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THE NEW CRADLE OF LIBERTY.
"Spain and the Spaniards" was the topic submitted by our correspondent to Col. Ingersool. It Interested him and the words that flowed from his lips had in them indignation and contempt and the fire of eloquence. Here they are exactly as he uttered thorn: "Spain has always been exceed ingly religious nnd exceedingly cruel. That country had an unfortunate experience. The Spaniards fought the Moors for about seven hun dred or eight hundred years, and during that time Catholicism and pa triotism became synonymous. They ■were fighting the Moslems. It was a religious war. For this reason they be came intense in their Catholicism, and they were fearful that if they should grant the least concession to the Moor, God would destroy them. Their idea was that the only way to secure Di vine aid was to have absolute faith, and this faith was proved by their hatred of all ideas inconsistent with their own. "Spain has been and is the victim of superstition. The Spaniards expelled I the Jews, who at that time represented A good deal of wealth and considerable Intelligence. This expulsion was char acterized by infinite brutality and by cruelties that words cannot express. They drove out the Moors at last. Not satisfied with this, they drove out the Moriscoes. These were Moors who had been converted to Catholicism. "The Spaniards, however, had no con fidence in the honesty of the conver sion, and for the purpose of gaining the good will of their God, they drove them out. They had succeeded in get ting rid of Jews, Moors and Moriscoes; that is to say, of the intelligence and WHY SPANIARDS ARE CRUEL. Starting With Bad Blood From Several Sources They Are Not to Be Pitied Because They Are Pitiless* That the Spaniards are, as a race, ex ceptionally and notoriously cruel 1 shad take fur granted. It Is an opinion al most universally received, and with most people argument would be stlper- Jluoiis. The question of real interest is, What hus made them so? For nature ls never arbitrary; not even the seem ingly wilful perversities of men are Without cause. In the cuse of Spain some of the causes date very far back; they began their work almost before the dawn of history—as we might expect from the dogged persistency of the traits devel oped. It is v. case of bad blood almost from the beginning. Spaniards Roasting a Man to Death, Yet not wholly bad, at first. The old Iberians were a passionate, fickle race, —as is the Spaniard of todiy. From »hem he has inherited bis hot and reck ROBERT G. INGERSOLL industry of Spain. Nothing was left but Spaniards; that is to say, indolence, pride, cruelty and infinite superstition. So Spain destroyed all freedom of thought through the Inquisition, and for many years the sky was livid with the flarnea of the Auto-da-fe; Spain was busy carrying fagots to the feet of philosophy, busy in burning people for thinking, for investigation, for ex pressing honest opinions. The result was that a great darkness settled over Spain, pierced by no star and shone up- j on by no rising sun. "At one time Spain was the greatest of powers, owner of half the world, and now she has only a few islands, the small change of her great fortune, the few pennies in the almost empty purse, souvenirs of departed wealth, of van ished greatness. Now Spain is bank rupt, bankrupt not only in purse, but in the higher faculties of the mind, a na tion without progress, without thought; still devoted to bull-light.- and super stition, still tryinn to affright, conta gious diseases by religious processions. Spain is a part of the mediaeval ages, belongs to an ancient generation. It really has no place in the nineteenth century. "Spain has always been cruel. S. S. Prentice, many years ago, speakinf of Spain said: 'On the shore of discovery it leaped an armed robber, and sought for gold even In the throats of its vic tims.' The bloodiest pages in the his tory of this world have been written by Spain. Spain in Peru, in Mexico, Spain in the Low Countries—all pos sible cruelties come back to the mind Damien Being Torn to Pieces, when we say Philip 11., when we say the Duke of Alva, when we pronounce the names of Ferdinand and Isabella. Spain has intlicted every torture, has practised every cruelty, has been guilty of every possible outrage. There has been no break between Torque ma da anil Weyler, between the Inquisi tion and the infamies committed in Cuba. "When Columbus found Cuba, the original inhabitants were the kindest and gentlest of people. They practised no inhuman rites, they were good, con tented people. The Spaniards enslaved them or sought to enslave them. The less temper, as well as his swarthy complexion; but an infusion of this blood does not necessarily result in a cruel and treacherous disposition,— though it gives an uncommonly keen edge to such traits when they appear. And they appeared soon; the Importa tion of the virus of cruelty began early. That the Phoenicians—perhaps tho most atrociously cruel of the races of antiquity—gained foothold in Spain In almost prehistoric times may be passed by with men- mention. These are the people whip gave its name to Cadiz, anil who in the height of their alleged civilization fed Moloch with human sacrifices. We know too little of the extent of their Influence—probably quite limited—to attempt to measure it; but whatever it amounted to, it was morally pernicious. people rising, they were hunted with dogs, they were tortured, they were murdered, and finally exterminated. This was the commencement of Spanish rule on the island of Cuba. The Same spirit is In Spain to-day that was in Spain then. The idea is not to con ciliate but to coerce, not to treat justly but to rob and enslave. No Spaniard regards a Cuban as having equal rights with himself. He looks upon the island as property, and upon the people as a : part of that property, both equally be- I longing to Spain. "Spain has kept no promise made to the Cubans, and never will. At last the Cubans know exactly what Spain is, anil they have made up their minds to be free or to be exterminated. There is nothing in history to equal the atro cities and outrages that have been per petrated by Spain upon Cuba. What Spain is all know as only a repetition of what Spain has done, only a proph ecy of what Spain will do if it has the power. "As far as I am concerned, I have no idea that there is to be any war be tween Spain and the t'nited States. A country that can't conquer Cuba cer- tatnly has no very flattering chance of overwhelming the United States. Of course, there is some wisdom even in Spain, and the Spaniards who know anything Of this country know that it would be absolute madness and the ut most extreme of folly to attack us. I believe in treating even Spain with per fect fairness. I feel about that coun try as Burns did about the devil: 'O, wad ye tak' a thought an' mend!' I know that nations, like people, do as they must, and I regard Spain as the victim and result of conditions, the fruit of a tree that was planted by ig norance and watered by superstition. "I believe that Cuba is to be free, and I want that island to give a new flag to the air, whether it ever becomes a part of the United States or not. My sympathies are all with those who are struggling for their rights, trying to get the clutch of tyranny from their throats; for those who are defending their homes, their firesides, against ty rants and robbers. "Whether the Maine was blown up That intercourse with the Phoeni cians did, after all, have considerable effect on the impressionable Iberian character, is strongly suggested by the ease with which the Carthaginians sub sequently attained a dominant influ ence in Spain. This was practically the same thing, for these new invaders were an offshoot of the same evil stock. They were about as merciful as our American Indians—every one is famil ial' with the horrible story of Regulus— and "Punic faith" was a by-word. These Carthaginians overran most of the country, and we know that their generals encouraged Intermarriages between soldiers and natives Very popular for a time were the Carthagi nians in Spain—the accepted type of cleverness and manhood. Pew traces of their blood probably remain; Pat it was a b»d start. The clay was still soft, and their example was potent. "Like master, like man." Then came the Romans, with a yet more masterful dominion that lasted for centuries. Here there was no poison in th" blood, hut again the example was baneful. Rome's method of deal ing with subject provinces, which Spain learned by bitter experience, she seems tn have adopted a model for all time. Every Bchool-boy has read of the rapacity and arrogance and inhumanity of the Roman governors, who regard ed provincials merely as a source of revenue, with no rights that a lordly Roman need respect. These notions seem to have fallen on a singularly fer tile soil, and unlucky Cuba is today leaping the fruits of Spain's Roman training. No masters are so Intoler able as those who have learned the trick of tyranny in the school of servi tude. And still the corruption of blood wciu on; if Spain had been made the world's penal colony she could scarcely have fared worse. After the Romans came the Vandals, whose name has be come a synnnyme for brutal dostruc tlveness; and close on their heels, the Visigoths, id' whom a celebrated au thority has declared that to them "may be traced all the maxims of the mod ern Inquisition." Even this was not enough. The dis tracted country—as yet it could hardly be called a nation —was next overrun by a horde of Moors from Africa, bringing an alien and fanatic creed to be enforced by the edge of the sword. Under this regime the Spanish Chris tians soon became even more Intolerant than their Moslem conquerors. The ferocious racial and religious strife which ensued lasted for the major part .of a millennium before it received Its LOS ANGELES HERALDi SUNDAY MORNING, APRIL 3, 1898. by the Spaniards is still a question. I suppose It will soon be decided. In my own opinion, the disaster came from the outside, but I do not know, and not knowing, I am willing to wait for the sake of human nature. I sincerely hope that it was an accident. I hate to think that there are people base and cruel enough to commit such an act. Still I think that all these matters will be settled without war. "I am in favor of an International court, the members to be selected by the ruling nations of the world; and before this court I think all questions between nations should be decided, and the only army and the only navy should be under its direction, and used only for the purpose enforcing its de crees. Were there cuch a court now, before which Cuba could appear and tell the story of her wrongs, of the murders, the assassinations, the treach ery, the starvings, the cruelty, I think that the decision would instantly be in her favor and that Spain would be driven from the Island. Until there is such a court there is no need of talking about the world being civilized. "I am not a Christian, but I do be lieve in the religion of justice, of kind ness. I believe in humanity. I do be lieve that usefulness is the highest pos sible form of worship. The useful man is the good man, the useful man is the real saint. I care nothing about super natural myths and mysteries, but I do care for human beings. I have a little short creed of my own, not very hard to understand, that has in it no con tradictions, and it is this: 'Happiness is the only good. The time to be happy is now. The place to be happy is here. The way to be happy is to make others so." I think this creed, if adopted, would do away with war. I think It would destroy superstition, and I think it would civilize even Spain. "While my sympathies are all with Cuba, and while I have been anxious that the Unite* States should acknowl edge the independence of Cuba, still I am willing to admit that President Mc- Kinley knqjvs more about this matter than I do; and I think that probably he has many facts in his possession of which I know nothing. Now I am sat isfied that he is a brave and patriotic man. I am satisfied that he sympa thizes with al! people struggling to be free, and consequently I am willing to wait, believing that the end will jus tify his course. At the same time I re member, and I hope the administration will not forget, that the people of America are with Cuba." Copyright, 189 i Feeding Elephants in the Indian Army, The manner in which the elephants of the Indian army are fed is most peculiar. It is also economical, for by the method employed not a single grain of rice is wasted. An elephant's break fast includes ten pounds of raw rice, done up in leaves and then tied with grass. At meal time, the elephants are drawn up in line before a row of piles of this food. At the word "Attention!" each elephant raises its trunk and a package is thrown into its capacious mouth. The promptness and precision of this movement make the sight not only interesting but amusing. Beau Brummelfs Grave, In the Protestant cemetery at Caen, surrounded with yew and cypress tree 3, there is a tomb which has just been re stored. The stone bears these words: "In memory of George Brummell, Esq., who departed this life on the 29th of March, 1840; aged sixty-two years." The tomb contains the remains of the noted favorite of George IV. final quietus by the expulsion of the Moors, and probably had more to do with making Spanish character what t now is than all that had gone before. In such a conflict, almost of necessity, piety became bigotry, patriotism but inotner name for cruelty, and loyalty to friends synonymous with treachery to foes. Such conditions, of course, have from time to time arisen else ivhere, but rarely have they been so prolonged or so acute. Out of this fiery ordeal—too often iterally exemplified on the cringing lesh —Spain emerged with Just one •ommendablc quality. The Spaniard lad become a fierce fighter, whether in private broil or open battle, —and this test for fighting, even at desperate Idds, he has retained. It Is a fact not :o be forgotten nor ignored. For a season this prowess and feroc ty In war made Spain one of the fore nost nations of Europe, though in al uost everything else one of the most jackward—a few brilliant instances to he contrary notwithstanding. Her >oasted art was a tlorid foreign impor ;atton. Her literature is bombastic in ityle, and full of the mendacity and ixaggeration which seem to character ise Spanisli thought. For the discovery if America she is entitled to small redit; but the ingratitude with which the requited those who had served her, md the greedy savagery with which die seized and ruled and robbed the territory thus acquired) are quite her jwn. To this period, likewise, belongs the Inquisition, This, in the opinion of the present writer, is often seriously trils inderstood. it was not the outcome jf ier creed but nf her character; it was essentially Spanish. True, persecution ,vas no new thing; in a barbarous age nen are sure to give a barbarous In terpretation to their religion—even though it be the Gospel of Peace. But the abominations of injustice anri GREAT EFFECTIVENESS OF TORPEDOES IN MODERN WARFARE Many of the Best Informed Assert That Ten Years Hence All Naval Conflicts Will Be Fought With Them Exclusively. The most ingenious and, indeed, the most destructive engine of modern warfare, is the torpedo. People do not commonly realize that this instrument of annihilation was already in use in 1555. In that year an Italian engineer, Znmbelli, constructed vessels carrying heavily charged magazines which float ed down the Scheldt river at Antwerp nnd, ignited by clock-work, destroyed the bridge. A certain Van Drebbel ex perimented In England, in 1624, with a diving boat which, laden with explo sives, was so directed ns to strike a ship below the water line. But the first genuine submarine torpedo was in vented in 1730 by a Frenchman, Desa guliers. This rocket torpedo, as it was called, destroyed several boats. The first craft actually sunk by a submarine mine was one attacked by a device of Robert Fulton, of steamboat renown, in 1801, charged with twenty pounds of gunpowder. Four years later the brig Dorothea was completely demol ished at Dover, England, by two tor pedoes ilred by clockwork. Yet it was not until our Civil War that the tor pedo became a successful, systematic agent of destruction. On December 12, 1862, the United States Ironclad Cairo was destroyed in the Yazoo river by two torpedoes which exploded directly beneath her. She was so shattered she sank In twelve minutes. Again in the following year we lost the ironclad Baron de Kalb in the same fashion. From this time on torpedoes of diver sified types have been in pretty general use. On May 6. 1864. an electric torpedo charged with 1.750 pounds of gunpow der completely demolished the Com modore Jones Directly after this event two federal transports and the moni tor Teeumseh were sunk almost In stantly on collision with submarine mines. In the succeeding year, the monitor Patapsco was destroyed at Charleston with sixty-two men. The Confederates, during the war. suffered only the loss of the ironclad Albemarle, which wns blown up by a so-called bar rel torpedo. In recent years the most vivid ex emplifications of the effectiveness of torpedoes have been in South American waters. A Peruvian guard boat was the first craft to be sunk by an "auto mobile" torpedo. Still fresh in our memory is the collapse of the Brazilian Aquidaban from the same cause. A torpedo was fired from a gunboat broadside at the Aquidaban, striking her twenty-five feet from the bow and ten feVt below the water line, and mak ing a hole fourteen feet by twelve on one side and a three-foot hole on the other Quite as illustrative of the eruptive force of the torpedo was the destruction of the Huasear by Paul Boynton, who placed a torpedo under her bow and discharged it from a safe distance by means of an electric cable. Curiously enough, the wrecking of the cruiser, Blanco Euclada, in the harbor of Valparaiso was much like that of the battleship Maine in Havana harbor. cruelty practised in Spain—whether di rected against infidels or Jews or here tics —reach an extreme hardly to be paralleled elsewhere, and they persist ed and intensified in an age of Increas ing enlightenment until the whole civil ized world stood aghast at them. And while the horrors of the Inquisition were the inevitable outcome of Spanish history and Spanish c harac ter, the sys tem continually reacted to foster the traits that had given it birth. So, while the world advanced, Spain lagged behind in Mediaeval darkness,—and she is still far to the rear. j That is the trouble today. With Phoenician cruelty, and Carthaginian duplicity, and Roman arrogance, and Vandal greed, and Moslem intolerance. Spain belongs to the dark ages—an ata vistic survival. We look upon her with amazement as she sits in the tawdry remnants of her "ancient grandeur," intent upon her bull-fights, metaphori cal and literal, while all the other na tions of the earth are marching onward But this "ancient grandeur" never was anything but tawdry; like all things Spanish it has been made the subject: of gross exaggeration. In the ca/ie of a people whose more than Chi nese vanity makes them almost incap able of listening to the truth, who habitually turn defeat into victory—in words —and magnify the most common place occurrences until all sense of pro portion is lost, the statements which they make in glorification of themselves must be taken with large allowances. Many passages in Spanish history read like a mixture of their Cuban war dis patches and their melodramatic ro mances. Especially is this true of the extravagant tales about Mexico and Peru—where the too credulous Prescott seems to have relied with rather child like faith upon his "authorities." Eater investigators have been more cautious, and perhaps there is still room for the skeptic. Rack With Spiked Roller.. A careful examination of both wrecks conclusively proved that the explosives the vessels contained remained prac tically Intact. Turning from historic Illustration, we shall have to confront an elaborate classification to define the various kinds of torpedoes. There are three chief divisions consisting of buoyant mines, subaqueous mines nnd locomo tive torpedoes. The first class of tor pedoes, as well as the second, is purely for purposes of coast defense. Although the authorities on the subject enter tain pretty diverse views, it is gener ally held that these contact mines are available for use only in rather shnl low water. Their use involves many perplexing conditions, such as the twisting and wearing of the cnbles and moorings, the depression due to cur rents, the danger of sympathetic ex plosions, the leaking of the cases. So difficult, indeed, is the problem that the best torpedo system of today Is really a compromise between conflict ing requirements. As obstacles in shunting off a hostile squadron, the use of these mines Is Imperative In modern warfare. Beside the surface mine are the submarine mines, sub-divided into (1) observation mines, fired by an elec tric current when the enemy appears within the destructive area of the mine; (2) electro-contact mines, which, on concussion, explode by automatic ally completing the electric circuit from the boitery ashore, and (3) me chanical mines, which, on collision, ex plode through the ac tion of a contriv ance within them and which are in no way connected with the shore. The question as to whether a channel or harbor shall be used for navigation de termines the choice of the system. Rut no system at present is alone sufficient for coast defense. The charge of a mine is exploded by means of a detonator containing ful minate of mercury. In gun-cotton In Ambush. It may well be doubted that Spain was ever prosperous in any proper sense of the word. In her best days the number of beggars in the country was appalling. I hesitate to quote the figures—for they are Spanish—but 150, --000 is the estimate. During the same period there were scarcely any manu factures. The exports were in the main the products of a soil practically un filled,—such as wool, hides, minerals, raw silk, kermes, and olives. What does this signify? It means that Spain in her palmiest estate was largely oc cupied by mining camps and cattle ranches; anl this conclusion is in per fect accord with Spanish characteris The popular ideas about pastoral life are diametrically wrong. Far from be ing one of the most peaceful occupa- Torture Inflicted on Geleyn Cornelius Who Was Afterwards Burnt. tlons, as pictured by poets, lt Is one of the roughest and most savage. The real shepherd goes about armed to the teeth, often followed by a pack of fierce dogs, ever ready and often forced to right for life and property. What he becomes under the most favorable con ditions may be seen in the modern cow boy. In. earlier times we simply find the knife and spear in place of the re-' mines the detonator Is inserted ln a priming charge of dry gun-cotton with in a metal case surrounded by wet gun cotton. The least distance between mines for safety -Is one hundred feet, so that two or more lines of mines are necessary to insure a vessel's hitting a mine. A torpedo electrically connect ed with the shore, if struck by an out rigging or netting of the enemy's ship, signals the fact to the operator in tho casemate, who delays sending the fir ing battery current through the fuse until the torpedo Is directly under the hull of the vessel. Small vessels of great speed, known as torpedo boats, carry and discharge these ponderous missiles. This torpedo resembles in shape a porpoise. Its orig inal design, in fact, was said to be fashioned after this fish. It ia made chiefly of steel, weighs eight hundred and fifty pounds and is about twelve feet in length. It consists of four prin cipal sections, the head, which carries the explosive; the flash, or air-receiver, which ls filled with compressed air at a pressure of 1,360 pounds to the square inch.—the escape of this air runs the engine and propels the torpedo; the Im mersion chamber, which contains the mechanism for regulating the depth und position of the torpedo; the en gine, fed by compressed air which passes through the valves of a pipe so adjusted as to fix the speed and dura tion of the run. The apparatus ln the third section consists of a pendulum and hydrostatic piston that control a horizontal rudder through an air steer ing-engine. This rudder is movable; If the torpedo goes too deep or inclines downward this rudder moves up, bring ing the torpedo to the set depth. If the reverse takes place the rudder moves down. The engine of the fourth section turns a shaft on which there are two propellors moving In opposite directions at the tall of the torpedo. Finally on ench side of the tail are vertical rud ders which keep the torpedo in a straight path. The head of the torpedo Is made of bronze and is charged with one hundred and twenty pounds of wet gun-cotton. The point of the head contains the "pistol," consisting of a propellor Torpedo Partially in Tube. which, set ln revolution, frees a plung er which. In turn, on the Impact of the torpedo, Is forced down upon a ful minate cap surrounded by a tube of dry gun-cotton. Wet gun-cotton ex plodes when ignited in contact with dry gun-cotton. The freeing of the plunger by the propellor Insures that the torpedo must run a certain distance from the vessel discharging it ere tt can explode. The deviation from any set depth in the passage of the torpedo must not exceed fifteen inches at a range of eight hundred yards. Thus, as the tor pedo can be set to run at a depth of from five to twenty feet, lt ls evident that it may be depended upon to smite a vessel at almost any point below the armor line where the explosion will do the most damage. It is said our Amer ican torpedoes are better adjusted for actual service than those In any other navy In the world. However that may be, we have come to realize that the torpedo is about the most important feature of naval warfare. There are those, indeed, among the best author ities, who assert that In a decade hence all naval conflicts will be fought with the torpedo. OLIVER HENSHAW. Copyright, 1898. volverand rifle, while the shepherd him self is rather more like a wild animal. Much the same may be said of the miners. In such a state of society laws are Ineffective, brigandage runs ram pant, and lynching, as the only means of restraining crime, becomes a sys tem. All this is familiar to us ln the history of the wilder parts of our own West; and all this, and worse, was the condition of Spain for centuries—an- other reason why the Spanish are not a gentle race. In this connection lt is rather interesting to note that Just as our cowboys sometimes string up a h*se-thief on the nearest tree and make him a target for their revolvers, so the Spanish lynching parties used ta hoist their victim upon a pole and shoot him full of arrows—so closely does his tory repeat itself under similar condl- tlons. We, however, do not boast of the "grandeur" of '49, nor of the cattle ranch. That he should excessively pride him self upon his lineage seems rather ex traordinary in view of the facts; but it is really nothing to wonder at. Tho worse the stock the more insufferable the pride of blood —as the pedigree ')t many a royal house bears witness.