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5 The Great Wholesale Tailors to the People " WMmm ij^ih mm BB ■ Another large shipment of Fancy Scotch Cheviots just received. Suits J P to order $1 worth $2£.00. All competition knocked out. mg • Buffalo Woolen CO., Z- C ANGEVINE, manager. • 0) 245 Soi/i7i Broadway .... Near CiTy //a// # STRANGE WAYS OF CURRENTS The United States Hydrographic Office Presents the Results of Interesting Experiments DRIFTS OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN PLAINLY MAPPED REMARKABLE VOYAGES MADE BY BOTTLES THROWN OVERBOARD FROM VESSELS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF THE WORLD One Bottle Traveled for Three Years. Unexpectedly Wide Divergement of Drifts Clearly Established by the Journey of the Glass Tourists. Surface Water and Winds Agree WASHINGTON, Oct. 25. — (Special Correspondence lo The Herald.) Tlf United States government has succeed ed in solving in great measure the mys tery of the ocean currents. It has just caused to be issued from the hydro graphic oilier- a chart, primarily Intend ed for the guidance of mariners, which indicates the results of labors extending over many months. The story this chart tells those who care to study it is of ex traordinary interest, and it is presented here for the first time In any newspaper. From time to time statements have been made that the navy department was engaged In throwing overboard from various government vessels bot tles, each containing a request to the finder to note the time and place of find ing and return the s:ime to the nearest representative of the United States go\ - ernment. This is partially true, but The entire truth is that these bottles have been thrown overboard not only from the ships of the navy, but from ships in various portions nf the world which belonged to other nations, the action having in every instance been per formed by representatives of the United States hydrographlc office, detailed for the express purpose. In every one of these bottles was the request to ieturn referred to and the additional information that tlv finder would be suitably rewarded for his action. The result of this has been that a very great percentage of the bot tles thrown overboard have been recov ered, for it became noised about every where that to find .such a bottle meant a very comfortable sum for the discov erer thereof. These bottles were the solution of the problem as to how best to establish definitely the exact facts concerning those ocean currents which play so great a part in navigation. The result has been astonishing. Not only have the apparent truths concerning the drifts been shown clearly, but new facts of which no navigator ever dreamed brought to light. The chart presented herewith furnishes tin idea of the path followed by those bottles whose drift was confined to the Atlantic, the map ping of the drifts in other oceans being at present impracticable, for the reason that experiments have as yet been too meager to warrant tho assumption of absolute fact that the government as sumes with reference to the Atlantic. Of the bottles recovered eighty-one were cast overboard within the limitsoor. r the North Atlantic, nine in the South Atlantic, eight in the North Paoiflc, eight in the South Pacific and three In the Indian ocean. Three bottles crossed the equator. Of these two were in the Atlantic, both going from south to north. The first was thrown overboard from the steamship Buphemia, March 8,1890, In latitude 7: 40 south, longitude 21 west. August 4, 1596, this bottle was recovered In latitude 14: 40 north, longitude 61 west. It has been journeying just 154 days, in that time had traveled 2700 miles and its average drift per day was 17.6 miles. The second bottle was thrown over board from the steamship Witteklnd, April 25, 1596, in latitude 2:09 south, lon gitude 30:25 west. It Mas recovered on September 3d of the same year in lati tude 13:24 north nnd longitude 16:36 west, having traveled 1300 miles in 131 days, drifting 9.9 miles each day. The trip of the third bottle began In the China sea and it went from north to south. It was dropped overboard by a representative of the hydrographlc office from the ship Slam, August 18, 1895. in latitude 19:13 north, longitude 116:06 east. On June 7th of the following year It was found in lat itude 3 south, longitude 108 east. Al though it had traveled 293 days, the dis tance traversed was only 1400 miles or an average daily drift of 4.8 miles. These figures how better than all else the dif ference between the currents in the dif - ferent seas. Among the well known articles thrown overboard and recovered, of which rec j ord has bene kept by the hydrographlc I office are two buoys. One of these, a life I buoy, was thrown overboard from the ; steamship Palatia September 24, 1896, land was picked up on the west const of Ireland island, one of the Bermudas. January 25, 1597. The second was a buoy swept overboard from the Japanese cruiser Banjo, April 22, 1894, and which 'was picked up by the steamer Kileauea Hou, In the straits between the islands of i Hawaii and Maul. The longest drift was that of a bottle thrown overboard from the ship Aller ton to the south of the Falkland islands, LOS ANGELES HERALD: SUNDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 3!, 1897 nnd found, after an interval of slightly less than three years, near Eyre Patch, on the shores of the great Australian bight, the distance between these two points, measured approximately along the parallel, being 8500 miles. Of the more extended drifts, the one having the highest dally average, 17.6 miles, was confined, as usual, wholly to the equato rial current, being that of the bottle thrown overboard from the ship Euphe Bottles containing messages cast into the sea by the United States Navy and other vessels traveled thousands of miles and revealed strange ways of ocean currents. By studying this chart, just issued by the hydrographic office and reading accompanying article, you can follow the remarkable voyage of the glass tourists mla to the south of the equator and picked up on the shores ot Martinique. Taken collectively, the courses fol lowed by these bottles serve to elucidate the main principles of the current sys tem of the North Atlantic and to show the close agreement that exists between the motion of the surface water and the direction of the prevailing winds. The latter, circulating around the region of the high barometric pressure to the southwest of the Azores, blowing on its southern side with almost unfailing reg ularity, but on Its northern side fre quently interrupted by the passage of temporary areas of low pressure, give rise to "drift" currents, which are merely the effect of the wind on the surface of the water, as, for example, in the region of the trade winds, where the whole sur face of the sea, generally speaking, is converted into a slow current moving to the leeward. When owing to the interposition of any obstacle the mass of water carried by the drift accumulates to such an ex tent that an outlet becomes necessary, the result is a "stream" current, acting hjr virtue of its own gravity, following I a path Imposed by the obstacle and the drift conjointly ana trr,iu B t» rquuiiAe the excess of pressure due to the contin uous action of the drift. Thus the gulf stream, relieving the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean sea of the volumes of water carried thither by the action of the equatorial drift, is a stream current, and. as such, pursues a course quitel ndepend ent of the wind until its waters are lost in the general easterly drift. Between the easterly drift, which, in consequence of prevailing westerly winds, exists to the northward of the area of high barometric pressure, and the westerly drift, due to the trades to the south of it, lies an extensive region throughout which the surface currents are variable in velocity and direction. The northern limit of this region may be set down as 38 degrees, and to the roßlnftrd it oKtanda to the meridian at 40 degrees. Beyond these limits the eddy-like drift prevails. To the north of the Azores, along the parallel of 50 degrees, the easterly drift spreads out like a fan, its northeastern extension reaching the shores of Nor way and the Loffoden islands, its south eastern the shores of France, Spain and Portugal. The various destinations at- tamed by bottles cast adrift In this re '■ gion show the uncertainty of the move ment of the surface currents, i Five bottles were thrown overboard ; during the summer season In the neigh- I borhood of G3 degrees north latitude and 32 degrees west longitude, and within an area of one hnudred miles square. One | of these bottles was cast overboard from the steamship Island, October 20, 1895, In latitude 53:19 north and longitude 32:53 west. This was recovered on the coast of Norway. September 28, ls»6, in latitude 58:59 north and longitude 9:46 east. It had traveled 1800 miles in 343 days, a daily average drift of 5.2 miles. Another bottle, thrown overboard from the steamship Venetia, May 8, 1896, in latitude 52:10 north, longitude 33:10 west, was recovered December 28,1896, on the west coast of Ireland in latitude 62:08 north, longitude 10:15 west. This bottle journeyed 900 miles in 234 days, or 3.8 miles a day. The third bottle was dropped over board from the steamship Gerona, Sep tember 5, 1890, in latitude 53:05 north, longitude 30:26 west. It was also found on the coast of Ireland, February 28, 11897, In latitude 53:12 north, longitude 9:10 west. Nine hundred miles was the distance traveled in 176 days, 5.1 miles being the average daily journey. Two bottles were thrown overboard within lifty miles of each other and land ed, one on Andros island, W. 1., the other on the shores of Plnisterre, France. An other pair likewise was thrown over board within a few miles of each other near the northern limits of the Gulf stream. No. 1 reached Its destination on Abaco Island, W. 1., while No. 2 landed at Arachon, France. A particularly noteworthy member of the drifts is that of the bottle 45, thrown overboard from the steamer Witteklnd, April 25, 1896, in latitude 2:09 south, longitude 30:25 west, and picked up Sep tember 3, on tho African coast, at the mouth of the Bathurst river, Gambia. This bottle, set adrift in the strong south equatorial current, must have been transferred to the Guinea current, and by it carried to the exceptionally northern position on the coast of Africa at which it was recovered. Dividing the list Into groups accord ing to latitude, each bottle being al loted to the group covering the latitude within which the great portion of its drift lies, the following average veloci ties for the drift per day of the various groups are obtained: Average drift per day. North of 50 degrees 5.3 miles Between 40 and 50 degrees 5.3 miles Between 20 and 40 degrees 5.0 miles Between 0 and 20 degrees 9.8 miles This information throws new and much-needed light on the subject ot ocean currents, which, in great degree, has always been shrouded in mystery. European Abominations There are several things which Amer ican travelers in Europe should carry with them in sufficient quantity to last the journey through. Shoes Is one such article. Shirts is another. Nowhere on the continent or in England do they make a satisfactory shirt. The cuffs aro too long or too short, the eylests for studs are too big or too little, the bosoms lack finish. Americans should take their own pens with them, too. European steel pens are miserable affairs. One cannot be blamed for failing to write home to his friends if he is compelled 10 use the scratchy, awkward things they call pens on the other side. The experi enced American traveler will take with him, also his own playing cards, his American-made suspenders, and, abovu all, his razor and his smoking tobacco.— Chicago Times-Herald. A single tnW* to an orchard neair Corvallh, One., lias yielded this seaaoti 900 pounds oi lia'rtli'iti pears.