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STRANGE FACTS REVEALED BY A BLAST A CROSS EMBLEMATIC OF THE RELIGIOUS FERVOR OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY HAS JUST SEEN LIGHT AFTER 150 YEARS ROCHESTER, Pa., July I.—A blast on a quarry on the Stewart farm, half a mile east of this place, has just brought to light a cross which had been beneath the earth's surface since 1749. The place of burial was ground where limestone was an Important factor, and the result is that the cross is completely petrified. When the matter was first called to the attention of Ira W. Logan, the own er of the quarry, he w as greatly puzzled to explain the singular formation of stone, but investigation has made the history ot the sacred emblem clear, and at the same time recalled the marvelous energy and tireless journeyings of the most famous of the Roman Catholic clergy, the Jesuits. Mr. Logan commun icated the news of the discovery to the authorities of the Smithsonian institu tion at Washington. In response, Dr. W. De Hass of the institution, visited Rochester and carefully examined the cross. His report has not yet been made public but it is likely to be of vivid inter est when it is finally given publication The cross itself is twenty-four inches high, the cross-piece being eighteen Inches in length. Time and the lime stone washings, the combination that petrified it, also fastened it securely In a bed of limestone. It is considered rather remarkable that the blast which tore it from its bed twenty feet beneath the earth's surface did not mar its beau ty, but if It had been exhumed In the most careful faahion. it could have been do more perfect than it is. It is hard to realize without observation how really beautiful it has become through petri fication. It seems to have a luster or radiance, and when the sunlight strikes it fairly beams scintillate from it of prismatic hue, the whole forming a most charming spectacle. The history of this cross which careful investigation has shown, takes us back to the old days when Western New York was little better than a wilderness and Pennsylvania was as free from the touch of the white man, outside of the large settlements, as the virgin soil is from the cultivator. At that time the French soldiery and Roman Catholic priests were particularly energetic in penetrating the country in all directions, one seeking to establish the dominion of the state, the other that of the church. It was the century in which this combi nation achieved the most with which It has been credited. La Salle, Marquette, and others had made their names famous already. The woods all along the Cana dian border and nearly as far west as the Mississippi river had become famil iar places to the Jesuit priests. In the spring of 1749 a bandi of French soldiers, voyageurs and others, left La chine, which is situated near Montreal for a trip through the section of coun try which as yet really belonged to no one. The leader of the company was Captain Celeron, but associated with bim was M. Decontrecoeur.who in later years became a commander of that famous Pennsylvania post known as old Fort Duquesne, the site of the present city of Pittsburg. From Lachine the party Jour neyed down through Canada into that portion of New York state just north of Buffalo. It was a perilous Journey at the best While the Indians were supposed to be friendly to the French, there were pre datory bands of red men whose love for scalps and plunder often led them to forget the alliances which their "hlefs had made. They would pitch upon ex peditions like trie one described, and often was it the case that the first news the friends of the white men would have of their fate would be the report of a scout who had found their skeletons half burled under-the leaves' of a far away forest Obstacles of this sort had no terror for the French soldier. The Jesuits, besides possessing all the bravery that went to make up the man. who fought for France, was guided by a religious inspiration ar.d a fervor that almost amounted to fanat icism. No danger was so great, no peril so imminent that he would not face 1:. Through the trackless forests, in a frail canoe, down unknown streams where the song of the arrow might bring th messenger of death at any moment he would Journey, provided there was a possibility of bringing a .single person, from without to within the fo!d of the Roman Catholic church. A half dozen of these priests accompanied the French explorers. When the expedition reached the Alle gheny river It was considered that its real duties began. Here the fleur-de-lis of France and the cross of the Jesuits were placed side by side, church and state in a union that savored of nothing but pacification. At distances of ten miles along the route, Captain. Celoron buried leaden plates inscribed with the arms of France and the date of the ex pedition. Directly alongside the place of bUrlai of these plates the Jesuits burled wooden crosses, of which the one found near Rochester is a sample. Miles and miles down, the Allegheny, encountering perils of every description, their numbers dimirished by sickness, weak from want of food, these intrepid men continued their Journey until they reached the Junction of the Allegheny and Mon.ongaheia rivers. Here they established a camp, which subsequently became Fort Duquesne, although the sites of the fort and the camp are not identical, in point of the exact space oc cupied. For six months, or until the spring and summer of 1750, it is record ed that this expedition maintained the place of residence indicated. After that no one seems to know what became of them, with the exception of M. Decor trecoeur, who, as stated, became the commandant of the French post named Duquesne. Whether Captain Coleron and his companions journeyed Into the wilder ness and there left their bones to be whi tened by time no one- knows. Perhaps the musty records in France tell the story, but tlie chances are that they have been destroyed and. like the fate .of the explorers, all but forgotten. Of the Jesuit priests who participated in the Journey, an old book that refeTS to r the matter tells that four of their num ber went on. and that, is as near infinity as it is possible for mortal men to state. An interesting fact in connection with this matter is that no one remembers and there Is no record of one of these crosses having been hitherto exhumed since the series of burials thereof oc curred. Nor is there any record that one of the eleven plates intended to perpet- <uate the vain claims of France to the country, a claim which horrid massacres and hard fought battles failed to sub stantiate, was ever unearthed. Another fact, too, is that this Is the only expedi tion of such seeming importance which failed through one of its members at least to achieve lasting fame. It is only by accident that the facts stated here with are obtainable. They are a be quest by an educated man of the period, who, bearing of the tale of adventure and exploration, fancied that some time the facts in the case might be useful. Therefore he jotted them down, and in this way the history of the Lachine ex pedition is still known at the close of the nineteenth century. La Saile has a lasting memorial in Il linois. Father Marquette is better know n today than he was a century and a half ago. All through the Canadian prov inces and the states that line their bor ders the names of Jesuits and French officers are perpetuated by their hav ing been given to either localities or nat- PETRIFIED WOODEN CROSS BLASTED FROM A PENNSYLVANIA QUART, THOUGHT TO HAVE BEEN BURIED A CENTURY Ural objects of interest. In each of these cases the history of the original owner of the name is carefully treasured. The Lachine expedition accomplished much for France and the church. It opened a way for civilization that had heretofore been impassable. It gave to others the glory of conquest and achieve ment, while the men who made all this possible are aimost unknown. Thecross is the only lasting memorial of the ex pedition. It is through the kindly of fices of nature and not of man that this is so. COFFEE COLOR HAD GREAT LUCK Bet His Money on a 1300 to 1 Com bination and Won There was a notice in the sporting col umns of a New York paper a few days ago that announced in a few words th< death of Serl Adams in one of the char ity hospitals. Some few of the small army of men who are around Cincinnati at the present day engaged in the un certain but exciting pastime of backing the ponies w ill know who Adams was. But they will better recall him under the name of "Coffee Color," a nickname giv en him by his chums on account of his coffee and cream complexion. He was not a mulatto, however, as he came from a well-to-do family In Sedalia, Mo. He was the black sheep of the tlock, and in a way dropped into the sporting circl3 at St. Louis seven or eight years ago, where he earned a questionable notori ety by means of his success In picking winners. Concerning "Coffee Color," one of the stablemen at Latonia, when his death was mentioned, said: "I remember him well, but only after he was on his uppers and drifting around the poolrooms in. New York try - ing to pick up a dollar os so by 'touting ' He made a winning one day in the pool room that was the talk of the gang for a week. It was in the latter part of September, '93. I think. Anyway, it was the day that they had the big match at Guttenberg between Lamplighter and Tammany, and the Dutchman, Wal baum, almost went broke on Lamplight er, and Marcus Daly made a whole lot and then lost some on Tammany. Talk about betting nowadeys. Why, all the betting done around here isonly pik ing. 'Pon my word, I heard Johnny Co burn say that one of the Gut's books that day had $45,000 In on that match alone, and very few of the bets were less'n $500. and two or three of 'em were in the $5000 stake class. "Oh, yeh. About 'Coffee Color.' We!!, on that day he had sure inside informa tion from Daly's stable that Tammany could not lose. Then in some of the other races at Saratoga and Monmouth, I think, he had sure things. Factotum. Copyright and Raceland were some of them. That was te day when Bill Daly made a killing on Factotum. Well, 'Cof fee' hadn't a dollar to him name. Not a nickel. He tried to get a stake, but you know a winner hates to lend. Break* his luck, you krow. But that didn't worry 'Coffee.' He went around and begged the price of a drink from a dozen or two fellows and scraped up a dollar. He wasn't playing single bosses. That LOS ANGELES HERALD: SUNDAY MORNING, JULY 18, J897 was too slow. He was a combination fiend, and he had or.c up his sleeve tor a fact, but he couldn't get a nibble, though he had eight snaps, as he calied them "With his dollar he went to the com bination man, old "Gray Charlie' Duke, and asked him w hat he'd lay again the whole'list, about eight or nine horses all to win. Some of 'em were as good as 10 to 1, and none of 'em worsen even money Old 'Gray' kind of skinned the ;ist over an' said: " 'Oh, write your own ticket, 'Coffee.' an' he pushedi a ticket out to him. 'Cof fee' was a neat penman, havin' had. a good education, and he wrote all the names down. I don't recoliec' all of the list, but Tammany was at the head, an' old bones Raceland, and Factotum, an' Wah Jim. an' Copyright, an' St. Pat —he was as good as 10 to I—and i think Sir Walter was among 'em. But, anyhow, most of 'em were crackerjacks "When he pushed the ticket In old Charlie says: 'Coffee, you didin't put the odds t>n. Will 1000 to Ibe enough V " 'I guess so; but maybe you'd'better make it thirteen, just for luck. You know I always was lucky on thirteen.' An' that was a tact, too, for he was the only 'gam' I ever see that was stuck on that bloody number. So. just to accom modate Coffee, Old Gray made out the ticket 1300 to 1. Then everyone was on the ticket, and all the sheet-writers, cashiers and touts was kiddiln' and '.aughin' over the wonderful ticket. But it got interestin' after awhile, an' don't you forget it. The horses kept on win nJn' right along until the Tammany- Lamplighter race was pulled off. The crowd was hot for Lamplighter, for most of 'em were friends of Dutch Walbaum. and' they didn't think his hoss could lose. But he did, all the same, and the ticket began to look like a good) thing. I think it wound up on Censor, that wasrunnin" at the 'Gut,' but I'm not certain. Any way, the hoss was favorite and backed down. When he won you ought to seen the crowd around Coffee. Why, Lord bless my soul, every fellow wanted to embrace the old tout, even though he was in a flannel shirt and unshaved. Well, he got his $1301 just the same, and the fizz water flowed for an hour or two, to say nothin' of the real wet dlrinks. " 'You ought to seed' Coffee the next day. Damn 'f he didn't have on a check suit and a belt, or sash, or surcingle, or whatever you call it, an' a deaf man could've heard him comin' round the cor ner. Oh, he was out of sight. I guess i the room got mcst of the money back putty soon, for Coffee wasn't a piker CELLS OF A HUMAN BRAIN PHOTOGRAPHED TO DEMONSTRATE LATE THEORIES OF THE CAUSE OF- SUNSTROKE when he had the stuff. In fact, them weren't pikln' diays. But he lasted a long time, and was over at the 'Gut' every day, an' he picked* up some mighty good things, too."—Cincinnati Commer cial Tribune. Mackey's Friendship for Ochiltree John W. Maekay not only has a kind heart, but he is always the s<taunchest and truest of friends. For weeks poor old Tom Ochiltree has been lying ill at Chamberlain's in Washington, where he has made such little progress toward recovery that his friends and physicians determined, to remove him to New York. Maekay was on hand at once with a special car for the use of his old friend, but Tom wasn't equal to such a long Journey, and so he Is still there and. ill enough to cause alarm. But when he gets well enough to use it he will have at hand the special car or anything else that Mackay can pro vide.—New York Journal.^ A number of engineering Arms in Eng land keep on hand ready-made iron bridges of many sizes. SUN'S VICTIMS Discovery by Dr. Ira Van Gieson, the Savant IS NOT SIMPLE OVERHEATING THE SUN'S BAYS ORIGINATE A MOST VIRULENT POISON Remarkable Effects of the Poison Up on the Nervous System Re vealed by Experiments Special Correspondence to The Herald. NEW YORK, July 12.—A person who ia sunstruek does not die because of overheating- of the blod. but for the rea son that there has been formed in his veins by the fierce rays of the sun a poison so deadly that it destroys the nerve cells. This somewhat startling in formation, even to the most skilled med ical nun, is the result of a series of ex periments by Dr. Ira Van Gleson, di rector of the New York State Pathologi cal institute and one of the foremost disciples of medical science of the day. The.announcement at this season is par ticularly timely. To the surprise this fact engenders is added the further complication that, try their best, the doctors who have in vestigated have found themselves to tally unable to analyze the poison whose effects are so dire, though they have proved again and again that it does ex ist. They know that it is what the doc tors call an "auto-toxio" poison, but right there they are compelled to stop, and the worst of it is that until they can succeed ir, the matter of analysis, it will be utterly impossible to compound an absolute remedy for sunstroke. It is a strange series of facts that this investigation has revealed. It has shown that the virulence of this mysterious poison has often been as great as that which the rattlesnake instills into the victim, and, oddly enough, it is not un like the venom of the rattlesnake In its effects. Yet there is a difference, and it is Just this difference which forms the stumbling block over which the an alysts have fallen. Dr. Van Gieson said to the writer that he did not see how even a layman could doubt the fact that sunstroke was prac tically nothing but auto-toxic poisoning. All, he said, that was necessary was to note the purple, swollen face of the pa tient, the enfeebled heart action', the profound collapse and the fact that death occurred within one or two hours to convince oneself that what was seen was the result of the action of one of the most deadly of poisons. Said the doc tor: "It Is, beyond question, the most brilliant, straightforward example of an acute, Intense, virulent poison, originat ing within the body, which acts most rapidly and violently upon the nervous system" The very first point at which the poison strikes is that group of nerve cells which manage the heart. These are known as "ganglion. cells. Instantly the poison touches them the process of degenera tion begins and continues at lightning speed. Often a physician will give the cause of death as heart failure resulting from excessive heat. In a measure this is technically correct, but really death should be declared to be due to poison andi the consequent degeneration or de cay of the cells. Sometimes the poison attacks the cells of the brain, and then there happens what medical men term degeneration of the cortical cells, mean ing that the nerve cells of the brain are being killed and practically forced out of existence. Occasionally It happens, too, that the sufferer from this sortof poisoning man ages to cling to life, but he is always in a damaged condition. The poison can not enter one's system without making a scar. It is certain to be the case*hat at least a few of the nerve cells are par tially destroyed. The doctors call these structural changes. The layman knows that he is not as well as- before and is friends say that his mind is affected, which is very apt to be the case. , Dr. Van Gieson said, when questioned regarding the matter: "The progress of the past ten years in bacteriology and j physiological- chemistry has gone far toward demonstrating that the great : majority, in fact, if not most of the I processes of disease in general, are due |to toxic substances in one form or an other. I would' divide toxic substances I into five groups, the most important of which are the auto-toxic. I consider that these poisons merit much consideration, because they will come ere long to be j recognized as a factor of great import j ance in the productipn of nervous and mental diseases. It is only through the most profound analysis of physiological chemistry linked with cautious and ex- I tended animal experimentations that we can slowly feel the way along toward thd ! ultimate explanation of the auto-toxic ; group of diseases. | When it is remembered that the whole j animal body is composed of the most I complex chemical compounds, which are incessantly undergoing new aggrega tions and seggregations; when one re- I calls the complex chemical elaborations | of the secretions and digestive processes |of the alimentary canal, the chemistry of general tissue changes and all that goes on in the human body both in di viding what is nourishing In food from that which is waste, it can be plainly realized how abundant the opportunity Is for the creation of peculiar conditions of a poison and Its instant action upon the human system. "Even a doctor finds it hard to always tell where the line ie between the nutri tious and the Injurious, or Just at what point certain processes of the human system must stop in order to avoid evil results. It only takes the very slightest change in the elements that go to make up the fluids and tissues of the body to cause a transformation from the useful to the injurious. When you stop to think of this. It cannot be considered strange that With all the complicated chemistry of the body, with the operations of the wonderful mechanism that controls it, it is easily apparent that It would be no difficult matter for the machine to get out of order slightly and sufficiently for the development of abnormal poi sonous chemical compounds. "Neither can It be considered strange that poisons that come Into existence under the usual conditions of the body are often not nullified because of the de rangement of the organs whose func tions appear to be largely if not wholly for the purpose of nullification. It occa sionally is the case, too, that, owing to the failure of the liver or the kidneys to act properly there Is retained in the body certain waste that should have passed from It. and that waste in time becomes poison. "Now it is more than probable that the victims of sunstroke, as it is called—re al ythe victims of auto-toxic poison— are persons in whose body, probably un known to themselves, there exist certain conditions favorable to the formation of this mysterious auto-toxlc poison. Just how far this Is true of course we do not know. My profound conviction Is that very many examples of mental and not a few instances of nervous disease are caused by the action of auto-toxins or poisons on the nervous system. This conviction is the result of profound and THE NEW AQUATIC SEXTET, THE FIRST PRACTICAL WATER BICYCLE, LATELY GIVEN A TRIAL ON THE SEINE prolonged study of the changes caused In the nerve cells by the action of poi son. "It is plain enough why the nervous syetem is particularly susceptible t|» such poison as affects the sufferer in case of sunstroke. The most complex cell in the human body is called the ganglion. The internal structure of this is so Intricate and delicate that it instantly feels the effect of a poieon much more readily than is the case with the nerve cells that go to make up the majority of the tissues of the human body. In sunstroke there is an acute degeneration of the nervou&system. To be sure there are various degrees of severity, and according to my belief this variation Is solely due to the gradations of virulence of the poison. "While the nature of the poison is entirely obscure, there is absolutely no doubt of the way it acts upon the nervous system. The poison produces an acute degeneration of the cortical cells, which in some instances goes so far as to utter ly destroy the cell. Oftentimes nerve cells are only partially destroyed, and this is due to the fact that the duration of the action varies. While the poison may be intensely virulent, if it acts for a brief period only on the nerve cells, nature will often repair the damage that has been caused, up to a certain point. However much she may try nature seems unable to place the cell in exactly the same condition as It was be fore it encountered the poison. "If the action of the poison continues beyond a certain period, the nerve cell cannot be saved from destruction. The sufferer either dies or continues to live either in a damaged mental condition or suffering from a permanent physical disability. I have no hesitation in say ing that the whole question of life and death with a patient poisoned by what is called sunstroke, depends upon the action of his internal organs in eliminat ing the poison from the system. The chances are that a man in perfect con dition will not die from sunstroke, but of how few persons this can be said. "Apparently there is no greater safe guard against death from sunstroke than to keep one's kidneys in a normal condition. If the processes necessary to send this poison from the system'are checked, it means death or insanity in nine cases out of ten to the victim." His Very Worst "Ha!" exclaimed the Spanish general. "It Is a splendid idea!" "Have you hit upon a new plan for harrassirg the enemy?" "Yes. It's a little cruel, but all's fail in war. I'm going to have a free distri butions of thermometers, so that every man in the Cuban army will be temptrd to worry over the heat!"— Washington Star. Another Branch of the Service •'You are familiar with the 'Caval leria,' Mr. Rumple?" "With what?" "With 'Cavalleria.' " "No, I guess not; but I know several fellows in the artilleria."—Cleveland Plain Dealer, . ! ■„ I TO CYCLE ON NEPTUNE'S BOSOM SUMMER GIRLS SPIN ALONG THE WATERS OF THE SEINE IN A SEXTUPLET AFFAIR THAT IS A WONDER i Special Correspondence to The Herald. PARIS, July 3—We have a new fad land it belongs to the summer girl. It is a strange creation and partly am phibious. The name given to it is the bicycle shell, for while It Is impelled after the fashion of a bicycle, that part of it which comes in contact with the water Is constructed after the lines of a racing shell A sextuplet affair, the six girls who ride in it have the Jolllest of times. It is a genuine Adamless Eden, for there is no record as yet of any man having been permitted to enjoy the social de lights of this method of cycling. The ordinary bicycle boat has done very well, when with all the impetus the riders could give it made four miles an hour. This latest invention has done fifteen miles an hour, and there is no indication whatever that the limit has been reached. In fact, those who have be come expert in its use say that beyond question there are possibilities in the sextuplet bicycle shell which will in time be a source of amazement. Some of the young ladies who have tried to learn the art of steering this pe culiar soft of cycling have had some very undignified falls, for the bicycle shell, like all marine contrivances. Is very apt to tip over if sufficient Impetus from one side or the other Is given. This was Illustrated not many days ago, when a party of six demoiselles, the daughters of well-to-do citizens, started out on the Seine for a trial trip. These particular six young women had never ridden together before, even on land, and so they were not familiar with the wheeling ideas of one anothr. Now. everybody who has ever ridden a wheel knows that no two riders ride alike. If they had witnessed the consequence of ignorance in this particular case, they would be more convinced than ever. The shell' steers by the action of all six of the riders and not through mech anism controlled by the stern. It therefore, absolutely necessary that the riders work in unison, and the captain of the ride tells the other riders what to do Just as the coxswain In a regulation shell gives directions to the stroke ore. She gave the directions this time prop erly enough, but one Independent young woman preferred her own way. The re sult was that in less time than it takes to write this the whole six were spilled into the Seine, and though all were fished out in safety there were several narrow escapes. The boat is very buoyant, and not at all cranky. The Idea in constructing it. was to make it as safe and simple as pos sible. If the riders care to train as peo ple always train who row In a boat to gether—not for proficiency so much as unanimity—there would be no danger whatever. The pedaling motion by the young women acts as the power to move a steel propeller shaft.which starts at the stern of the shell and stops a little short of the bow. There is no danger whatever of its becoming twisted or out of order, for the main object of the in ventor has been to preserve It from all twisting sldewlse motion which might easily bring about disaster. Every ex periment that could be thought of has been tried to make it absolutelysafeand sure, and the motion of the boat indi cates that these efforts have met with perfect success. The balance wheel of the mechanical part of the shell Is located in the center, and carries the propeller over the neces sary point without any difficulty. Every time the pedals of the bicycle gearing make one revolution the propeller at the stern makes Aye. To understand ex actly what this means and gain a correct Idea of the speed of the shell, Just watch how many times a minute the pedals re volve when a rider is moving at an ordi nary rate of speed. Then multiply this by five and you will have the exact num ber of the revolutions of the propeller per minute. It Is a well known fact that so many revolutions per minute of a propeller of a certain size means a. given degree of speed, and in that way the ex act time which the shell can make can be calculated. This is the basis upon which the cal culation is made which furnished ground for the statement regarding speed pos sibilities previously made. No one has yet scorched on the bicycle shell, and yet there is no reason why they should not. It is also possible that if men were to ride the machine rather than women their greater muscular power would furnish an Irresistible Impetus. It Is estimated that, all things being equal, a man can, if he desires, ride a third faster than a woman. This being the case, if the shell will permit of the in crease, there seems to be no reason why the speed of the shell should not become a third greater than It is possible for the summer girl to make. An odd fact In connection with the new invention is that it seems to be encour aging the new woman Idea. Ordinarily the summer girl looks on nothing with more horror than the prospect of being away from the summer young man, but the popularity of the new machine and the fact that it is the custom to form the crew only of young women has really reconciled her in part to the absence of the adorer. This may seem an extrav agant statement, but the fact that it is true is what makes it odd. It is at pres ent the custom to make about a twenty mile run on a bicycle shell. The ordi nary motion of the shell, at the rate of speed generally used, Is just sufficient not to tire the riders In the least, and yet, if the weather happens to be warm, suffi ciently rapid to create a breeze that cools and Invigorates. Instead of after noon teas and luncheons the summer girls are now organizing bicycle shell' parties. While the manufacturers of the new invention are doing the best they can to flil the orders that have com» to them, they find it impossible to fill the demand. Therefore the rowboat and steam launches are still somewhat pop ular. The fashionable method Is to com bine the two. The launch is filled with a portion of the party who have not yet experienced or are unable to enjoy the delights of riding the bicycle shell. Ped aling along close to the launch goes the shell and its sextette of riders. All are within easy conversational distance, and a very jolly time results. When the bicy clists grow weary they are taken aboard the launch and their queer machine is towed, the fact that it has on each side two long cigar-shaped cylinders some thing after the fashion of out-riggers, making this possible. • Sometimes it is the case that when the six original riders become tired they merely exchange places with six others in the launch, and thus all members of the party have an opportunity to enjoy the delights of the shell. One night re cently I noticed six parties o£ this de scription on the Seine, and if one is to Judge from appearances, they were hav ing such a good time as to be envied. While this is really a summer fad, the bicycle manufacturers are looking at the matter in an altogether more serious light. They say that the reason of the success of the shell Is that the public wants something new in the bicycle line. Everything has Its day, they declare, and the reason for the bicycle's great popularity is that it gave people con stant opportunity for change. Now the time has come when they wish some method of locomotion on the water and genius has twisted the bicycle into that form. Bicycle dealers say that there is no question but what the shell Is one of the coming fads of everybody. Just the mo ment people are convinced thoroughly that they can enjoy a trip on the water in one of these with perfect safety, that moment will the bud of promise bloom Into the flower of realization. The chances are that the aquatic bicycle is the wheel of the future, even though a number of persons have seen fit to laugh it to scorn. The New New England The trolley roads are rapiddy covering Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Con necticut with a network that is slowly and surely redistributing the popula tion; it seems almost inevitable that a great part of the present rural area of i these three states will ultimately be in cluded in the suburbs of their numerous and widely scattered industrial cen ters and of their dozen or more larger cities. "When this condition arrives, if . it does arrive, rural life will have be come suburban, and farming, aside from market gardening, will have prac tically disappeared. The bicycle and good roads are exerting a minor but considerable Influence in the same di rection. Equally Important is the fact that large areas in all sections of New Eng land are In process of transformation from farms to sites of country seats. Residents of the cities are coming more and more to make their real homes In the country. They are building their country houses with more" comfort and more solidity and are living In them a much larger part of the year than formerly. The country season extends already from the Ist of May to the Ist of November and is still lengthening. Improved railway andi steamboat transportation, the multiplication of large fortunes, greater leisure, above all a growing appreciation of the sports and resources of country life, have con tributed to this result. It looks very much as If our urban society were at taching itself primarily to the land living on the land and leaving it for the city only in the festive season. Whether this tendency will produce again a landed aristocracy Instead of an aris tocracy of other forms of wealth, who can cay? One thing only Is sure—it would produce thereby a new New Eng land.—Atlantic Monthly. Profited by His Conviction A Scotch cobbler, described on the police books as a "notorious offender," was sentenced by a Forfar magistrate to pay a fine of half a crown or. in default, twenty-four hours' hard labor. If he chose the latter he would be taken to the Jail at Perth. "Then I'll go to Perth," he said, "for I have some business there." An official conveyed him to Perth, but when the cobbler reached the jail he said he would pay his fine. The governor found he would have to take It. "And now," said the cobbler, "I want my fare home." The governor demurred, but discovered there: was no alternative, the prisoner must be sent at the public ex pense to the place he had been brought from. So the canny Scot got the 'i shil lings 8% pence which represented his fare, did his business and went home tri umphant—two pence halfpenny and a railroad ride the better for his offense.— Scottish American. The United States produced two-thirds of the cotton consumed by the world ton the last sixty-seven years.