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OF PEANUTS. But Small Boys Need Not Fear; There Will Be Enough to Go Around. HOW GROWN AND HARVESTED. Known as Ground-Nuts, Goobers, and by Various Other Names. Useful in Many Ways. According to all predictions, the pea nut crop of the TJnited States is going to he short I his year. Rut this does not mean that the supply will not be suffi cient to satisfy Uncle Sam's small boys: for peanuts are raised in many coun tries besides our own, and the cost of importation is not great enough to In crease the price materially. This particular product of the earth is known In the United States by a greater variety of names, perhaps, than any other that is go universally popu lar. In various parts of the South it is the "ground nut," the "ground pea," the "goober" (sometimes spelled "gou ber") and the "pindar." Over In Eng land it Is often called the "monkey nut," and this leads to the inference that In Africa and South Africa, where it grows wild, its edible quality first became known to man because the monkey fed on it. One of its names all over Europe Is "manilla nut;" and this comes, no doubt, from the fact that it is exten sively grown in the Philippine Islands— where the Spaniards are now trying to put down an insurrection—of which Manilla is the capital. In France it is the "pistache de terre," from its simi larity to the pistachio nut in taste and the uses to which it may be put. At this season of the year those who grow peanuts are kept busy attending to the cultivation of the crop. The seeds are put into the ground in May, late enough to avoid even the latest frosts. Until a few years ago peanuts were planted by hand, but now a machine Is generally used which places them in rows three feet apart, distributes the phosphate which is almost always used as a fertilizer, drops the "beans," as the seeds are often called, in groups of three, covers them with two inches of soil, and rolls the earth firmly.—all in one operation. The cultivation of the peanut crop is very similar to the cul tivation of potatoes, both the "culti vator," hauled by a horse or mule, and the hoe being used. Late in July a top dressing of land plaster Is applied. Country bred boys, both north and south, will understand all this without further explanation; and city lads, with whom the peanut is probably as uni versally popular as with the country boys, can learn all about the "cultiva tor" during their summer vacations, for It Is an implement that is used by farmers everywhere. The vines of the peanut begin to bloom when they are eight or ten inches long, the blossoms being of a bright yellow color and very profuse. The flowers, However,are sterile; that is, they are not followed by seeds, as are the blossoms of most plants, even the potato,—which like the peanut, develops the edible product beneath the surface of the soil. Nature is extremely interesting In her method of providing for the propagation of the peanut. As the flower fades, a sharp pointed stem grows out from the hase of the plant, turns downward, and buries itself In the ground. On the end of this stem are formed the pods, or "nuts." some little distance under ground, and the plant needs no human attention whatever from the time of this pod formation till it is ready for harvesting. The harvesting takes place late in October or early in November. Care is always exercised to get this work out of the way before frost comes, though if possible it Is put off until just before the first visit of the icy breathed visitor from the North. Formerly peanuts were taken out of the ground by hand, some what after the manner in which pota toes are harvested; but progressive pea ELLEN OSBORN'S FASHION LETTER. Gay Beach Gowns and Dainty Frocks for Summer Fetes, as Seen on Rhode Island's Sands. Newport, R. I,', Aug. !i. — From a comfortable sand burrow at Narragan sett yesterday it was possible to observe that the beach was alive with yellowish muslins tied with sashes of rainbow hued ribbons. Now yellowish muslins come in with the goldenrod, which fact tempts to moralizing. Sifmmer is the locust's drone, the hot, sweet earth breath and the brooding of the sky. But these things never meet till sum mer Is touched with instinct of its end. Summer is yellowish muslins, but yel lowish muslins wait for bathing dresses, and when a girl is able to spend half the day in the surf and the rest in mus lin foam then the days are growing shorter with warning of future chill. This fable teaches that to get a thing, especially a yellowish muslin or a bath ing dress, is warning to make ready to let it go. Too bad it isn't a fable. Chokey linen collars and stiff shirt fronts are not subject to this rule. Its application Is to things desirable. Sail or hats seem to escape also. On what ground, there may be argument. Eut carpe diem. Enjoy the white silk while it is worn out of doors. It took up a good part of the beach room yes terday not given over to yellowish mus lin. It was sashed with green by pref erence and cascaded with lace In com plex ways. Spotted muslin spotted the sands, made up over white and frilled till the turning up of the ruffles was like the blowing of the leaves of a. tree in the wind. Tambour muslins and or gandies were In the running with much draped fichus of chiffon or lace or mous seline de sole. The English expression of gayety is to hang ribbon bunting from "Venetian masts"; i. c., Hag staffs. From the depths of that burrow yes terday the quantities of ribbon a flutter from pique, not poles, made Narragan sett tumultuously gay. Rose pink and pale green ribbons were first favorites but every sort of dress streamed with any sort of ribbon. Hats were in the streaming business, too, for with the docility of sheep, over nut growers now use a plow with a "peanut point." which is run alongside each row so as to cut oft the deep grow ing tap root. After this plow, work men follow with strong, broad forks, with which they lift the vines and root! from the ground and lay them on the ridge of soli that has been freshly turn ed by the plow. For a day the pods are allowed to dry In the sun; then the vines are stacked for curing, each stack being built about a pole that has been driven into the ground for that purpose. When thoroughly cured the nuts are re moved from the roots, some times by hand and some times by machinery. The latter Is the quicker, more econom ical method, but the nuts suffer from it to some extent, and some growers who wish to get the highest prices adhere to the old way of hand picking. The ma chines are worked by steam power, and both in appearance and principle are somewhat similar to the machines used in threshing wheat. Besides the machine for picking the nuts from the vines, still another has been introduced. It is called "the blow er." and Its function is to grade the nuts and free them from whatever im purities have been left by the pre vious process. In this machine the nuts pass through a very strong artifi cial blast, from the force of which tho heaviest are first released, to fall into the proper receptacle for the first grade, STACKING PEANUT VINES IN SOUTH CAROLINA. and so on. By this means about four grades of nuts are secured; those of the last grade—the very light ones—being practically worthless, especially as they are mixed with bits of roots, broken shells, etc. It is generally necessary to do some hand picking even after the blower, and this work is performed by women and children. All these opera tions are lumped together by peanut growers and dealers under the compre hensive term "refining," and sometimes a part of the refining is done at the "factories," or establishments for the purchase and shipment of the nuts, that have been established in all peanut growing regions within the past few years. Meet of my roadcra, probably, tliink peanuts are raised solely that they may be eaten by boys, but this is a mistaken notion. Few products of the soil are put to a greater variety of uses. The vines form a decidedly valuable food for cattle. From the kernels an especially fine oil is made, which none but an ex pert can tell from the best olive oil. This oil is used in great quantities in the making of some of the finest grades of toilet soap. The kernels themselves are used in some parts of the world in the adulteration of coffee, and still more extensively in the manufacture of co coa and chocolate. Ground into flour, peanuts form an admirable material for certain sorts of cakes and biscuits, and the negroes of the southern states make from it an exceedingly palatable por ridge, besides using it as a basis for a a wall every beach girl In the East has joined the follow your leader game started by tho first beach girl who tied her veil about the crown of her sailor hat, instead of over her face, and let the ends wave behind. There are long ends and short ends, tulle ends, Brus sels and Russian mesh ends, wide ends and narrow ends, spotted ends and plain white, but always waving veils. In which fact is warrant for more mor alizing. The trimmed skirt conditions the flowing veil. 1 do not suppose that the beach girl has reasoned with herself saying, "Because my dress is all danc ing ruffles, therefore my hat must com promise with its too demure ways;" but without any whereas or therefore straight brim and hard crown have yielded to graceful demoralization. Fashions that last always harmonize with their environments. The sailor hat has the instinct of the fittest to sur vive. It is a notion of mine that the bright est butterflies are shortest lived, and on the same principle casino dress, which has a rather longer season than beach dress, is often daintier and more artis tic, but never so boldly and frankly gay. The casino gown at Newport just now or the gown for Bellevue avenue is a very soft gray muslin over pale pink or a silky grass lawn in fawn color or delicate green, embroidered in ecru or cream color and with open applique de signs in Renaissance lace or in black lace touched with gold tinsel. There Is nothing radically new about any of these dresses. Fashion is enjoying its midsummer slumber. But there are touches of individuality, even of origi nality, to distinguish good dresses from commonplace ones. Here are the best sketches of the last three or four days. A slight girl of for eign look, with dark blue, almost violet eyes, wore at the casino a pale pink fou lard, the one material favored abroad, though not so exclusively dominant here. The skirt, which was figured with a vague, cobwebby design in white, was trimmed with three ruches of silver LOS ANGELES HERALD: SUNDAY MORNING, AUGUST 15, 1897 FACT AND FANCY FOR LADS AND LASSIES much appreciated beverage. The use of peanuts in candy-making Is well known. Authorities differ as to the botanical history of the peanut. It is now ex tensively grown In Africa, South Amer ca, India, China and the Malayan Archipelego. In Europe peanuts are ex tensively grown only In Spain: all over the continent they are used mostly for their oil, and the great markets there draw their supply mostly from the west coast of Africa. India and Brazil con sume most of the great crops grown in those countries. In this country the peanut is a staple in Virginia, the Caro linas and Georgia. Besides it is raised to some extent in nearly all the South- em States, and its cultivation in south ern California Is increasing every year. The annual product In the United States varies from 2,000,000 to 6,000,000 bushels, and practically all of this im mense quantity is used here. Three varieties are grown in the Unit ed States; the white, the red, and the Spanish. The white peanut has two kernels only in each pod, and this ' s also true of the Spanish nut, which is considerably smaller, however, than the white variety and has a much milder flavor. The third variety, the red pea nut, often has as many as three or four kernels in each shell and is larger than either of the other varieties. Peanut connoisseurs say the Spanish nuts are the best, the white ones next best, and the big red ones last In quality. But it is a curious circumstance that the pea nut eaters of the city of New York, the biggest peanut market in the United States, prefer these big red nuts to all others. Copyright, 1597, by Bacheiler Syndicate. The Pope"s Will. The pope's will has been made for many years. The document is in Latin, and begins with a humble confession of human weakness, and appeals to the merits of our Lord and all the saints. In it Leo XIII distinctly disclaims all personal inclination in the matter of the choice of his successor. Only one man In 203 is six feet tall and over in America. grey chiffon, set on after the popular model of a tilted hoopsklrt, low in front and high behind. These ruches were round and full like a boa, instead of patterning after ruffle or frill, and they divided the skirt into four parts ap proximately square. On the left side a fan panel of pleated chiffon had the effect of being laid over the ruches. The bodice was close-fitting and decorated with a plastron of cream lace edged with a grey chiffon ruche, and cut like a broad collar and vest combined. On the shoulders it lay over small, ruche bordered epaulettes, as if to double them. The sleeves were a very close fit and the belt a swathing of brilliant red. A red turban-shaped hat w r as worn, wound with white chiffon and trimmed with pink roses. At a lawn fete given a day or two ago in behalf of a Newport charity the most striking dress exhibit was a pale rose tinted taffeta skirt trimmed with lace in the new grass lawn tint; said lace being looped across the front in three festoons, coming high upon the sides and falling straight thence to the ground. The bodice of this costume was a slightly pouched front of lace belted with pink silk and worn under a very novel jacket of deep dahlia-colored silk covered with Turkish embroidery in gold. This jacket was a cross between a zouave and a tailed coat, with point ed fronts cut away in deep curves un der the arms to the long basques be hind. There was a large white hat trimmed with pink and yellow roses and turned up on the left side with roses under the brim. A second foulard dress was in the carriage procession this afternoon. It was cream-colored, with designs in green and pale blue, and it had side panels of ecru lawn, hanging a little full and embroideyed with green and cream. The bodice was almost covered with a fichu of mousseline de sole, a dainty thing of many scalloped frills, knotted on the breast with a bunch of roses and falling below the waist line. , The gathered yoke and the close, ruf INDIAN GAME OF SING=GAMBLE Played by Shokomish Tribe, Which Dwells in Vicinity of Puget Sound. SING AND DANCE WHILE PLAYING Savages Even Risk Their Wives to Win and Often Play All Night. Many practices of the early Indians are in vogue today among the half civ ilized tribes who live in the vicinity of Puget Sound. In their pastimes, gam bling occupies a prominent place, and the "sing-gamble," though divested ot much of its old-time ceremony, Is still the great game of chance. In its simple form it is but a plain game of guessing, with equal opportu nities to win or lose. The Indians, how ever, will risk their all, jewelry, horses, dogs, canoes, weapons, and wives upon Its results. The preparation and cere mony formerly attendant upon it gave it great renown. At the present time, when played with less than a dozen participants, It is still an affair of much moment. Night time, which lends welrdness to the scene, is usually chosen for the sing-gamble. A huge fire is built, on each side of which is placed a long log, resting on shorter pieces of wood, the contrivances resembling huge, rude drums. The players rapge themselves back of the logs, In two opposing sides. The gambling paraphernalia consists ot sticks of green alder, one-half with the bark peeled off, and the other with a little ring of bark left around the mid dle. Counters in the shape of small sharpened cedar sticks, are set in the ground on each side of the fire, In front of the players. At a game which I witnessed, thirty points constituted the game, but the limit often runs as high as sixty. As a preliminary, the bets were arranged between the players. Two canoes, a silver watch, two ponies, a dollar and a half in silver, a coat, a shirt, and some other articles were wagered. This con sumed a great deal of time and much talking in Chinook and real Siawash "wawa," but was finally settled satis factorily. Then the game began. One of the Indians selected two alder sticks. These were about four inches long and an inch in diameter. He took one with the bark stripped, and the other with the ring around the mid dle. The point to be determined by the opponents was which hand held the clean stick or which the stick with the bark. The Indian having the sticks fumbled with them under his shirt, then brought them out in his hands. The mu sic now began, the Indians on the side of the sticks singing, and those oppos ing keeping time by rapping on the log in front of them with long sticks of hard wood. During this performance the Indian and another who also had selected alder sticks were swinging their hands at half-arm. bending the limb at the elbow in front of them, while they leaned far forward with their bodies, at times throwing their heads back and their chests out, and every minute main taining that dreadful, unearthly chant. Occasionally they would dexterously toss the short sticks into the air. catch fling sleeves were of lawn, as was the big. frilled and embroidered parasol. Looking on at golf but far from being of it was a summery dress of grass lawn of a pretty, peachy shade. Its skirt was nearly covered with three deep flounces edged with tiny lawn frills, these again being edged with lace NOTABLE GOWNS ON RHODE ISLAND SANDS of the same shade. Down the middle I of the front came a panel of silk lawn, bordered with wider lace and stiffened a little by half a dozen lace points set across it at intervals from the waist them, slap them under their shirts, and bring them out again, all the time ac companying the noisy chorus with mo tions of the body. The more pandemonium, the more hurrah there was, and the more diffi cult it was supposed to be for the guess ers to locate the alder sticks correctly. When an Indian made a guess, he threw out one hand quickly to arm's length, while with the other he exe cuted a fanning motion in a half circle, placing the palm of that hand on the other arm near the elbow. Practice renders this a very graceful movement. The singing and noise ceases, and the Indian with the sticks opens his hands. If the guess Is correct the two sticks are passed across the fire, and that side takes them, the side that has Just lost becoming the guessers. Two Indians are selected to do the concealing, while two on the opposing side are chosen to guess. Whenever one side makes a point, which consists in a failure of the opponents to guess correctly, it Is mark ed by thrusting one of the cedar sticks into the ground in front of the winners. When this side loses, a stick is pulled out. When one side acquires ten small cedar sticks, one twice as long Is set up in their place, and the lesser count ers taken down. Three of the large sticks represent thirty points, which in most cases constitute the game. The Shokomish Indians often play sing-gamble without intermission from nine at night till three in the morning. Before it is ended they are nearly ex hausted from excessive singing and ex cited motions, but the interest in the game never flags. Copyright. 1537, by Bachcllcr Syndicate. NO GYMNASTICS IN NORWAY. But for All That the Folks Who Live There Are Exceptionally Strong and Hardy. Walking, climbing and ski-running they have in Chrlstiania, the capital of Norway, with skating and coasting, but gymnasium athletics are practical ly non-existent. There are probably not more than half a dozen pairs of boxing gloves in Chrlstiania. There are no run ning-matches, no Jumping, few crews, no wrestling, no cricket, football, or tennis, no teaching of the "manly art of self-defence." The boys fight like little demons, and one would think they would aspire to do so scientifically. At one of the large boys' school it is part of the unwritten law (of the pupils) that the classes first out of the building shall at times congregate in one corner of the great brick-walled court-yard, whence it shall be the duty and pleas ure of the remainder of the school to whack them forth with strenuous appli cation of fists and heads. The best possible resistance is made, a great many eyes are blackened and some few teeth dislodged, but all casu allties are received amicably (after wards) aurt an prtrwess nuiy accretntecl. Private quarrels are promptly settled, not in the school precincts, but in the recesses of the Palace Park, where a ring is formed, seconds chosen and all proceedings conducted in proper order. Orientalism in New York. There is a constantly Increasing de mand in New York for the Oriental sa cred books. The Koran in cheap form is one of the best selling books, and a volume of extracts from the writings of Buddha is extremely popular. The sale of the Zend Avesta is restricted be cause it cannot be obtained in cheap form. The purchasers of these works are not only clergymen, but laymen, and there seems to be an intense curi osity to compare the sacred books of other religions with the Bible. clown. The blouse bodice of lawn lace, insertion and tucks was a wonder of work. It was very pretty. The sleeves, barred with lace, had not even epau lettes to widen them at the shoulders. Everything looks now as if autumn would bring us back to the perfectly plain close sleeve. I A pale yellow taffeta was the most Interesting dress Item at a morning con cert, with its skirt trimming of bands of lace strapped across with narrow, pale blue ribbons. The bodice had a, ARMY ANTS OF NICARAGUA. Welcomed Because They Make Clean Work of Vermin and Reptiles. "We were breakfasting at a little fonda (hotel) In Rama, on the Rama River," said Arthur A. Hoy, a mine expert recently returned from Nicara gua. "About us were the ordinary household scenes In a tropical country. Out in the kitchen, which was merely a roof upon poles, the negro and mulatto servants were chattering and laughing as they worked; a lazy, barefooted boy shuffled In and out of the room pretend ing to wait on us, the host swung in his hammock, and in a corner of the room a group of American miners were play ing cards. The floor was strewn with clean, white sand, and overhead a cloth, spread like an awning below the thatched roof, intercepted the vermin and reptiles that otherwise would have been liable at any time to drop on our heads. "Chancing to look to the floor, I saw that suddenly it had become covered with ants—long, black, savage-looking fellows, twice as big as any that is ever found in northern countries. They had come in at the open doorway and the window, and were marching in true military order —long files and columns extending from one side of the room to the other, marshalled by certain ants which appeared to act as commanders. "Our host saw them. 'It's the army ants! Go outside,' he called to his guests; and we all went out on the ve randa. He followed, but first tore down the cloth that served as awning below the roof, and called to the servants to throw open every cupboard and closet door. "Looking into the room through the side windows, we could see the ants at their work. Up over the dining table they swarmed, and cleared the table of everything eatable in a hurry, at tacking the sugar first. Then, file after file, they went like a storming party up the wall and into the roof of thatched grass, which immediately began to rus tle with the movements of its insect and reptile inhabitants routed out from their retreat by the ants. Cockroaches, spiders, scorpions, and centipedes drop- ped to the floor and started to run; but before they could gain a yard they were seized and overwhelmed by a myriad of ants which devoured them alive. It was the most thorough work I ever saw. When finally the ants left the house, passing out at the back, in mili tary order and directing their march to ward the next ranch, they had left not one living thing behind In the way of vermin or reptiles. "As these ants do no Injury to the people beyond devouring grass and any provisions that are left exposed, It Is evident that they are the friends of ma** irk oi Am.ri,: c. and in vasions are welcomed. Through towns and cleared lands and forests they keep their way in broken lines, ascending the highest trees in pursuit of their prey, and leaving a path free from vermin behind them. Where they come from or whither they go Is a mystery which no one in Nicaragua ever pretended to explain." Copyright, 1897. by Baeheller Syndicate. The Crispis and Tobacco. The wife of Crispi, the Italian Prime Minister, is a confirmed smoker of ciga rettes. Her husband does not use to bacco in any form. Seven lions are among the pets of the sultan of Marocco. At night he lets them range the courtyards of the pal ace to act as guards to the royal harem. lace vest with jacket fronts of the taf feta, lace edged and drawn under the belt of blue satin. A lace ruffle let out about the hips and simulated jacket basques, it, like the fronts and the long lace cuffs to the elbow sleeves, was strapped with ribbon. White gloves for out of door wear I have seen their best days. Ecru shades and bamboo tints are correct now. Very | light, all of these but not staring. ELLEN OSBORN. I Copyright, 1897, by Bacheller Syndicate. MORE FUN THAN A KITE Flying "Jinny" Made From a Spool, a Stick and a Piece of Tin. WILL SOAR ONE HUNDRED FEET Best to Make More Than One, as They Frequently Get Lost. A flying "Jinny" Is a very amusing toy and an easy one to make as the only materials needed for its construc tion are an ordinary silk thread spool, a piece of stick, four steel wire nails and a piece of thin sheet iron or tin. Flying Jinnies can be made any size from very small ones, that can be op erated with the hand, to those so large that a post planted In the ground will be required on which to spin the spool with the aid of a small rope. To make a toy jinny, obtain an ordi nary spool such as sewing silk is wound on. It will be about one inch and- a quarter high and seven eighths of an inch in diameter, and through It will be a hole about the size of an ordinary lead pencil. Around one end of the spool drive four slim steel wire nails an equal dis tance apart as shown in Fig. 2, and file the heads oft so they will appear like ends of wire. Next take a piece of hard wood stick about one half an Inch round or square and six inches long, and with a sharp j knife cut one end of the stick round and | small enough for the spool to fit over It I and revolve easily. Do not taper the stick or sharpen ths end of it like a lead pencil, but cut it evenly for a distance of an inch and three quarters in from the end and make a shoulder for the spool to rest on as shown in Fig. 1. Half an inch of the small end should project above the spool when In place. The projection is necessary to prevent the spool jumping off the stick, while at the same time it serves as a centre over which the jinny is to fit Just be fore it is flown. For the jinny, which is the last thing to be made, get a sheet of very thin tin at a tinsmith's and cut from it a square of five inches, using an old pair of shears to do the cutting. With a soft lead pencil draw on the tin the pattern shown in fig. 3. Then cut It out and make a hole in the mid dle large enough to fit over the small end of the stick that projects above tha spool. About this hole, and on a line with the blades, punch with hammer and awl four holes large enough to fit over the steel wire nails driven in the top of the spool. The jinny will then fit over the nails and stick and lie flat on the top of'the spool. Now take hold of the jinny's ears and bond each one slightly so as to resem ble a windmill or the blades of a pro peller on a steamboat, and It will then be ready to fly. Several of these Jinnies can be made at one time, as they frequently get lost or lodge on high places, where they cannot be recovered. To make a jinny fly, hold the stick in the left hand with the small end] up; and place the spool over the end. Around the spool wind a piece of fine, strong, fish line about two feet long with a button at one end to Insure a firmer hold. Now place the jinny over the stick and pins, and when it is all together it will appear as shown in the illustra tion. Place the thumb against the spool to prevent the cord unwinding, and when ready give the cord a vigor ous, steady pull and the jinny will fly upwards. The ears of tho jinny should be bent, of course, so the edges that catch the wind first will be up. and the centrif ugal force acquired from the whirling of tho spool will cause It to fly. If, however, the oars should be bent so the edges that catch the wind are down the jinny will not rise, but will hug the spool tightly Instead. Another diagram for a round jinny is shown in lig. 4, and is made by cut ting eight slits in a circular disk and binding down the flaps of metal. Usu ally this pattern will fly better than the four-eared one, but it Is somewhat more difficult to make. A great deal of amusement can be had with these Hying jinnies and they can be shot in any direction as well as upwards. In handling them, however, one should be very careful not to aim them at anybody, as the sharp revolv ing edges would be liable to hurt 01 even cut any person whom it chanced! to strike. If made according to directions such a toy should fly from fifty to a hundred feet high, and then gradually drop back again to earth. J. HARRY ADAMS. Copyright, 1897. by Bacheller Syndicate.