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BLUNDERS IN THE WAR MANAGEMENT.
Absurdity of the Camp Site Selections, False Economy in Food and Unsuitable Uniforms. The next war may be managed by rt scientific commission. That siuch n plan was not adopted with regard to the conflict Just finished is to be bit terly regretted. It would have pre vented a large part of the mischiefs which at the present time are caus ing so much scandal. During the Hispano-American strug gle Uncle Sam has enjoyed very little of the benefit -which ought to have come to him from the additions made to human knowledge within tho last fifty years. In most matters relating to science the war department has proved itself half a century behind the age. Take, for example, the selection of sites for camps. Officers wholly lacking in the necessary equipment of information on such subjects havo chosen these cites, and woful have been the consequences. The govern ment employs a large number of ge ologists, any one of whom -would have testified, if called upon, that Camp Alger was a place ideally adapted for the propagation of typhoid fever when used as a tenting-place for large num- bers of troops. Camp Alger serves as well as any other camp for purposes of illustra tion. The geology of the region is of each a nature that artesian water is out of the question; the only water obtainable is surface water, and of necessity that soon becomes contami nated by the wasto products of a mul titude of soldiers. After the first two or three weeks spent by the troops at Camp Alger, the water regularly used by them unavoidably contained a percentage of the waste products re ferred to, inasmuch as it came di rectly from the surface roil into which the pits for certain necessary pur poses were sunk. In fact, the subse quent epidemic was inevitable; there was no reason for blaming it on Providemce. If the authorities had de liberately planned to create the epi demic, they could hardly have accom plished the result more quickly and thoroughly. What has been said about Camp Al ger is true to a greater or less extent of the other localities where tho sol diers have been assembled. It goes without saying that where so many men are brought together there must be some who already have the germs of typhoid in their systems. An epi demic of that complaint is sure to fol low unless means are taken to pre vent the drinkinr; of contaminated water. If pure artesian water is not obtainable, then the water for drink ing must be boiled. The statement so frequently made by army officers that it was impossible to make the soldiers boil their drinking water is nonsense: it is simply a matter of discipline. At some of,the military posts in the west it has been the practice for many years to boil all of the drinking water for tho garrisons. Just to show how stupid it could ho, the war department took the trouble to have a lot of chemical analyses made of the water of the different camps. This was interesting, as af fording data relative to tbe amount .-.f mineral matter, etc., in the samples tested, but what was wanted was bacteriological examinations, for the purpose of finding out if any disease germs were present. This, apparently, was not thought of, although tho medi cal department of the army has in its employ several very able bacteriolo gists. In fact, the surgeon general himself has earned a high reputation in this line. Distilling plants are now being set up at Montauk. The puzzle is to know why they were not estab lished there some time ago. The trouble is that all through this war the government has been unready. We have talked derisively about the "manana" weakness of tho Spaniards, but we ourselves have been putting off until to-morrow everything that might be done to-day. When the troops were first called out by the President it was known that they were to go to Cuba and fight buttles there. Necessarily, there would be a great many wounded and sick, who would have to be brought back to this coun try to get well. There would have to be for them one or more ramps of re ception, whore they could be taken care of for a while. Why, then, were not such ramps lpP#i?ldSd months ago, and equipped with the requisite hos pitals, distilling plants, surgical ap paratus, etc., with plenty of stores and luxuries for the sick. Nobody seems to havo thought of it. The camp at Montauk ac tually was not begun until tbe wounded and sick troops had al- | ready started, regiments of them, from Santiago! They begun to arrive four days after the preparation of the camp was begun, and of course no adeo.uato caiv could be tak.-n of them. The authorities in charge declared: "We have done wonders with this camp in four days." So they bad. Bui why had they not been at work on the task for wicks and months pre viously? Immediately after the fights at F.l Caney and San Juan Hill, when many hundreds of our soldier boys were ly ing wounded and ill near pest-ridden Santiago, thin: was a cry that medi cal supplies and surgical appliances were almost entirely larking. This seems to havo been due largely to the fart that such supplies could not be taken off of the ships and carried to the place where they were wanted. Hut when imiuiry wus made at the war department as to a certain vessel which hud been made ready for car rying hospital conveniences, Ice ma chines, and so forth, to Santiago, the officials at the war department re plied cheerfully: "Oh, that's all right. The vessel has just been dispatched, and is already on her way." Why, pray, was she not at Santiago al ready ? Manana; always manana. That word goes far toward telling the story of the management of this war. Noth- ' ing ever done until the cry of necessity ' for it had actually arisen, and then it had to be begun. A notion lias been spread abroad amonr; the people 10 the effect that camp diseases, involv ing an enormous mortality, are un avoidable. Is that true? Under sii'.h :onditions as those which were found at Santiago, yes. But there is not the •lightest reason why there should have [been a large denth-rate among the troops assembled at points of mobiliza tion in tho United States, when every resource was at hand and all modern knowledge available, if only the gov ernment bad chosen to use the latter. Every year in Europe hundreds of thousands of men are mobilized for maneuvers, just as they would be in rial war; they go into great camps, march in all sorts of wenther, and are exposed to just tho same hard ships ns they would have to encounter when hostilities existed. No epidemics occur, and there is almost no loss of life, because they know how to man age those things over there. At the present time the British General Kitchener is marching 20.000 men across Egypt, one of the most un healthy countries in the world, and at last report not a man in his command was sick. Under proper conditions, large num bers of men ought to be healthier in a camp than in a city, because they live a more natural life l , have a strict regime, and enjoy plenty of fresh air. Yet our soldiers have been dying like flies, chiefly because reasonable meas ures were' not taken to protect them against diseases. A secondary, though very important, cause of the trouble was improper food. The staple of their I diet was beans and a poor quality of fat pork, called "sowbelly." In old times beans and sowbelly were given to soldiers because they represented a highly condensed nutriment, and would remain good Indefinitely in any cli mate. Tiut that was before the days of tho wonderful Improvements in pre paring foods and putting them up for convenient transportation. Haw beans are the hardest vegetable on earth to cook, and inexperienced volunteers cannot prepare them properly. Why should not tho beans havo been fur nished ready cooked in cans? It takes something like ten hours to boil raw beans; the troops were obliged to do this, though it was declared by the war department that they could not be made to boil the water for drink ing! Likewise, why furnish sow belly when g'lod meat in runs could be obtained for a little more money. The lowest criminals in the prisons of this country have been better i"<■<l dur ing the last three months than our soldiers. Is this because the Ameri can people are not willing to provide good food for their fighting men? Well, hardly. The people want their soldiers to have the best of everything*, but tho trouble has lain in the conservatism and traditional economy of tho war department. Think of tho absurdity of 2"i.000 men boiling raw beans for supper In a camp, procuring fuel for the operation and requiring eight or ton hours to accomplish it, when the same veg.-ta ble ready cooked and in a condition healthful for eating could be obtained in unlimited quantities from tho can neries! Such rations will sustain life in D strong man, but they fail to be sustaining the minute ho is sirk or wounded, becoming repulsive and dis gusting to him, as they would to any unwell person. They are strong foods lor strong stomachs. Why were milk and butter not furnished to tho soldiers as a part of their rations? Simply be cause in old times milk and butter would not keep, and for that reason were unsuitable for rations. Hut nowadays we know how to condense milk and to put up butter In cans, so that there is no longer any reason why the lighting men should be deprived of these necessaries. j A captain in the regular army said !to tin- writer the other day that tho in vention of tin? bicycle has been tho rails.- of the coming into existence of a thousand and i ne little devices of great value for condensing nutritious foods into small und convenient com pass. Turing the recent conflict tho War Department has availed itself of BUch things to only a very slight ex tint. The soldiers havo been provided I with green c offer, which they were obliged to parch and grind before it could be converted Into the drink so necessary In a campaign. This has had to br done over a crude lire of [such won] as could bo gathered for it. i Why should not the coffee have boon furnished already parched and ground? In these times a varied and nutritious j diet is obtainable lor troops, thanks to ; canning and other processes, and there !is no good reason why Unole Sam's ! soldiers should have been reduced to I beans, sow belly and hardtack. Again, there is tin- question of uni forms to consider. When the war broke out, the government had no proper uniforms for campaigning in the hot climate, although we have had soldiers in torrid Arizona for many a long year. Somebody, it seems, had heard that there was such a thing as "kahki" used in foreign armies, the fact being that nearly all of the Kuro pean powers dress their soldiers In this fabric or something equivalent w hen they are sent to a warm climate. The kahki is a species of brown cot ton drilling, peculiarly woven, and combining lightness, economy, dura bility and comfort. A frantic effort was made to get a lot of it, the result being that some of the otflcers ob tained uniforms of the material, pay ing $20 for the sort of suit that can be purchased In Jamah a for about $3. Many of the regiments were clad in brown duck, which afforded a poor substitute. Most of the troops in Cuba, however, wore blue flannels and su.-'ered proportionately. The whole mischief in the army may have *aid to have started with the appointment of n great number of sons of their fathers and other un trained nnd more or less Incompetent persons as assistant quartermasters and commissaries, not to mention other places given away to individuals who had political Influence. Naturally, ofll ccrs thus selected gave employment to subordinates on political grounds, and made contracts 011 a similar basis. Tho result was manifold abuse and neglect. Provisions were frequently worthless, clothing was often rotten, shoes wee sometimes made of paper and im mense quantities of supplies were al lowed to spoil on cars and transports. From what has been said it will be apparent that a knowledge of geology is of the utmost importance in the se lection of camps; that an expert ac quaintance with bacteriology is neces sary to determine the presence of germs in water, and that chemistry is of the utmost value in ascertaining the condition of foods, in discovering adulterations, and in detecting poison ous ptomaines or other objectionable products of decay In edible supplies. Every large city has its chemist, whose business it Is to examine the foods supplied for the use of the inhabitants. It is much more important that the food of soldiers, which they have no power of selecting for themselves, should be Inspected. It may bo that by the time the next war arrives these things will be re ! alised, and that a scientific commis sion will be appointed to act in an ad visory capacity to the President This commission ought to be a board of knowledge, composed of men up to I date in every branch of science. Its ad ■ visory control should extend to every line of the war. including arms, ox plosives, electricity, etc. Nothing that lias to do with the business of conduct ing the conflict should bo beyond its purview. Unquestionably, however its most important functions would relate; to tin- health and feeding of the fighting men. VACUUS VIATOR. Copyright, 1898. Egypt Under British Rule. A comparison of the two years ISSI and ISli" has lately been made by Sir B. Palmer to show to what extent Egypt has profited under British rule. A few figures from this return may be briefly quoted. The population of Egypt has mc reased by 43 per c ent. The tobacco-tax now brings in over £1,000.000 instead of £iiT.lOs. This Is trade in Egyptian cigarettes. Tobacco is the only tux which has bee-n raised; ! many others have been reduced or j abolished altogether. Two hundred |nnd twelve miles of now railways have , been opened and there Is a huge devel opment of railway and postal and tele graph traffic. The expenditure on pub lic education has been raised ley over :;7 per cent, and the schools from 2'J to 51, The number of forced men for cor vee work is reduced from 281,000 to 11,. i 000. The amount of debt per head I tb.- population was €14 per e-e n t. in 188] and is to-day £10. Lastly, tho 4 j per cent. Unified Debt, w hie h is tho j pulse-rate of Egyptian finance, was at £71 in IHBI and at £106 in 1597. A beggar in a provincial town in Ire land appealed to the sympathies of the charitable by the following quaint lisc of "the ills that human flesh is heir to," written on a card, which he pre sented at each door: "Battles, four; wounds, three; children, Aye; total, twelve." LOS ANGELES HERALD* VOLUNTEERS CURSED By POOR OFFICERS Lack of Experience in Hand ling Men Means Much. AS BRAVE AS REGULARS Proper Sphere of Action for the National Guard is at Home. "Please to understand in the begin ning that I believe In the volunteers ns soldiers. They are the nun we must depend on to fight our battles In any great war. But their usefulness de pends largely on the way in which they are handled." The speaker, an army officer of high rank and reputation, had been asked to give his opinion as to the compara tive qualities shown by regular army soldiers and volunteers. "In the matter of courage In the face of danger I should make no distinction between the two, unless to say that the regular is apt to be the steamer, espe cially where the situation involves waiting inactive under firo; he has had more discipline and experience, you see. In camp and on the march he • saves himself unnecessary fatigue and ' h&rnship, and he makes the best of his I resources lor keeping comfortable. He 'is what you may call an old hand in tho business. He knows things that the volunteer has yet to learn; the sooner the volunteer finds them out the better f,,r all concerned, for it is in the government's interest that a sol dier should be always In the best pos sible condition. "In two or three months the volun teer has only begun to learn his trade. It lakes much longer to teach a man to be a soldier. To have learned tho man ual of arms and to drill are only a lit tle part of a soldier's education. These can be taught an intelligent man in two or th." c weeks. Tho great thing for him to learn, which takes a long time, is t.i forget himself, to realize that he is a part of a vast machine, .md to acquire the habit of absolute and unquestioning obedience. The ele ment in the soldier that measures his value, is self-control. This tho regular has gained through time and experi ence, und the volunteer has it still to acquire. There are many things that he has to find out as he goes along. Suppose, as an illustration, that a party of young men who never have roughed it, should set out to cross the plains on foot. How many mistakes , they would make before they learned how to do things In the best way, and to get along smoothly. The volunteer is in a similar situation of difficulty. "But the greatest difference between the volunteer and the regular regi ments is in the officers. The regular officer is trained to the profession of the soldier. At West Point he for four years carried a musket, was drilled daily, stood guard and performed all of a soldier's duties. Through such a training as that he has learned how to handle himself. His subsequent ser vice with a command has taught him how to handle men; to secure their confidence and willing obedience, to see that they are fed and sheltered and kept in every way up To the highest possible point of content and good con dition. This the volunteer officer has not learned to do. He has not found out the necessity of constant watch fulness for tho welfare of his men. and even with the best intentions his inex perience leads him often into omissions and mistakes. He neglects to take the steps in time that will secure his com mand their proper rations; he fails to enforce thi- sanitary regulations neces sary for their health; on the march he encamps in unheolthful places when It Is possible to find good camping places. How many would think on going into camp for the night to ride ahead and see what kind of water they must rely on: if it is bad,-to say: 'Don't drink any of that, boys, till you've boiled it.' They have only to get a few fence rails, start a fire, and after the water is boiled they may drink all they wish In safety. It la precautions like that which keep a command in fine shape. The men appreciate it. When the sol dier has confidence in his officers, knows that everything possible Is be ing done for him. he accepts short ra tions and hardships cheerfully. It is only when he feels that his depriva tions are due to the fault of his su periors that he grumbles and kicks. "It is inattention to such details as much as in military discipline that the regular otools the volunteer officer. It is not in battle that the main loss of life in war occurs. Four or five men die from disease and exposure for every one that falls from a bullet. An immense amount of ammunition must be fired for every man that is killed— but a malarious ramp-site may deci mate a regiment in a few weeks. Just now there Is a great deal of talk about the incompetency of surgeons and lark of medical appliances in the war just ended. But was it not of vastly more importance that the men should have had officers, who, so far as sickness was concerned, Could have saved them from the need of surgeons and medi cines? It would be better for a regi ment to have such officers with no sur geon at all in ramp than officers of an opposite sort with a dozen surgeons and their appliance's. War is vastly more than a parade of arms, and bat tles. An ignorant officer kills more of his men than tho enemy. •in case of the National Guard I believe that its proper Held is in homo defense. Such members as wish to bo into the field should enlist as volun teers without regard to their regiment al organisations. But as a rule it Is not a good plan for a militia regiment to take the Held for distant service. It has not had the right experience and training. A regiment may be finely drilled, perfect in marching and in the manual of arms, yet bo practically worthless in the field. It is the same in taking parts of regiments in their organised forms. Thoy are not readily combined and are difficult to handle. But at home the National Guard regi ments are capable of rendering splen did service. Suppose an enemy wore to attack New York. We should need 20,000 men on the' moment to station at the points essential in defense, and the National Guard would be what we should rely on for this service. It was for such purpose's as this that it was organized. "As I said at first, I believe in the volunteers. The events of the recent war undoubtedly will lead to the rais ing of oar standing army to a strength of 100,000 men. It is better that it should not exceed that number. Hut there 6hould be a supply of trained offi cers always in reserve for a much larger force, which in case of war could at once take command of the volunteer regiments to be raised, and could efficiently attend to all the de tails of placing them in the field." WILLIAM II. TO VISIT JERUSALEM. With Great Pomp and Ceremony the German Emperor Will Enter the Holy City. Berlin, Sept. 15.—"The national heart swells with the thought of the approaching imposing entry of the kaiser into the venerable old city of David and Jesus. Wo pic ture to ourselves tho mighty impres sion which this majestic spectacle will make. The Indissoluble character of the friendship between the sultan and the German kaiser will be raised to a quasi-art icle of faith." I quote the fore;. . ig from a leading German pa per. As a matter of fact the kaiser Is one of the most prominent "Zionists" among tho "anointed of the Lord." His poetic imagination has contributed many surprises to contemporaneous history, but this trick is likely to sur pass and excel every other attempt at magnificence, and ploturesquenoss. Tho lively imagination of this impe rial manager has loft nothing to chance. German discipline is to char acterize every part of the program, down to tho hour when William 11. will exchange his tourist dress for tha full royal rig, and In complete war paint enter the holy city, through tha Chalil-Kapussu gate, followed by a brilliant retinue, and an impressive Turkish host, in thoir picturesque dress. For variety, arrangement, and effect, this kaleidoscopic scene will furnish, perhaps, a most memorable chapter to tho history of this country. In honor of his "beloved brother," the sultan's bankrupt exchequer has been further depleted to the tune of 160,000 piasters, to bo expended in widening tho main street of Jerusalem, and beautifying the Palace of Kademi- Sherif, intended for the emperor dur ing his stay in the holy city. As a mat ter of fact, England as well as Egypt intends to swell the pomp and cere mony by dispatching a portion of the English-Egyptian hosts from Khartum and possibly with a few hundred pris oners in chains, to show the kaiser how a Dervish looks in captivity. The kaiser's main and solitary ob ject of this Journey is to preside over the ceremony of consecration of a new Lutheran church, built on a site given by tho sultan to the lato Emperor Frederick while he was still crown prince, on tho occasion of his visit to tho Holy Land. The church in ques tion is erected on the foundations of an ancient edifice of the same character, dating from the Crusaders. The im perial couple will arrive at Haifa on the 26th of October, 1898. and at Jaffa two days later; tho grand entree into Jerusalem is booked for the evening of October 28. After the consecration ceremonies of the church tho royal couple Will visit the tombs of Abra ham, Isaac and Jacob at Hebron, over which a mosque has been erected. No Christian or Hebrew has ever been permitted to cross tho threshold of this mosque or to view these tombs, with the solitary exception of the Prince of Wales when ho visited the Holy Land while still a young man, in the com pany of Dean Stanley of Westminster. It may be taken for granted that the present sultan, who owes so much to tho friendly support and champion ship of his cause by tho German em peror, will extend to the latter the same courtesies and facilities In the matter of visiting Hebron as were conceded thirty-six years ago to the future king of England. After leaving Jerusalem the kaiser ai d his consort propose to journey overland via Mount Sinai to Egypt, In response to an invitation from the khedive, and the resources of the Turkish government will be taxed to tho utmost to prevent any untoward Incident happening to the imperial pilgrims, such as, for Instance, attack and capture by marauding Bedouin tribes. It is difficult to conceive the consternation which would ensue were tho German emperor and empress to be carried off by some such tribes as these in tho Interior of Arabia, and held for ransom. Tho allegiance of these tribes to the sultan is purely nominal, and in their rocky fastnesses, which can be reached only by weeks of camel-back travel through waterless deserts, they are practically secure from attack or punishment. It is no secret in English court cir cles that It has been the one dream of Queen Victoria's life to undertake a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and at one moment during the early years of her widowhood she was on the point of proceeding thither with her friend and spiritual adviser, the late Dean Stanley, as ciceront. But the time for any such tour has long since past away, and her majesty is too far ad vanced in years and too infirm to bo able to put Into execution a project which Bhe has nurtured in her heart since the days of her early girlhood. True, there are all sorts of facilities to-day for getting to Jerusalem which were not In existence twenty and thir ty years ago. There is a railroad equipped with comfortable railroad cars that runs from Jaffa to Jerusa lem, and it is possible to reach Bethle hi:n and other places of Interest in the vicinity by means of tramway, the pilgrimage of these present times pre senting a striking contrast to those of former ages, when the faithful of every rank and class, from kings to peasants, were compelled to trudge wearily over the sun-parched desert of sand and stones that lies between the seacoast and the Zion of Christians and He brews. While no one need feel surprised that Emperor William should desire to un dertake the trip to Palestine, yet there are many who regret that his "Zion ism" should have led him to permit his wife to accompany him on the Jour ney, and among superstitious people much apprehension Is felt and ex pressed In connection with the project. For it is a strange peculiarity that hardly any royal couple have ever vis ited Jerusalem together without being shortly afterward overtaken by mis fortune. Only eighteen months ago the visit of the Archduke and Arch duchess Charles Louis of Austria wus followed by the sudden death of the former, who, as second brother of tho Emperor Francis Joseph, stood next In line of succession to the throne, and who, until that time, had enjoyed per fect health. Another imperial couple whose pilgrimage was followed by still more disastrous results were the crown prince and crown princess of Austria. The quarrel which culminat ed in Rudolph's shocking death at Meyerllng followed Immediately on their return to Vienna from Palestine, while the stay In Jerusalem of Em peror William's eldest slstor, Char lotte, who was accompanied by her husband. Prince Bernhardt of Saxe Meinlngen, and attended by Baron and Baroness yon Kotze, had as Its material sequence what Is now known In the civilized world as the "Anony mous letter, or Kotze scandal," In which Princess Charlotte and her con sort were so seriously compromised as to render their departure from Berlin necessary, while Baron yon Kotze him self, after fighting Innumerable duels, being crippled for life, and subjected to imprisonment, Is now living In re tirement with his wife, both of them disgraced and socially ruined. These are only a few of the largo number of analogous cases that could be cited in this connection. But they tire sufficient to show that supersti tious people have some grounds for apprehending misfortune in the event of the kaiser taking his wife with him to Jerusalem. For, curiously enough, those who make the pilgrimage alone and who leave their wives or their husbands at homo appear to escape the fate that overtakes those royal personages who neglect this caution, and with tho exception of Empress Eu genic, who lost her throne a few months only after her return from the Holy Land, the Emperor of Austria, the late Emperor Frederick of Ger many, the Prince of Wales, King Leo pold of Belgium, the Empress of Aus tria, the Crown Princess of Sweden, King Oscar, the Crown Prince of Italy, and Prince Henry of Prussia have been able to visit Palestine without be ing overtaken by subsequent misfor tune. It may be questioned whether It Is purely a spirit of religious devotion that leads royal personages to Jour ney to the Holy Land, and there aro reasons for believing that the Zion ism of the crowned heads and of their families is prompted by other senti ments than those of mere pity. For, speaking of them as a class, the princes and princesses of the blood cannot be described as really religious in the ordinary sense of tho world. They seldom govern their private con duct by the rules of any church, and almost never regard ecclesiastics as nearer to the divinity than themselves. They conduct themselves and speak In a manner to convey the belief that they feel themselves above the mere details of religion, and It may bo doubted whether they have any real preferences, save such as are dictat ed by questions of mundane policy, for one form of worship more than for an other. Queen Victoria, for instance, when she is In Scotland, takes the communion from the hands of Presby terian ministers and according to tho Presbyterian rites, although south of the Tweed she receives the sacrament according to the canon laws of tho Church of England, of which she Is not only a member, but also the supreme head. The present czar, when at Bal moral, attended Presbyterian services, while the king and queen of Italy, as well as the Catholic princes of Ba varia and Saxony, In defiance of tho laws of their church, were conspicuous at the Lutheran services held at Ham burg not long ago under the auspices of the kaiser. The latter, again, al though he considers himself to be tho "summus Episcopus" of the Lutheran rite, does not disdain to kiss the cruci fix that Is tendered to him when ho visits any Catholic institution, church or monastery in his dominions, and his grandmother, the late old Empress Augusta, was quite as fond of attend ing Roman Catholic services and func tions as are the daughters and grand daughters of Queen Victoria. From this it will be seen that, where as obedience to one church or another is on the increase among both classes and the masses in every part of the world, it is distinctly declining among the "anointed of the Lord." It is merely another Illustration of that in gratitude for which princes have been celebrated since the days of the Psalm ism, and under the circumstances they cannot be surprised if people are dis posed to ascribe to something else than simple piety the Zionism which leads them to make pilgrimages to- Jerusa lem. C- F. D. Copyright, 1898, by The International Literary and News Service.