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ABLE ARGUMENTS ANENT
NECESSITY FOR INCREASE OF TEACHERS' SALARIES VALUABLE PAPERS ON LIVE TOPICS Bulk of Business of Immediate Importance Will Probably 'Be Completed Today and Then Comes, .Rest and Recreation and Plans ft)r Settling: in Los Angeles WITH th£ general session of the I Natioihal Educational assocla- I tlon/at Temple auditorium last night the biggest day of the Los An geles contention came to a close. For two houfrs and a half the biggest au dience rAthe week sat as if spellbound under the eloquent addresses of tho four (-peak ers of the evening, for It was no o»dinan y or commonplace discussion before tha t vast body. The all engross ing quest: on of teachers' salaries, or, r ather, so ne system of adequate corn- Sensation for these faithful workers, /Was tho s übject before the house, nnd /with cony, inclng eloquence the various ( speakers putlincd their plans or reme- I dies. E. V}. Cooley president-elect for the comii lg year, known throughout educational fields as the relentless op ponent of Margaret Haley nnd her Chi cago federation of teachers, was one of the speakelrs on the program. The day jhas meant much to the Na tional Educational association. The opposition Ywhlch had been expected agalnßt the adoption of the new char ter granted by congress failed to ma terialize, b'Jt Instead, from an unex pected quaiuer of the sky came an im passioned alppeal to the teachers of the nation to preserve their liberty from the power cf "oligarchy." The elect on of Mr. Cooley to the presidency, I devoid of excitement though It was still added to the gen eral spirit o(f the day. A glorious time by tho side of old ocean occupied the afternoon. Thou sands of teachers availed themselves of the special rates made by the rail way company and had their first sight of the mighty raciflc ocean. Recause the citizens of Long Beach had pre pared for the reception of the peda gogues from 12 o'clock on, there were no sub-department meetings yestorday afternoon. Eight meetings were held ln the morning at various halls of the city. Today there will he fourteen such meetings held during the morning and afternoon, with a general session at the auditorium at 8 o'clock. Tomorrow I the department meetings will be con fined to the morning, and the conven tion will close ln a blaze of glory Fri day afternoon. This will end the ses sions of the convention, but tho enter tainment committee has arranged at tractions extending over almost an other full week. BRAVE TEACHER OBJECTS TO HANDLING OF MONEY BY A SPECIAL COMMITTEE "I appeal to the teachers hero as sembled to defeat the passage of section Seven of the constitution, providing for the management of the finances of thi^ body by a committee, because it sells this association body and soul to a com mittee. It is unbuslness like, unsafe, un democratic." With this dramatic fight against the passage of the new constitution granted by congress to the N. K. A., and which came up for adoption yesterday noon, Miss Elizabeth Shirley, a Los Angeles school teacher of Montebello. made a esatlonal single handed fight afrainst the "old-line guard." A deafening thunder of "yeas," with not a dissenting "no," told her that her fight had been in vain. Miss Shirley's speech en mo like a thun derbolt from a clear sky. Tho much talked of Miss Haley and her cohorts did not appear, and on the faces of the "line" men sat a faint smile of content. Routine business was disposed of, and the constitution, whose adoption it had been thought would rouse the champion, Miss Haley, to do battle, was placed before the convention. "Question" had already been called for when Miss Shirley asked permission to speak. Wanted No Boss She was granted the floor and began: "I rise to take exception to section sev en, regarding the finances. I see the funds of the association will be in the hands of a board of trustees. The money belongs to us. It is the teachers' money. But after we decide that we want some thing done the board still has the ulti mate decision on it. Wo leave the In itiative and referendum in the hands of an oligarchy. I stand for democracy. I stand for a national educational nsso ciatlon of the teachers, by the teachers, for the teachers. Pass this constitution and the National Educational association will not ho the musters of their own money. We will have erected an oli garchy under whose huge lens we may peer about to find ourselves dishonorable graves. "Grafters are stalking through the United States— not California. California is a kindergarten compared to some of the eastern cities. The grafter has bought school bonrds, superintendents and even association. But yesterday one of them took his seat high In the councils of ed ucation. "How can we tenchers teach our pupils business principles when they pick up this constitution and see that the teachers of the country could not manage their own finnnces, but had to leave them In tho hnnds of a committee?" Majority Upholds Rule The vote was taken. "Tho ayes have It and the new charter granted by the act of congress has been adopted by tho business meeting of the netlve members," declared President Scliaeffer. Miss Shirley took her defeat In good part. "I was not trying to bo a disturbing element," she said. "It was simply n case of doing my duty as I saw It, and stand ing by democratic principles. "I do not know Miss Haley and nevor heard of her until the last fow days. I belong to no organization. I am a plain, everyday, common school teacher who has the welfare of the public schools and the purity and maintenance of democratic Institutions at heart." Secretary Shepard, although opposed to the plucky teacher, congratyjated her on her game fight, and expressed the hope that she would stay by the association and devote her energies to Its upbuludlng The rest of the convention passed off with scarcely an Incident. When the nominating committee read E. G. Cool ey's name as president the applause was vociferous. Arthur Chamberlain, dean of Throop, Pasadena, was nominated for treasurer, and met with a like reception from the local contingent. With no op position for any office, Secretary Shep ard cast the ballot for the ticket. Pres ident-elect Cooley was given an ovation and was forced to come to the platform, where he marie a brief speech. The Il linois delegation tendered their honored comrade a reception at the Alexandria hotel last night from 9:30 to 12 o'clock miilnlKht Dr. Cooley, In addition to th'nnkfng the convention for the office, expressed Lib appreciation to his oppo nents who had stepped out for hlm-"men with claims as good at least as my own." the association put itself on record as favoring a. national univer sity ot Washington. W. O. Thompson, president of the Ohio state university offered the resolution that a committee be appointed to further the cause, and that $500 be allowed them for carrying on this work. With the support of the powerful educational association behind It, friends of the movement nre confident of Its ultimate success. Tho establish ment of such a university, where the, con gressional library, Smithsonian Institution iml countless other opportunities nre af forded the student will mean much to education ln this country. EXPERTS IN OTHER LINES RECEIVE MORE PAY THAN EXPERIENCED TACHERS The Important question of teachers' salaries occupied the attention of the National Educational association at the fourth general meeting In Templo audi torium lust night. The entire program was devoted to able papers on this sub ject, nnd despite the various remedies proposed the general aim of the four speakers was the sump. Rev. Heeht delivered the opening prayer. The Los Angeles Apollo club rendered several selections which were well received. President-elect E. G. Cooley. superin tendent of Chicago schools, delivered an eloquent address on "Shall Teachers' Salaries Be Graded on Merit or by the Clock. Following is a synopsis of Mr. Cooley's speech: "Since the welfare of the children Is the fundamental consideration In the carrying on of the schools, teachers' salaries must bo fixed with reference to the value of the services rendered. In-, creases of salary Jiased upon length of service, and increases of salary based upon zenl, student-like habits, and scholarship must alike be tested by this criterion of efficiency. "A teacher In a good school may In crease in efficiency for four or five years, even if she relies exclusively up on her school room experience for In formation and Inspiration, but unless tho teacher is Induced In some manner to study, the chances are that before the end of the first decade a decline in ef ficiency will set In, which will proceed steadily as the years go by. A schedule of salaries, then. should include a lower group, making provision for yearly advances for four or five yenrs. At the end of this period If a teacher does not give evidence of Increase in efficiency, in professional zeal and In student-like habits she should be stop ped. No teacher should bo allowed to advance In salary after she has ceased to advance In efficiency. Train Teachers In Scrvics "Scholarship and habits of study nre factors thnt must be considered in esti mating efficiency. No teacher who Is not a student can long remain really efficient. If a teacher wishes to Impart a piece of knowledge she must not only hate iippropriated it to herself, but she must have crone beyond it and nround it. Rho must see it In Its relation to other facts nnd truths. Her study can not erase with entering the work, hut must be lifelong. She can retain sym pathy with the learner only by continu ing to be a learner hor-Holf. By this menns. too, she can avoid the depress ing effect of constant association with Immature minds nnd ideals. "Teachers should not ho encouraged to get into the system nnd then let the clock work. Advancement based on length of service only does not do jus tice to the teacher who has the renl professional spirit. Tho suggestion that we can keep people up to the mark by merely fear of dismissal Is made by tlinso who do not renllze how extremely difficult It is to get rid of an inefficient teacher. "Our great cities have found It neces sary to establish normal schools for the preparation of their teachors. It will soon become ns legitimate a part of the work of the normal school to carry for ward tho trnlnlng of tenchers after they enter tho service ns It was to tnko them from the hich schools and make teach ers of them." Charles H. Keyes, supervisor of schools .-it Hertford, Conn., spoke on "Teachers' Pensions and Annuities." Mr. Keyes in a powerful address gnve the following five potent reasons why the pension system In some form should be nrlopted: "First— No teacher enn do the best work for our children while at the same time compelled to be busy with plans for se curing a livelihood when the days of service in the school room are over. No teacher can fitly train your children by dny nnd worry by night over the ques tion of raiment, food and shelter for the days that come too soon. "Second— Teachers of the largest ability nre every year being drawn awny from the school service In which they have proved their hlsh capacity to enter upon more remunerative fields of endeavor. To continue serving our ehlldreji Is to accept an old nge of dependence or pri vation. To enter upon the new field of work Is to receive rewards lnrge enough to ennhle them to make provision for their declining years. Unless we would see the education of our children turned 1 over to second rate women nnd third rate men we must provide the rewards that would permit our ablest teachers to consecrnte their lives to the service of the schools. "Third— The great army of teachers should always attract many of the brightest nnd ablest young men nnd wo men who year by yenr graduate from our leailiiiK educational institutions. The current rewards of the tenchers are so grossly inadequate that tho very ma terial we most need In our schools is iK-int; diverted to other callings. "Fourth— There are In many of our schools men nnd women with the largest capacity for growth who nre enrning un usually good snluries from which they nre laying by n fund to take care of themselves In old nge. To do this they ire compelled to deny themselves the opportunity to travel, the time to study, tho ownership of books nnd the change of scene for bodily rest that are essen tial to the life nnd growth of an In spiring teacher. How a retirement pen sion would change nil this and enable men and women to multiply their own powers stlmulnte and refine their asso ciates to the blessing of the boys and (rirls "Fifth— ln thousands of tho older cities and towns of our Union there aro teach ers who hnve practically worn them selves out In the service of our schools. For periods of from twenty-five to forty five years they have spared no power of heart and brnln In loving nnd conse crated devotion of their lives to the lives of boys and girls. They nre bodily tired, heartsore and brain weary with a fre quency that Is agonizing to witness. They have been able to save little or nothing. They cannot see that It Is their duty to retire to privation or to charity. No official has the criminal courage and hardiness of heart to turn them out to alms or starvation. As a result they are spoiling the tempers and abusing the intellects of whole school houses full of children in return for their confinement by the community at hard labor In the school room. And this cruel and In human punishment of faithful old teach ers who ought long ago to aave honor ably retired on pay goes on In a thousand American towns." In a brief discussion of the subject Alexander Hogg, state superintendent of schools at Fort Worth, Kas., summed up the salient points of tho question, contrasting the salaries of teachers with those of other professions. Mr. Hogg said In part: "If Cicero In his times, when only for one law, and that for the benefit of one man, should Introduce, his subject with, 'Hujus nutem orntlonls faclllus cst ex item guam prlnclplum Invenlre;' to find out how to end rather than to begin not what to say, but what to leave un said, ao rich In arguments was his cause. LOS ANGELES HERALD: THURSDAY MORNING, JULY 11, 1907. $1.25 Muslin Underwear AQ r \ I «*,»/% $5.00 Lace Curtain Bto 10 Thund.y at - 't^L J^Jtlf 'mli>i!jrL^l4Lf^t^ Samples 25 C >V - .; .:,; . *: A great two-hour sain of soiled muslin underwear M dam -kl vjr^m^&%s/ iMCW W M A jl I f^~l 200 travelers' samples of white and Arabian col- — gowns petticoats, drawers, corset covers .-it.,] E 1 ft \l 7'WI^.HJIr/>*\ V^/yl\> f ored lace curtains, full width and 1% yards long; eS regular value 9«c to 1L25; on sale in one V_>* J%-W V^/V^ B „ aln wortn ,o, o . 00 pair on sale. lot today, third floor, 8 to 10, at. choice, 49c. . droadwaT con. fifth st. j | | i Great Reductions in Rugs, Curtains and Hammocks wn™™™™,™*,™^ A Sate of Unusual Economy La 8 p?ic^ tes^e^oSte^fi i W£6 (^MMr ' |^^«BntnHßraffl» values at the regular prices. Our broad and comprehensive assortments make choosing easy and pleasur- t^S^\mi^MW^M A « aL± jgP»H able. Early shopping Ik best. Second floor, south building. jllfU vflt ui)f lfflB?!J$B RL $i#2S White Lace Curtains 62-c S3 ' 00 New Axmlnster RuRS $1.48 /MP^^raPt BflfrmiPaffl SmMRr? Handsome white lace curtains. 45 inches wide, 3 Sanford'a best quality Axminster rugs, 27 inches by M tDffluSrT*^ ' JligHplgJßßß^^ wSSSs^i^LiS^^^^^^T^^^^. yards long, pretty floral, scroll and medallion borders; 5 feet; new oriental designs and rich colors; sold XlEtr A, n^SSrMßl/yfiEJS^^^ WK//Skxßl VStl '""" buttollholG Btltcned ( ' ll^'' s; curtains that wo sell everyw here at $3. mi; on sale here, Xto 10 today, at Hffim,loffll^S ' Ruffled Swiss Curtains 98c $6.00 Room Size Ingrain Rugs $4.48 mS^^^^m^m^ma^i Fancy dotted and figured and stripo Swiss muslin Heavy royal ingrain rugs, 9x12 feet. »andi.nma pat- Kaß^^^PS^fflSgS^^l curtains, 40 Inches l.y 2% yards; good, full hem- terns, rich colors; good, serviceable rugs; $6.00 qual- ■SHffll stitched 'ruffles; $1.60 curtain at, pair, 98c. lty today at $4.45. m¥&s%KtBm mm<%^?&*<-* 'SPiiti ffjia W $ 3 - 00 !Novelty Arabian Curtains $1.48 $15 Tapestry Brussels Rugs $9.98 ffilllP^ f"F§-i^K2 SSjpi^fi^y 54 Inches by 3 4 yards, handsome .new stitched bor- Heavy tapestry Brussels rugs, 9x12 feet, handsome / %. •3fc^!^g2^ s * c " der effects; 100 to sell at this price; curtains that atte , ns and co lors, splendid wearing rugs; worth a pal 8 r U1 everywhere at $3.00 offered ' today at $1.48 $15.00; priced for today $9.98. CarlnK * ' $5 50 Taoestrv Portiere Curtains $3.98 30c Fancy Matting I7&c $25.00 Axminster Rugs $17.48 , New mercerized tapestry portiere .curtains. 60 Inches by Yard wide, Japanese linen warp matting, fine straw, close woven ™-^S ;^S^sr J5? £& S yards, with heavy knotted lattice overthrow fringed ends; mattings in pretty red, green and blue carpet patterns, 30c at $17 48 . . rich shades of red, olive, rose, Nile and hunters green; grade today at 17%0. Tiiird floor, south room. . . . good value at $5.50; In this sale at $3.98 pair. " Ange , us Carpet SweeperB $1.25 $3.00 Taoestry Couch Covers $1.95 $2.00 Fancy Colored Hammocks $1.48 Angeius latest improved carpet sweepers, solid sheet steei stay, *&&&& aga.-- —» STS SSSZJL^S,r°S zz^z ,a sa.r.&.-ssgA^'"- -"* - rew - sl.2s Shirt Waists, Great -7^ I I Jo,'.J 0 ,'. **]«*«_ 6| C I I ft.. IK^yiJt $3.98 < ■ Value at lUV Brown linen crash toweling, "inches J^Cr~ Lawn, Indian Head and gingham „. wide, fast selvedge; 1"' 1 quality, 8 to 10, at X"3(w&m£l 20 dozen shirt waists, $1.00 mgti^L. 6V«c yard. Limit 8 yards. /^vJf^^lJ wash suits, in shirt waists and jump- ; and $1.25 values; several / < f\f^PP 65c Ready Made Sheets 48c cr effects, handsomely trimmed with ta^n^lmbtTd^tim^d' >^^»T 5».^«.-SS£ i 8* t« SK lm embroidery lace insertion and pip- models; a great bargain for ""* Tldl , ioM * #i-lv 'ing; regular $8.00 suits at $3.98. Thursday at 72, cents. iliiillill^ 30-inch India LJ sheer mak^ .S 1 // * % ' $7.50 Women's Pique $2.48 Lawn Waists I !^^ SSKtJSrJS^ wear: ° eUlar ° ///:: | » Coats $4.98 $I'^O . r^SllCJ!!^^ t&^y^ 39 C 40-Inch Lawn 21C /I?/ -'I '- \ \s^ whlte and champagne colored pique Jack- Beautiful lingerie waists that sold Igi^Sgtißkt ,. >Mr _l9^ . , , , ,-,„,. (3? -4 ,"■, "■ IV%' T ets, seml-fltted back, tailored sleeves, blue £^iteS^^j3^ JSER^KHk SS^^^SS da^fS;^ ( HxlP , -Hars an d cuffs; some v c e or k at vel v? Val. lace and fine Swiss embrol- f?^^&^~~£^ WW quality at 21c yard. ' t ~ wt — ' collars and pockets, $7.60 coats at $4.98. deries; on sale today for Just $1.00 ' '^f/^j^''^ '\V in,, /vi/iroil I man nrp«« less than actual value. Third floor TII/V^ y 30C tOlOrea Linen UreSS . -, ao u a,!,» c <1 AS, at $1.48. Goods 19c iL&o wasn SKins »i.*o $1.00 Long KimOnOS 65C 36 Inches wide, a much wanted fabric for Made in Indian Head and Russian duck, gored and plaited style, * " ° , „ , , , M I summer wear; shades of shell, pink, ap- nicely trimmed with buttons and tailored straps; worth regularly Lawn kimonos, full width and length, extra value, made of neat ,0, 0 green Allce blue- navy an red; 30c * priced fcr Thursday at $1.48. . ! . figured lawn; worth $1.00. Special today at 65c. . value at 19c yard. ' ______^ _____ may I not then be pardoned when I tell you I represent tonight a half million of teachers and twenty millions of chil dren, the youth of our common country —our rich heritage? "I represent a body in numbers more than the three learned professions— law, medicine and theology-and a body of men and women who have the making of the first impressions unon the plastic minds of our childhood— who really shape their future for good-not for bad-for the teacher's work is always In the dlrec "Paislng over the historical periods— the evolution of teaaMng-I come at once to the main question. The Better Re muneration of Our Teachers of Today. "The reason why teaching has not, up to this time, received Its commercial value is due to the fact that teaching has not for its end the same result that the professions and other avocations ia . ve j he j oy is ln the doing, 'Not in the deed thnt Is done. "Or perhaps this is better expressed in 'That 6 the deed in the doing it reaches its aim, That the fact has a value apart from its "Or, I menn to say that teaching is different from the work of the doctor, the lawyer, the clergyman, for In all of these to the pleasure of doing is added the uesult. In the two former, large fees. "The clergyman's work being so closely allied to that of the teacher, his compen sation, while greatly Increased lately, is measured by the same standard as that of the teacher, viz., 'the Joy in the do ing ' When we come to the commercial world the result Is tho most Important part of all; it can bo measured either with the yardstick or the balance. "It is not so with touching; the result cannot be measured, weighed or even es timated—the whole is subjective so far as the teacher is Interested. "It is easy to see why the civil en gineer can command more— receive more than the college president: his work is the construction of a great bridge like that at Niagara or that across North river it has a commercial value which can be measured by the dollar. "It is easy to see why a locomotive en gineer receives more for his work than the high school principal; why the stenog rapher—the typewriter— gets more than the primary teacher— often more than tho principal. Minute, accurate tabulations linve been printed and are accessible in which the compensations of nil classes of wace workers have been made with the salaries of our teachers of all grades, and thu result Is thnt those tables show the teacher to a great disadvantage. Expensive Preparation "So far as wo have shown, why not? Let us come to the why the teacher should receive more for his or her ser vices. And of the arguments, first ot all —the work of the teacher is upon the human mind and the humnn soul, and, ln our country, upon twenty millions of children today that must bo citizens voters and rulers tomorrow. "Second, the proposition of expense of time and money Is equal In many cases more than any of the other vocations, or even professions. Happily, another has made this out in detail, nnd I give only the aggregate. It will cost an average of $5600 to prepare one for teaching. "Show the patrons— the school board that in addition to teaching you have to govern, to keep order, to interest fifty or sixty little mortals for six hours. "That every day you decide cases of discipline that General Grant, when he was president, would call a cabinet meet ing on. Put into our schools books of in terest to the young; let the "Last Days of the Mohicans," Lalla Rookh" and even "Hiawatha" give place to books of Interest about the progress of our coun try, what commerce, agriculture and the mechanic arts are doing; what science nd skill have done for the world, leach in every recitation morals and manners, better citizenship, broader patriotism, greater love for home and school. "Here is a good place to bring In the relative number of men and women teach ers. In the United States ln 1882, men 40 per cent; In 1890, 35 per cent; in 1900, 2o per cent, and now it is stated that nearly SO per cent of our teachers are females. Says one: 'There has been no incentive for men to prepare for this calling, and they have left the Held,' and now It is difficult to keep their places rilled with competent women teachers. Possibly the situations would be better if the schools would adopt the plan Fort Worth did ln 1882. Upon the Inauguration of her pub lic schools for the remuneration of her teachers were adopted ln general, viz.: In the snme grade of work the same salary should be given to the women as to the men. Fort Worth went even further and gave the colored teachers doing the saina N. E. A. DELEGATES ARE INVITED TO THE DE LONGPRE HOME Paul De Longpre, the fa mous artist, has invited all of the delegates to the N. E. A. convention to visit his Holly wood home today. Open house will be kept from 9 until 6 o'clock, the teachers and their friends be ing especially invited to see his art gallery and beautiful gar dens. work In the same grades the same pay as the white teachers. "The salaries here depend upon two ele ments—the grade of certificate and the number of years in the schools. Five dol lars were added to each month's salary for ench following year. This Is what may be called a sliding scale— lt works well. "In the employment of teachers Profes sor Munsterberg says: " 'There was never before a nation that gave the education of the young into the hands of the lowest bidder.' The doctor might gor further. I'll go for him and say that In all the trades— ln all the com mercial transactions— the employment of teachers Is the only one in which the em ployer selects the goods and sets the price. 'Mr. . we have this day selected you as a teacher ln our srhools, and you will receive $ as your salary.' Should it not read thus? 'We have this day selected you as a teacher in our school. What compensation do you expect us to give?' "Again, there is much in the times — much In the spirit of the times. We are In an age of unprecedented prosperity nil along the line. The salaries of our tench ers have been Improving— here a little and there a little. Now Is the time to make an effort to bring about what would seem to be a fairer compensation of our teachers — the facts and reasons seem to point that way. With the increase ln all values the expenses of the teachers, like, the expenses of other peoplo, have greatly increased. Tho Rev. Dr. John A. Brondus once said: "Bricks and books nnd brains make a university." We have piles of bricks ln every city in the shape of ele gant, well adapted buildings for our schools and the city libraries are tilled with books. Should not the brains that helped to build these, nnd to conduct and to teach the Immortals assembled therein day after day, be adequate to do their part of the work? Tho university and college men have been Insisting for years that our teach ers should bo better paid; this comes from the top downward. Let us begin at the bottom and work up; let us be gin with tho mothers, nnd thoy with the fathers— the taxpayers; let us show by our qualifications, our equipment, that we are entitled to better considera tion, better remuneration. Let every teacher take In hand this matter, and the day will not be far dlstunt when the calling— the profes sion then of the teacher will rank so high that tne best men and the best women of our land will again come Into As teachers we are hirelings of our school boards, ln rank their subordin ates; but as citizens — American citizens we are their guest friends, their 6q The full fruition of the teacher's la bors—"Joy in the doing"— brings Joy ln the deed done. COURSE OF MUSIC GIVEN AS STANDARD FOR USE IN VARIOUS GRAMMAR GRADES At a meeting of the department of musical education yesterday morning ln the First Methodist church, the subject of "standard course of study as presented ln the report of committee at Asbury Park," was resumed from the day before. The meeting was conducted by t\ C. Uayden, chairman of the committee. What results should be obtained in the study of music in tho eight grades of public schools, and the course of study finally adopted for tho first year' 3 work was as follows: In all grades the voices of the children should be light in quality, smooth and free from harshness. All singing should be intelligent, with good phrasing and proper attention to the sentiment of the words. It should be remembered that good singing Is one aim of music in the schools, and that love of song, and the desire to express one's self ln song should result from study. Special attention la called to the value of written melody ln all grades above the first. Small beginnings in original melody J..ay be made ln the primary grades, later scale progressions, intervals, phrases of songs learned and melodies from dictation. In upper grades original melodies set to simple couplets and stanzas. The end of the fourth grade should find the children able to read simple music at Bight ln any minor key. They should be able to sing sharp four, sharp five, sharp two and flat seven. They should bo able to sing exercises 2-4. 3-4 and 4-4 measure and to sing readily groups of tones rep resented by the dotted quarter and eighth notes. They should also know the names of the notes ln use, and the pitch names. The ability to read music should be utilized by the singing of a large number of songs, wholly or partly at sight, and they should be able to sing suitable two-part melodies. At the end of the fifth grade the classes should be able to sing all the sharps and Hats from the tone above and some of the flats from the tone below. In rhythm they should be able to sing sight exer cises containing the dotted eighth and sixteenth, and the simple forms of 6-8 measure two beats to a measure. They should be able to sing and name the keys from the signature. They should b« able to sing two-part melodies at sight. In the sixth grade the class should be come familiar with all the chromatics, both sharps and flats, and be able to ap ply syllables to any melody they have ln mind from memory. They should use melodies in the minor mode, and should practice singing the different forms of the minor scale— should begin writing the sig natures of the major scales from memory. In rhythm they should study nil forms found in G-8 measure, two-beats to a measure. Simple songs should be sung at sight without the use of tho syllables. The seventh grade classes should use chromatics with facility. They should sing readily In three parts. They should become familiar with the different forms of the minor scale; their relation to the major scnle, and should write them with their proper signatures. In rhythm they should be able to read readily all the forms found In C-S measure two-bents to tho measure, to sing four tones to a beat, and should study syncopation. In the eighth grade the singing of stand ard songs, the study of composers' lines, and Introductory history and musical lit erature should be the work of leading Importance. The technical work prev iously studied should be reviewed and en larged upon If it seems desirable. MANITOBAN WOULD FIND MRS. PATERSON-MARSTENS If Mrs. Katherlne Paterson or Mars tens Is ln Los Angeles knowledge of her whereabouts is anxiously desired by her brother, John Paterson of Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. Some years ago she was in Arizona with her husband. He disappeared, and after vainly waiting for him the dis tressed wife came to Los Angeles os tensibly to make her home with friends No trnces of her have been found since, and City Clerk Harry Lelande has been asked to assist. GIRLS ESCAPE FROM WHITTIER; ONE CAPTURED Florence Jones, 14 years of age, an in mate of Whittier. escaped from that place several days ago and was cap tured on Washington street by Patrol men McCann and Murphy yesterday afternoon. The girl was taken to the de tention home and will be returned to Whittier this morning. In company with two other girls of the same age Florence succeeded In getting away from the grounds of the reform school. The three girls then boarded a freight trains and rode into Los Angeles, The police are still looking for her com panions. CONSIDER CHILD WELL AS SUBJECT Laura Bridgman and Helen Keller Examples of Success in Teach, ing Blind and Deaf The department of special education held its session yesterday morning at the Normal high school building. President M. N. Mclver, Oshkosh, Wls, presided and Frank M. Drlgga of Ogden acted as President Mclver read tho introductory paper, which was followed by remarks by George L. Lesley of the department »f science and J. A. Foshay, form* su perintendent of the Los Angeles schools. An interesting paper was read by P. M. Jack, state institute conductor, R'ver side Falls, Vvis., on "Public Day buhouls for the Deaf." Mr. Mclver said in part: "This department is the most 'pedagog ic' of all. In special education we study the individual. Here Is where most edu cation falls. The subject is taught, not the individual. The great teacher said: •Consider the lilies how they grow. In cur work we adapt this injunction and consider the child. "Teachers in ull departments may we draw a lesson trom our experiences. All children differ in mental powers. Defect lveness is present in any school room full of supposedly normal children. "The teachers of defectives ignore the law of 'the survival of the fittest.' and at tempt to 'make fit to survive' all. The re sults achieved in the lives of Laura Bridgeman and Helen Kellur Itave forever answered the question, "Is It worth while?' Is there not an avenue to every soul and is it not your business and mine, as educators, to find that avenue? "The work of soul unfolding In tho work with defectives cannot but act subject ively on the teacher and upbuild chur- LC "Tlie report of this department ns it goes forth In the printed report may be a great power for good to all teachers, for supervisors and superintendents generally are beginning to realize thnt the methods of the 'special' teacher must be adopted in all schools to a greater extent. Professor Lesley Illustrated many prac tical points regarding some of the best methods of handling truant school children and those who are defective physically, morally and mentally. Several members discussed tho problem of defective school children, which brought out points of much Interest to those Interested in the best welfare of the unfortunato children. Brief Interviews and N. E. A. Personals A. O. Thomas, president of the state normal school at Kearney, Neb., believes In utilizing old methods of education as well as new. He said: "We have two state normal schools, with 2600 students. The salaries of teachers have been raised 20 per cent, and we are pushing ahead ln our edu cational work. "To quite an extent we are going back ln our rural we "< to the principles of teaching only the five rudiments of edu cation—reading, grammar, arithmetic, history and geography. In this way the compulsory attendance of the children brings them In touch with a good com mon school education. "I think that the enterprise of Los Angeles goes ahead of any city within my knowledge. It strikes me that the Owens river problem beats tho great Roman aqueduct." J R. Kirk, president of the state nor mal school at Ktrksvllle, Mo., is a dele gate to the convention. "We are much Interested in our enter prise." said President Kirk, "In the es tablishment of a rural school in our 7 campus, which is carried on by the nor mal school. We have a school building in one corner of the campus which cost $20,000. This building is given entirely to the rural school work. A special teacher Is supplied. The pupils are taken to the school within the radius of five miles in covered wagons." M. J. Holmes of Normal. 111., is the secretary of the National Society for the Scientific Study of Education and Is en thusiastic In his line of work. "We take pride in having the oldest normal school in the Mississippi valley," said Secretary Holmes. "We have four others and our educational interests are progressing finely. "I have n brother. Harvey R. Holmes, who r?stdes In Los Angeles and who is much Intel ested in education." J. O. Crosby of Salisbury, S. C, Is a delegate to the convention. He has the following to say about himself: "My father was Scotch Irish and my mother was a Cherokee Indian. I have been in the educational work, principally among the Indians, twenty-five years, ami owing to ill health was obliged to abandon the strain of the work, and th<r< Tore resigned the presidency of the state normal school at Salisbury. I was also the first president of the A. and M. college for the negro race at Greenboro, N. C. "I shall visit the Indian schools ln the Indian Territory and look into their con ditions on my way home." D. B. Johnson is the president of the state normal school ln Rock Hill, S. C, nd is vice president of the normal de partment of the N. E. A. President Johnson said: "I have been the president of the nor mal school ln Rock Hill, which is the largest in the south, during its existence of twelve years. "The salaries of the teachers have been increased recently, but they are not so high ns on the Pacific coast. One en couraging feature Is that the rural public schools are being enthused with consid erable Interest and high schools and libraries are being instituted. "Carnegie presented us with a fund of $30,000 unconditionally for library pur poses throe years ago. nnd we have now one of the best libraries nl the state." President Johnson Is one of the many who are delighted with Los Angeles and vicinity. W. M. Ruthrouff, superintendent of the schools in Tucson, is among the edu cators who are progressive in their Ideas ot educating the children. "I make ;i specialty," said Superinten dent Ruthrouff, "of sociology as bearing upon the public school children. "We have a normal trnlnlng high school costing $75.1100. We hnve Instituted a raise of the salaries of teachers ac cording to their efficiency, and there Is a progressive spirit in all the depart ments of education." Frnnk M. Drlggs is the superintendent of tin- Utah school for the deaf and blind in Ogden. He is the secretary of the department of special education in the •111.' Utah school for the deaf and blind." said Superintendent Drlggs, "stands nmong the first Institutions of its kind in the United States. There are Ki'i pupils, 10S of whom are deaf and the remainder are blind. In teaching them 70 per cent are taught to speak and to read the lips and the remainder are silent and communicate by writing. They range from 6 to 23 years of age and come from Utah, Wyoming, Arizona, Nevada "We take much pride in our Institution, which is valued at $250,000. We are look ing forward to the honor of having the national convention of the American In T structors of the Deaf meet with us next year." CORONER SAYS WOMAN DIED OF HEART DISEASE Heart disease was the cause assigned for the death of Mrs. Ida L. Jackson by the coroner's jury which held an inquest yesterday afternoon at Bresee's under taklng establishment. Mrs. Jackson was the woman who was found unconscious In a room in the Ho tel Chickasaw early Monday morning and who died Tuesday without regain ing consciousness. ft was at first thought by the police who Investigated the affair that Mrs Jackson had committed suicide by drink ing laudanum, but upon examination It was found that the woman was Buffering from a weak heart and no trace of poison was found.