves warm. The storm continued the
next day with considerable violence and
the stock was guarded to keep them,
from straying off. Owing to tho snow
there wn% no chance for feed here, so we
were obliged to move on without delay.
It wus at this same camping ground,some
years later, that a party of emigrants
from Arkansas and Missouri were at
tacked by Indians and some Mormons as
allies; and after being given assurance of
protection if they would surrender, were
brutally massacred — men, women and
children. Soon after we commenced
descending the southern slope of tho
divide the weather became warmer, and
from that on we had no difficulty as far
as the climate was concerned.
We reached the Santa Clara, a tributary
of the Kio Virgin, December 11th. The
Virgin Biver is a considerable stream
coming down from the Wasatch range of
mountains, that we had crossed and
flowed southwesterly into the Colorado.
Along the Santa Clara and the Rio Vir
gin, we found considerable feed; but
being without it so long,already the stock
was nearly starving; und many cattle gave
out and were left along the road. I
noticed on these river bottoms cornstalks
and some squash or pumpkins still re
maining on the ground, ami also indica
tions of irrigation, the work of Indians
of course, as no white people were then
in this region oi country. These Indians
are the Piutes, described by Fremont in
his report of explorations in 1843-4 as
causing him considerable trouble off his
returndiy tbis same route. They are a
marauding and savage tribe of Indians,
and seek every opportunity to waylay and
massacre small parties or stragglers from
larger ones. Our company wus so large
however, that we were not troubled with
them, except In the stealing and killing
of stock that wandered from camp.
Las Vegas further on this way, is
another famous camping ground. It is a
large meadow witb several springs nt the
head, which,uniting, form quite a stream
flowing through it. One of these springs
is so large as to make a good bath ing
pool, and the water is warm and boils up
with' such force as to buoy the swim
mer like a cork.
We were at a point about where the
state line crosses this trail at the close of
the year 1840 and the beginning of that of
1850"; as to which side there is some doubt.
However, in after years, the Society of
California Pioneers gave me the benefit of
the doubt by admitting me as a member
of its body, its constitution requires the
applicant to have been within the state
prior to January 1, 1850.
So many of the cattle had died or been
abandoned that the remainder were not
able to move the trains except very
slowly; aufl in consequence we had al
ready exceeded the time anticipated in
getting into the settlements, and our pro
visions were nearly exhausted.
It was proposed "therefore that some one
should go ahead and send back relief, and
about a dozen of us volunteered for that
purpose. We reached the Mojave River
the second day after leaving the camp, at
a point not far below Barstow, as near as
I can judge. We continued along the
same old Spanish trail tbat we bad been
following up that river and across to the
northern end of the Cajon pass, where
we arrived quite late the last day of Jan
uary. Our provisions being exhausted,
and" there being a moon, we concluded to
venture through the pass that night in
stead of remaining over till morning.
From my notes I quote: "I never shall
forget thia night's adventure in this wild
mountain pass. We issued from tlie puss
into the valley about 4 o'clock in the
morning of February the Ist. We halted
at the mouth of the canyon until clay
light, and then renewed our wulk. If we
hud not been in a famished and exhausted
condition we might, have appreciated with
pleasure the agreeable change in the
country. Even yesterday we were travel
ing in a dry and barren desert; today we
are treading on beds of beautiful flowers
unit wild clover, and the morning breeze
is laden with their perfume."
We reached the Cucamonga Kaneho
about 10 o'clock, February Ist. We found
an American family there and were sup
plied with an abundance, including milk
and butter—a rare treat, indeed, and a
great change in the fare we hud been ac
customed to during the many months of
our trip. A few days later we passed
over to the Chino Ranch, better known
among the immigrants of that period as
Williams' Ranch. Colonel Williams, the
owner, had during that season, sent out
many parties for the relief of immi
grants. The next morning Colonel
i Williams, furnished me a horse und a
' guide to come into Los Angeles, as I had
some letters and packages to deliver to
parties here. On the way we stopped at
Rowlands on the Puente, und were treateil
in the same hospitable manner character
istic of all ranch owners here.
In v week or ten days the other mem
bers of our Cleveland party came in with
the train, and we had thus crossed the
continent. We had consumed eight
months on tho trip—much longer thun
was anticipated when starting-still all
arrived well and no one hud been seriously
sick on tbe way, though subjected to many
hardships. This could not be suid in re
gard to most of tho overland companies
of that yeur. The numerous graves along
the road up the Platte and through the
Black Hills were sad evidences that many
a poor fellow had dropped by the way.
The year lsl!i-oO is memorable us one of
early and heavy ruins, as well as for deep
snows in the Sierra Nevufltt. At the
time our large purty cuine from Suit Luke
to this place, encumbered with ox teamt
and heavy wagons, and without any
further inconvenience thun the delay
cuused by the poor condition of the
stock, not*ing hut a bird or un expert on
snowsboes could have sculed the wall of
ice and snow over the Sierra Nevada
range. This fact of itself shows that this
is the natural route for a railroad from
Suit Luke to the Pacific. Tim grades arc
much lighter and trains could he run over
it all seasons of the year without the no-
I cessity of forty miles of expensive snow
i sheds.
When we arrived here the season was at
its best and tbe country charming 10 ap
pearance. There was very little busine*
curried on, however, aside from stoclr.
rai-ing and matters incident thereto.
The great body ol Immigrants, both by
land and water, entered California in the
central part of the state. Kvcn of those
who oam< this way overland very few re.
mained here; the upper portion of the
-laic, where the mines were located, wus
ihe point of attraction. While waiting
for an opportunity to go north I formed
the acquaintance of several of the Eng
lish-speaking residents of bos Angc es.
Among those I putticularly remember
wus Hon Abel Steams, us he was called,
who wus one of the leading men here,
lie had acquired large landed interests
and married in one of the prominent
Spanish families; hud been alcalde and
held other offices under the old regi.jc,
and wus a member of the first constitu
tional convention. B. P. Wilson wus an
other; he afterwards represented tins
county in the Senate. Benjamin Hayes, a
lawyer from Missouri, had just arrived
here by the Gila route; had opened a law
office already, anil wished me to remain
ami go in to "practice with him, He was
■übsequenty district judge of this judicial
dietrict, This place at tho time was still
a small Spanish pueblo and gave no
promise of much growth in the im
mediate future.
The great body of population drawn
here by die discovery of gold, settled in the
central and northern port ions of the stute.
The upper portion of the state was
thoroughly explored, towns founded and
cities built. Kvery branch of enterprise
was developed—mining, commerce and
agriculture—While these southern coun
ties remained in nearly the. same condi
tion as before the acquisition of the state,
t'attie und horses coverud the plains, but
the great resources of this section, iv
oilier respects, were undeveloped, and in
fact its capabilities were not then realized.
Neurly everything, aside from live Htoow.
wus shipped here from San Francisco.
Owing to their meagre population these
counties were hardly taken into uccount
in the political conventions and other
matters concerning the state. They were
referred to as tho "cow counties," not so
much by way of derision as expressive of
the pastoral pursuits of the people. This
condition of things continued so long
that it is difficult, even ut this late day,
for the old-timers of the upper portion
of the state to realize that a change has
taken place down here. However, it is
beginning to dawn on them that this sec
tion has taken on a new life and is forging
ahead in population, wealth und enter
prise at a rate that threatens to catch up
with them, and if they do not bestir
themselves may outstrip them in the race.
One word in reference to the pioneers
and this paper closes. So much of the
Bret Harte style of flashy literature has
been written concerning the curly Call
fomiaus that their true character has been
misunderstood by those not acquainted
with the real facts. It is true there were
many adventurers ami lawless characters
as in other new states and territories, hut
in no greater proportion. The mass of the
early population was composed of law
abiding and enterprising people. Most of
them were well-educated and possessed all
the elements tbat go to make up good citi
zenship. As is well known, Congress
failed to establish a territorial government
here or even to pass an enabling act for
the creation of a state government. The
people were left, as it were, without any
laws, and still, not only in towns but
throughout tbe mining regions, life and
property were as safe as in most older
states. Of their own motion a constitu
tion for a state government was framed
and adopted, which in many respects was
a model, State officers and a legislature
were elected, laws passed and judges und
other officers appointed and elected to en
force them. In fact, the whole machinery
of a state government was put in opera
tion before Congress came to our relief
by admitting the state, which was not
until the f»th of September, 1850. The
land grants Congress had made to the
newer states for the purpose of internal
improvements was, by a provision in our
constitution, diverted to the cause of
education, which was ratified by the ad
mission of tbe state into the Union.
Provision was also made for the early
founding of a state university .The laws
ot our early legislatures weic, in many
respects far in advance of those of the
other states, and have been since followed
by many of them, for instance, that iv
reference to the rights of married women,
reform in judicial procedure, and many
other questions. In learning and ability
the early bench and bar ranked high.
Many new and important questions arose
in this state growing out of the mining
industries and tho Mexican and Spanish
grants, and the decisions of our early
courts in solving these and other ques
tions compare favorably with those of the
higher courts of the rest of the country.
As merchants, business men, and in all
the various walks of life, the early pi
oneers were not behind their brethren in
other states. But. their work in founding
this state and shaping its institutions is
their best eulogy; they need no other.
||v HOUSEKEEPERS
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III I I I " symptoms of de
rangement of the
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Prescription. For the pains and aches, the
periods of melancholy and sleeplessness—
nothing can do you so much permanent
good as this vegetable compound. You
save the doctor's fee, as well as your mod
esty, by purchasing this "Prescription " of
Doctor Pierce. For a great many years
Dr. R. V. Pierce (chief consulting physician
and specialist to the Invalids' Hotel and
Surgical Institute, of Buffalo, N. Y.) made
a specialty of the diseases of women, and
from his large experience he was able to
compound a "Prescription" which acted
directly upon the special internal parts of
women. When in doubt as to your ailment
write him, it will cost you nothing. A
Book, on "Woman and Her Diseases,"
published by the World's Dispensary Med
ical Association, Buffalo, N. Y., is of inter
est to all women. It will be sent for ten
cents in stamps.
When women are afflicted with nervous-,
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haustion and sleeplessness, in nine cases
out of ten the source of the trouble is some
displacement, irregularity or derangement
of the special internal parts. Dr. Pierce's
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such cases as well as that distressing in
ternal discharge from the mucous mem
brane, inflammation and ulceration.
Brooklyn, Jackson Co., Mich.
Gentlemen—1 am more than willing to say your
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lining membranes of the special parts. I suf
fered for years with pain in my back, never a
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tion. I could not sleep on a mattrass; it seemed
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dition for any money. Gratefully yours.
Notice to Creditors
T. STATE OF JOHN M'CLAIN, DECEASED.
JTj Notice is hereby given by the under
signed administrator of the estate of John Mc
clain, deceased, to the creditors of and all
persons having claims against the said de
ceased, to exhibit the same with the necessary
vouchers, within four months after the first
publication of this notice to the said adminis
trator of the estate of John McClaln, deceased,
at the office of \V. F. Henning. en Bryson
Building In the city of Los Angeles, Calforni,,,
that being the place of business of said admin -
istrator for the business of said estate.
Dated this lath day of February, A. D. 1893.
HKNHY A. M'CLAIN.
Administrator.
W T. Heuniug, Attorney for Admistrator.
2-17 sun it

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