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The herald. [microfilm reel] (Los Angeles [Calif.]) 1893-1900, August 14, 1898, Image 10

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85042461/1898-08-14/ed-1/seq-10/

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KING LEOPOLD
TO VISIT US.
His Belgian Majesty Will Make the
United States the Objective Point
of His Coming Yachting Trip.
Although the Princess Eulalia is not
likely soon to visit America again, or
the Duke of Veragua to cross the At
lantic to our shores, yet the United
States is not to be entirely forgotten by
royal tourists. Already the parlors of
the Waldorf-Astoria have become the
familiar haunt of the young Count de
Turin, the nephew of the King of Italy,
and Prince Albert of Belgium has been
feted by Mrs. Potter Palmer, at New
port, and has gained some acquaintance
with our music halls and race tracks.
Early in his visit this young prince
made the pilgrimage to Mount Vernon,
where he placed a large wreath before
the tomb of Washington.
Ills impressions of America, and his
experience of American hospitality,
must have been, upon the whole, satis
factory, and his letters home must have
painted us in interesting colors, for it
Is now announced that King Leopold
of Belgium is to make us a visit ln
person.
His Belgian majesty experts to start
In August upon a long yachting cruise.
He will cross the Atlantic and will
spend some time in the United States.
One usually associates a long line of
kings with a throne, especially when
that throne belongs to a country as old
as Belgium, yet Leopold is the second
monarch of his dynasty to rule in
Brussels. After the fall of Napoleon,
when order was evolved out of the
chaos his overthrow had wrought, Hol
land and Belgium were freed from
France, only to be united in one gov
ernment. The Congress of the Powers
made the fatal blunder of joining Cath
olic Belgium to Protestant Holland.
This was in 1815. But the union could
not last.
In 1830 the Revolution, which over
threw the Bourbon King of France,
Charles XII., communicated its force
to the adjacent country. The people of
Brussels, who had long been restless,
rose as one man in a general revolt
against the Dutch King, William of
Orange.
The blue blouse of the laborer became
the uniform of the general as well as of
the private ln the ranks. It became the
emblem and sign of freedom. All class
es wore lt.
For so many centuries Belgium had
been the "cockpit of Europe," from the
wars that had been waged within her
territory, that she made up her mind
to fight the last battle for her own de
liverance.
It had been a great Injustice to unite
Belgium to Holland, Belgium having
twice the population, and being by the
arrangement entirely under the thumb
Of the smaller state.
Of fifteen ministers and secretaries
of state holding office in 1829 only three
were Belgians, the rest were Holland
ers. In the army, and in civil appoint
ments, about the same average was
maintained. Catholics were being grad
ually excluded from all part In the gov
ernment. The majority was being ruled
by a minority, a minority hostile and
aggressive and utterly foreign to all
the Interests of the Belgians.
Once the revolution was accomplished
a new era of prosperity dawned. But
to preserve the independence they had
achieved the leaders saw they must
conciliate Europe by setting up a mon
archial form of government. The pow
ers had found France too troublesome
to permit little Belgium to follow her
example, therefore, a republic was an
Impossibility, although it was earnestly
desired by many.
A constitutional monarchy was de
termined upon as the only form of gov
ernment which would be tolerated by
the powers and accepted by the people.
There were two candidates for the
new throne. One was Prince Otho of
Bavaria, the other Prince Leopold of
Saxe-Coburg. The choice fell upon
Prince Leopold. Prince Leopold of
Saxe-Coburg we.a a German prince,
nearly related to the royal family of
England. He had been the husband of
the Princess Charlotte, the daughter
of George IV., and, had she lived, would
have held the same place ln England
that the Prince Consort afterward held
as the husband of Queen Victoria. Had
the Princess lived Leopold could never
have accepted the crown of Belgium.
To have done so would have made lt
virtually an English possession. But
the death of the Princess Charlotte left
him free to accept the throne.
A deputation of Belgium notables vis
ited the Prince ln London toward the
end of April, 1831, making the formal
tender of their crown.
On the 4th of June Leopold was pro
claimed King of the Belgians. His
Inauguration took place at Brussels,
on the 21st of July. It was followed
almost Immediately by the hostile ad
vance of a Dutch army numbering 40,
--000 men. This force the Belgians were
unprepared to encounter. No ef
fective resistance could have been made.
The assistance of France and the inter
vention of England alone saved Bel
gium. This experience made a deep im
pression upon Leopold. Twenty years
afterward he wrote to impress upon his
ministers the necessity of maintaining
the national defences. "A country can
not twice expose itself to the same
danger without perishing."
No very cordial welcome was accord
ed to the envoys of the new King at
the courts of Europe. Their reception
was as cold as dlplomsjAo courtesy
would permit. Belgium was regarded
as an Irresponsible and dangerous ally
of revolutionary France.
At Turin Charlc; Albert could not
trust himself to speak to Leopold's
representative on any topic save the
Flemish school and the paintings of
Quentln Matsys. While at Naples the
King flushed as he stammered a few
formal compliments, and the unhappy
envoy in return ventured upon some
vague generalities concerning the mu
seum, Vesuvius, and the uniforms of
the Neapolitan army, and retired at the
flrst opportunity. At the Austrian court
lt was even worse. Here Leopold's
minister had actually to listen to the
Emperor bitterly denouncing the lib
erals for "despoiling Holland," and re
proaching himself for having aided the
Injustice by recognizing the independ
ence of Belgium.
Leopold soon, however, changed the
1 opinion of Europe. He proved himself
an admirable King, and the worthy
Belgians showed themselves to be ca-
I pable of self-government and of loyalty
to their adopted ruler. Leopold took
virtual charge of the foreign policy.
His influence was felt in every depart
ment of the state. He was not content
to be a figurehead. But he was careful
never to overstep the line that sepa
rates the constitutional monarch from
the absolute monarch. He once said to
those who had aided in the freeing of
Belgium and in calling him to the
throne: "You have made Belgium,
but I have Introduced her to her neigh
bors."
In the dark year of 184S, Belgium was
the only country ln Europe that re
mained unshaken. Plots, conspiracies,
tumult and discontent were rife
among the people. Every King doubted
his subjects. France revolted against
Louis Philippe, who was forced to fly
for safety to England, where he land
ed at Newhaven under the name of
"Mr. Smith." Throughout this troubled
time Leopold remained in Brussels al
most the only King in Europe whose
life and throne were secure.
It was at this time that a remarkable
demonstration of their regard for him
was made by the people of Brussels.
The King upon leaving his palace one
day was surrounded by a dense throng,
each man and woman insisting upon
shaking him by the hand. All sorts and
conditions of men made up the assem
bly. It was two hours before the King
could extricate himself from what liter
ally became the embraces of his people.
Late in his reign. Indeed, toward its
close, Leopold wrote to one of his min
isters: "I have been a happy King."
In these few words he summed up his
own life and the national life of Bel
gium since he had been called to rule it.
Leopold's second wife, and the moth
er of the present King, was the Prin
cess Louise, a daughter of Louis Phil
ippe, the King of France. He was mar
ried to this princess on the 9th of Aug
ust, 1832, soon after he became pos
sessed of the Belgian throne.
Her mind never recovered from the
fearful shock of his execution. The
splendid title of Empress of Mexico
became the bitterest mockery to her.
The present Kin;; of Belgium, Leo
pold 11., was born In Brussels In 1835.
In his youth he was known as the Duke
of Brabant. Ho entered the Senate in
1858, in virtue of hl3 political majority.
He takes a deep interest in the flne arts,
in commerce and manufacturing. He is
interested also in the future of Africa
and Its development. His manner is
said to be simple and cordial; he is
popular with his subjects, who are
willing to overlook certain well-known
defects in his character, which they
consider more than atoned by his abso
lute refusal to be drawn Into the never
ending conflict between the clericals
and the liberals —the two political par
ties of Belgium. He has reigned now
LOS ANGELES HERALD: SUNDAY MORNING, AUGUST 14, 1898.
for more than thirty years to the en
tire satisfaction of his subjects. His
tasks have been easier than his father's.
He has followed in the path laid down
by the flrst King, and to this policy
may be attributed the success of his
rule.
A man cannot be altogether unde
serving of regard of whom an ardent
republican can say: "It requires a
very small effort for a republican to
live under a monarchy, at the head of
which Is placed a monarch, who, like
Leopold 11., observes sincerely and loy
ally the constitution. The King himself
has too lofty a spirit to believe that
there is in Belgium a single republican
who could Wish for his overthrow."
Leopold has recently offered an inter
national prize of twenty-five thousand
francs, to be awarded in 1901, for the
best work on the military history of the
Belgians from the time of the Roman
invasion to the present day. The his
tory may be written in English. French,
German, Spanish, Italian or Flemish.
The competition is open to the world.
(Copyright, 1598.)
A Body to Be Proud Of.
The company of infantry we began
enlisting five minutes after the dec
laration of war paraded again Wednes
day afternoon with full ranks, and all
agree that the showing was very cred
itable. We are the only editors in the
United States, as far as heard from,
to raise a body of men for the war, and
if we step rather high and wear our hat
on our ear we should not be too harsh
ly criticised. The organization Is still
without a name. A portion of the
command wants to be called: "The
Hellso Rangers." after us, and another
portion stands out for the title of "The
Qiveadammers," after the town. It is
likely that within a week or so an
agreement will be reached, and mean-
while there will be dally drills and
dress parades. Our object was to fight
the Spaniards, and the next to steal
their army mules and ship them back
to Arizona as a matter of profit. As
Infantry we use the regular army tac
tics; as mule-gobblers we use tactics
invented by ourself. Wednesday after
noon, at the exhibition drill, eighteen
mules were stationed at different
points, and within seven minutes from
the "opening of hostilities" our boys
had every one. They go in pairs, and
while one lassoes the mule around the
neck the other twists his tall, and be
tween the two they run him off at the
rate of sixteen miles an hour.
A False Alarm.
Some one told old Jim Hewson, the
bear-hunter, who lives on Bill Williams
Mountain, that Giveadam Gulch had
been captured by the Spaniards, and
lie arrived in town Tuesday to see
about it. Old Jim can tell the track of
a cinnamon bear from a grizzly even
on a dark night, but he's off on Span
iards. He didn't stop to figure how
they got here, but his patriotic feelings
sent him along on his old cayuse at a
gallop, and he was greatly disappoint
ed to find things running along as
usual. As a solace he went on a drunk,
and after he had shot the insulators
oft of thirteen telegraph poles, yelled
himself hoarse and P.red away one hun
dred cartridges we had him locked up.
Sentence was suspended next morning,
however, and he started for his cave
in the mountains to wait the call for
more troops. Old Jim can yell like the
scream of a cyclone and a bear's eye
at forty rods is a sure target, and if
he ever gets a chance to land in Cuba
tho Spaniards will want to escape him.
TELLING
SHOTS
Fired by the Amer
ican Gunners at
Cervera's Fleet.
It would of course be Impossible to
estimate just how many shots were
fired by both sides during the progress
of the great sea fight at Santiago. Cap
tain Evans, of the lowa, states that his
ship fired 31 twelve-inch shells, 48
eight-inch, 270 four-inch, 1,600 six-pound
and 200 one-pound shots.
From two slx-pounders alone HO
shots were fired in fifty minutes, while
Corporal Smith, in the same length of
time, fired 13a shots from one of the
lowa's four-inch guns. It was in close
proximity to this particular gun that
two shells from the enemy struck and
exploded, starting a small lire. Smith
kept on tiring away, however, only
stopping long enough to remark:
"They have got it in for this gun."
The Gloucester fired 1,400 shots ln her
exciting battle with the torpedo boat
destroyers.
Shortly after the first shot was fired
from the lowa to attract the attention
of the other ships and to warn them of
Cervera's dash for liberty or destruc
tion in the open ocean, every available
gun on our ileet was pumping projeo
tiles of some sort at the Spaniards.
But it was soon seen that it was the
4, 5, 6, and 8-lnch shells that were doing
the most harm. The shots from these
cut and riddled the superstructure.
starting fires, and creating wide-spread
havoc.
Those who have been aboard the
Spanish ships as they lie scattered
along the Cuban shore, describe them
as resembling big modern steel build
ings after a fire. Engines, coal bunkers
and magazines form a melted and
blackened mass in the interior of each
vessel. Deck beams are twisted, evi
dently from the fire, while armor plate
Is torn off in great strips weighing
tons, grim and silent testimony to the
fatal skill of the Americans.
Captain Evans says his ship crossed
the bows of the Infanta Maria Teresa,
which led the way out of the harbor]
Just before she swung about and start
ed on her wild rush westward; while
in this position two twelve-inch shells
from the forward turret of the lowa
struck her fair in the bow. This was
the "first blood" of the fight. The effect
of these shots is described as stag
gering her for an instant. It was as
it is when a man is hit under the ear
by a well-aimed blow. The lowa con
tinued to use her heavy guns, and was
joined in the chase by the Oregon, In
diana, Brooklyn and Texas. One shell
fired by the Indiana fell souarely upon
the deck of the Infanta Maria Teresa.
She managed to survive the shock, not
withstanding all that has been claimed
for heavy projectiles. A little later two
more shells from the battle ships found
a mnrk near the water line, ripping
great gaps in the plates, through which
the water poured ln torrents.
It was these two shots that put her
out of the fight, nnd forced her to head
for the beach, though the murderous
pounding was not over with.
The experience of the Almlrnnte
Oquendo was about the same as that
of the Infanta Maria Teresa. Two
heavy projectiles crippled her, and
compelled her to run ashore. One of
these was a thirteen-lnch shell which
found its way through her port bow,
leaving a ragged hole; another shell
took effect on the port riuarter.
Just six shots landed squarely on the
Christobal Colon, but that was enough.
As she forged past the lowa and to
the front of the floeing column she
planted two six-inch shells in the bat
tleship's starboard bow; one of these
passed through the cofferdam, and af
ter traversing the dispensary, exploded
on the berth deck. The other remained
embedded near the water line and did
not explode.
The Vlxoaya lasted almost an hour.
Her officers state that it was 8, 6, 5,
and 4-inch shells that were too much for
her. Whenever the shot from these
hit they literally tore things to pieces
and frequently started fires. It was
this deadly hail that ruined every gun
save one aboard of her.
One big twelve-Inch shell exploded a
torpedo in the Vlzcaya's bow. Captain
Eulate describes the explosion as hurl
ing 20 men against the deck dead, and
mangled beyond recognition.
VAUGHN KESTER.
IMPORTANCE OF
THE CANARIES.
The Hesperides of the Ancient Greeks
Have a New Value as a Coal
ing Station in War Time.
A fact made plainly apparent ln the
progress of our war with Spain Is that
the United States, by manifest destiny,
must become a great naval power. It
is something more than a question of
national expansion; it is essential to
our preservation as a nation that we
possess a navy powerful enough to up
hold the rights of Americans and to
make the American Hug respected in all
lands and seas. To make such a navy
effective Implies the possession of naval
stations in the Eastern and Western
Hemispheres, which shall serve as ren
dezvous and buses of supply for our
warships ln distant waters.
Since the beginning of the war sever-
al out-of-the-way parts of tho world,
colonial Island possessions of Spain,
little known to Americans ln general
before, have come into prominence.
Through the brilliant exploits of the
American Navy, acting in co-operation
with the army, our flag has been raised,
to remain, at the Philippines and the
Ladrone Islands, while the islands still
held by Spain ln the Pacific, the Caro
lines and the Pelews, He ready to our
hands when we can spare the time to
take them. These Islands, with Ha
waii, solve for us the problem of naval
stations in the Pacific, With the con
quest of Porto Rico we have secured our
Caribbean station. The sailing of Com
modore Watson's squadron eastward
means, as a first result, the seizing of
the Canary Islands. With the taking
of these wo shall have a naval base,
available for American warships oper
ating; In the Mediterranean and off the
Atlantic coast of Southern Europe and
Northern Africa.
It Is not a new feature In the world's
geography, tho Canary group of isl
ands, Which lie west of the Morocco
coast, sixty miles from Cape Juby on
the African mainland. They were tho
Hesperides, the fortunate Islands of tha
ancient Greeks. Herodotus had heard
of them and thoir vines and olives, and
"sold dust" found In lakes. Hanno,
tht Carthaginian admiral, visited these
Islands and reported their volcanoes
then in a lively condition. His visit
resulted In the opening up of trade
there for his countrymen, in which the
islanders exchanged skins, fleeces and
ivory with the Carthaginians for va
rious Egyptian products. Juba, Prince
of Mauritania, landed at the islands
and from his account of the large dogs
that he saw on one of the Islands came
its name, Grand Canary, afterwards
extended In part to the island group.
Then in the Dark Ages the Canary
Islands foil out of sight of the civilized
world, to be lost to history until they
were rediscovered by the Genoese near
the end of the 13th century. In 1404,
Jean de Bethencourt, a Norman ed-
Venturer, undertook to conquer the
Canary Islands for Don Juan of Castile,
and he brought four of the smaller ones
under subjection to the Spanish crown.
Between 1483 and 1500 the Spaniards,
after hard fighting, completed the con
quest of tho Islands, which have re
mained part of their dominion since.
The principal Islands of the Canary
group are seven In number. They are:
La'izarote, Furteventura, Gran Cana
ria (Grand Canary), Teneriffe, Gomera,
Palma, and Hierro. Besides these there
are four Islets, and some exposed
rocks. All of these Islands, about 3,000
square miles, lie within two degrees of
latitude and five degrees of longitude,
the northernmost, the I.auzarote, lying
near the 30th parallel, north. They are
mountainous, containing many extinct
volcanoes, the loftiest of these be
ing the famous peak of Teneriffe, over
12,000 feet high. Much of the country is
covered with calcined rock, pumice
stone and volcanic ashes, but the re
mainder is very fertile and productive.
In some places two crops of corn and
one crop of potatoes can bo raised on
the same ground In one year. The cli
mate is dry, equable and salubrious.
In the low lands it is hot, resembling
the climate of Egypt. On the peak of
Teneriffe the snow remains for nearly
half the year. From April to October,
when the northerly winds blow, a
stratum of sea cloud about 1,000 feet ln
thickness hangs over the islands, at a
height of 3,500 feet above the sea. In
winter the I.evante sometimes blows
from the African mainland, a dry, hot
wind, which at times brings with it
swarms of locusts. The rainy season
is about the same as that in Southern
Europe.
The primitive Inhabitants of the isl
ands, the Guanches, were a race prob
ably of the same stock with the Ber
bers, and perhaps others of the dark
skinned races which have peopled
Northern Africa. They embalmed
their dead, and in warfare used flint
and stone weapons, and wooden spears
hardened by fire. They were fond of
liberty and fought bravely against the
Spanish invaders. They ceased more
than two centuries ago to exist as a
distinct people, becoming completely,
amalgamated with the conquering race.
The present inhabitants, slightly dark
er than the people of Spain, are of
medium height, well formed, and quick
of intelligence. They talk the Spanish
language. They are temperate ln
drinking, but are gamblers, lazy, faith
less and superstitious.
There is a population of about 250,
--000 people in the Canary Islands. The
two largest cities are Las Palmas, on
Grand Canary Island, and Santa Cruz,
the capital of the whole Canaries group
and of Teneriffe, and the most enter
prising city of all the Atlantic islands.
Politically the Canaries form a part of
Andalusia in Spain. The governor
general resides at Santa Cruz, but the
actual administration of affairs is per-
formed by two lieutenant-governors,
living respectively at Las Palmas and
Santa Cruz. There is a deputy gover
nor and a military commander on each
of the smaller islands. The military
force ordinarily relied on to guard the
islands is a Spanish battalion of regu
lars, numbering I.uOO men, and six regi
ments ot militia enrolled as containing
8,000 men. At the outbreak of the pres
ent war the fortifications at the Can-
Aries were obsolete, and the guns
mounted upon them were antiquated.
It is not probable that any strength
ening of the defences has been done
since to an extent to prevent the
speedy capture of the islands by Com
modore Watson's squadron.
Beyond their strategic value as a nav
al base, the Canaries have a commer
cial value of their own. The vineyards
from which the celebrated Canary wine
was produced, failed early in the pres
ent century, owing to some disease;
but in recent years they have been in
a measure restored. In 1525 the cochi
neal insect was introduced into the
Canaries, from Mexico, together with
the Nopal cactus, on which it feeds.
The experiment proved so successful
that by 1876, fifty years later, the value
of the cochineal produced amounted to
over half a million British pounds ster
ling yearly. Enough grain and pota
toes are raised in the islands to supply
the needs of the Inhabitants. The ex
ports are wine, sugar, honey, orchillsl
(a plant valuable as a dye), and cochi
neal There are fisheries oft the Afri
can coast in which many of the island
ers are engaged; they supply the Isl
and with fish (mostly bream) and fur
nish an article of commerce.
CLARENCE PULLEN. I
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