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Sessions Finish Today—Teachers Delivered to Entertainers VAST THRONG FILLS AUDITORIUM AT LAST NIGHT N. E. A. MEETING THOUSANDSTURNED AWAY FEOMDOOR With Closing Sessions Today Educators Look Forward to Series ot Delightful Entertain ments and Sightseeing Trips to Follow Hard Work of Convention IS the National Educational association now being held in Los Angeles a suc cess? Eight thousand teachers clam oring for udmittance into Templi' audi torium last night effectually answered that question with a mighty affirmative. What matter thoush BOW were unable to «am admittance into the charmed hall? What though a thousand hunt; expect antly around the foyers till the last speaker had finished, vainly awaiting an opportunity to make a rush for the en trances when necessity compelled the ush ers to open the doors for a brief moment? What though thousands left, disuppointcd In their hopes of gaining udmittance? The session last night effectually clinched Los Angeles' claim to having held the biggest and best convention re corded in the annals of American educa tlon. ™TR"" T7i"e™ preceding sessions there was seating room long after the opening £rayer. and many did not come till B:'JD. Ast night, twenty minutes before the time scheduled for opening, the house was well filled, and the ushers were compelled to admit only active members. By 8 o'clock a crowd of almost 3000 was jam ming the lobby and crowding the doors. trying to break through the line of po lice and ushers. The house was filled to overflowing and a dull, hoarse murmur of thousands of voices grew almost deaf ening. ' Great Organist Is Cheered Professor Bruce Gordon Kingsley ap peared, and the audience broke into ap plause. With the opening notes of "Oberon" the vast audience became hushed on the instant and at its conclusion a storm of applause followed. "Poet and Peasant" followed. "It Is worth the trip from New Orleans to hear him play," exclaimed one enthusiastic listener. The encore was received like its predecessor, and still the audience de manded more. Professor Kingsley dis appeared, and President Schaeffer rapped for order. Rev. Horace Day led in the opening prayer. Then came the star of the evening. Ellen Beach Yaw. "Ah! fors c lvi." from "La Traviata." was her first number. But why attempt to describe it? It was the singer the audience had come to hear. Five times she was recalled. "Cut out the program and let her sing all night." besought the pit. But President Schaef fer was obdurate. The program had to be delivered. C. G. Pearse. superintendent of city schools. Milwaukee, Wis.. made a plea for "Schools for Defectives in Connection with the Public Schools." He expressed himßelf as opposed to tlv- institution which segregated the defectives from their fellows and reared them In a circle of children like to themselves. Should Care for Abnormals Mr. Pearse said: "in the earlier and cruder stages of industry a great deal of the by product was wasted. So, in our public schools, throughout the early years of their development, we took care of the evident and neglected the by product." He gave a brief history of the treat ment of defective children, from the early days when they were exposed to die, down to the present day of institutions for the deaf, dumb and blind. '•J.he sentiment now is to educate them during their early life in day schools con nected with the public schools where they may grow up as a part of the community where they live. The object should be to so educate these unfortunates that they can live with their normal associates without feeling too keenly their misfor tune. "The public schools should stand to increase the scope of its usefulness. We should so order our system that we carp not tnriy for the normal but for the ab normal pupil." J. yf. Olsen. state superintendent of public instruction. St. Paul. Minn., spoke eloquently on "The School and the Li brary." Mr. Olsen spoke in part as follows: "To be a true teacher one must be able to see education in its finished entirety must recognize the value of not only that education which comes from the study of books, but of that which comes from the study of things; from communion with nature, contact with men. Time was when the public school concerned itself chiefly with teaching how to read; today the problem is more one of teaching what to read: bow to get that out of books which will help the Individual to make a living and how to live. "The work of the school should project itself into that of the library. The need of a fuller understanding between teach ers and library workers is becoming more and more obvious. Librarians should un derstand the school and the needs of the children; a general knowledge of the library and its methods should be one of the requirements for receiving a teacher's certificate. Every sclir.nl should have a library containing some of the best stand ard authors, besides reference books for the pupils' studies in the class room, laboratory and workshop. Library a University "The library should be truly a univer- Bity of the people, and should have the same fostering care of the state as the public school. State support and control of the library does not repress locnl initi ative and interest. An in Its aiding of the public school, the policy of the state with regard to the public library would he to help those communities that help them selves. The free school bonk system and the traveling library are power allies in the library movement. "There should be a central authority \ exercising such control in the purchase of books as would mean the getting of only the best and the frustrating of the man ipulation of mere book agents. All libra rians, educators and philanthropists .'should co-operate. ¦ " "A campaign for the broader culture should be carried on from legislature to remotest district. This Is a time saving ige. How will all the time saved advan tage us if we are Ignorant of its value : *nd unable to spend It profitably? The School must teach how to save time In ¦(getting the gist of the newspaper. Al "Though valuable, newspapers cannot take the place of the more purposeful and larg er literature. "It is ours by use of present opportuni ty to open highways to fullness of life in the future." Miss Taw sane "Thou Brilliant Bird," Miss Helen Mead playing the violin obli gate. It was simply a repetition of her triumph earlier in the evening, except that Miss Mead shared considerably in the honors. Mrs. Helen L. Grenfell. high school vis itor of teh state agricultural college, Den ver, Colo., spoke on "The Influence of Women"s Organizations upon Public Edu cation." Following is a synopsis of Mrs. Gren fell's speech: "Education is evolution. There are fixed laws which mirst be sought out an.i applied in any rational system of educa tion. The compass of psychology points In as many directions for the north pole of education as did the compass of Colum bus. "The philosophy of education is faulty and it is questlcnal whether by pure phi losophy It can be perfected. Kduratinn is first individual and afterward social. The seclusion of education in early ages un fitted the scholar for life. "The early Idea of education did nor Include women. Popular education dawned with Luther, and the beelnnlnir of female education with the reading of the Bible in homes. , "The first girls' high school was opened lnI In Boston In 1826, but was closed two years later because too 'alarmingly popu lar.' The reception of the first women ciubs— the New England and the Sorosls 1 ISUS— equally critical. The fore boding as to results both of education for girls and of organization for women has proved groundless. We have outgrown the primitive idea of woman's place In the universe and in education. If she cannot evolve the thing, she may environ It and thus save force. Men are doing the ma terial work of the world; women are freer to devote their energies to educa tion. Woman approaches the school from a different view point from the teacher, and brings forces to the work not to be elsewhere obtained. "Women are organized for the first time in history, and through organization more can be accomplished than through individual or sporadic efforts. Their pri mary object Is — enlarged means of helping ethers. "Women's educational ideals are not so high as those of the great scholars, birt they are broader. To them it seems more important that all children should learn to read and write one language than that a few professors should know a dozen languages — dead or alive. The monastic ldeaI Idea of education has been cherished too leng. Wotaia Jearns concretely, putting lessons into practice— 'learns to do by "The states with highest educational fa cilities ax* those whefe women are most active. lUiieracy is largest where wo men have least power and grows less where they vo:«. Half a million of Ameri ca's children are illiterate and two mil lion are earning their living. We cannot boast of opportunities while we have to admit such a disgrace. "School people have misunderstood club interference either from misdirected effort or unfortunate personalities. Mothers are the natural allies of the educational forces. "Some of the things accomplished by women's clubs are: Traveling libraries, patriotic and humane education, manual training, domestic science, vacation schools, play grounds, compulsory edu cation, child labor and pure food laws. Juvenile courts, industrial schools, school rooms decorated, art and crafts revived, scientific temperance, indstruction. salaries and pensions for teachers. "Women do not stop with finding in club work opportunity for their own develop ment. The heart of the movement is use fulness and unselfish services. "The buildings men raise reflect the spirit of the time. As the Acropolis tells of the religion and art of Greece, the col osseum and the forum of the Roman spirit of war. of law and of imperialism, the cathedrals of the middle ages of church dominance, so the lofty buildings cf our own country typify commercial as piration.. The twentieth century spirit should be exemplified by the school house; not immense structures where the child Is lost sight of -nlthin and crowded into the street without, planned not only for intellectual culture, but with their books and pictures, playgrounds, gymnasiums and gardens, departments of manual training, domestic science, sewing and halls for the use of the people, planned as so for growth, where the learner will prove that real 'education is life. 1 " Eight meetings of subdepnrtments this morning and a monster rally of all the teachers at Temple auditorium this aft ernoon will close the business sessions of the National Educational association. For almost another week tho teachers will he in the tender mercies of the local entertainment committee, which has pro vided excursions and side trips sufficient to keep the pedagogues hustling till next Thursday. NATIONAL COUNCIL HOLDS AN IMPORTANT SESSION; COMMITTEES APPOINTED The National Council of Education held an important session yesterday morning when committees were appointed and thirteen members were elected, eight of whom wore re-lected. On the committee of nomination Louis F. Soldnn succeeded N. C. Daugherty of Joliet. 111. Following is tho list of the new ap pointees and members: Committee on investigations and appro priations; to succeed themselves— J. M. Greenwood of Kansas City, term expires 1909; F. A. Fltzpatrlck of Boston, term ex pires 191(1; Elmer E. Brown of Washing ton, term expires 1910; W. T. Harris. Vir ginia, term expires 1911; Augustus S. Downing. Albany. N. V., term expires 1910; L. P. Harvey of Wisconsin, term ex plros 19in. New appointees— Louis F. Soldan. St. Louis, term expires 1908; W. H. Maxwell, succeeded William R. Harper, term ex pires 1908. Committee on membership— W. T. Har ris, to succeed himself, term expires lrrno : Livingson C Lord, to succeed himself, term expires 1910; J. F. Millspaugh, to Bucceed Albert G. Lane, deceased, term expires 1909; I. C. McNeill, to succeed Charles D, Mclvor, term expires 1810. Executive committee— Tho president, ex- Offtcio; James M. Green, to succeed Anna Tolman Smith, term expires IM9; Elmer E. Brown, to succeed Howard J. Rogers, term expires 1910. Old members re-elected— Jasper N. Wil kinson, Emporla. Kas.. to 1912; Goo. A. Martin, Boston, to IM2; .1. W. Carr. Day ton. 0.. to 1912: W. E. Hatch, New Bed ford, Conn., to 1913; Bottio A. Dutton, Cleveland, 0., to 1913; Charles 11. Keyes, Hartford, Conn., to 1913; Andrew A. Draper. All. any. X. V.. to 1913: Nicholas Murray Butler. New York city, to 1909. Appointed to succeed members who have been transferred to the role of hon orary members because of absence from mooting for two years— Mrs. S. Ella Young of Chicago, to fill tho place of Lucia Stlckney of Ohio, tho term expiring in 1912; W. O. Thompson of Columbus. 0.. to fill the plaec of Aaron Govo of Colo rado, the term expiring in 1912; Clifford W. Barnes of Lake Forest. 111., to fill the place of William K. Fowlor of Nebraska, the term expiring In 1913: Brown Ayers of KnoxvillP. Term.. to take the place of a member resigned, the term expiring in 1910. GREAT THRONG OF HAPPY EDUCATORS CALL ON PAUL DE LONGPRE Weary, but smiling and hnppy as ever, Paul de Longpro regretfully closed the doors of his beautiful art gal lery and home in Hollywood last night on the lnat of the army of visiting school teachers. From 9 until 6 o'clock there had been a constant crush of visitors, requiring diplomacy and good management to keep the throng moving out as rapidly a It moved In, as all were so charmed with the host and his famous flower paintings and homo that many were desirous of remaining throughout the day Mr. de Lonjrpre snld last night that his guests numbered a trifle In excess of 4000. "And It surprised and pleased me to find." said he, "that most of the teach ers knew of me and my work. So H was like a visit from thousands of per sonal friends. Altogether it was one of the happiest days of my life and 1 shall ever cherish the recollection of It." LOS ANGELES HERALD: FRIDAY MORNING, JULY 12, 1907. STRONG BODIES HELP MENTALITY EXERCISE IS AS ESSENTIAL AS STUDY Teacher Who Gets Next to the Heart Is the One Who Can Secure Interest in Hy giene Bfisehnll bears the stamp of unanimous approval of the teacher of the physical training department of the N. E, A. In deed, it Is doubtful if even this august body would quite dare to condemn the great national game as an amusement for the youngsters of the public grade schools. Members of the N. B. A. who attended the meeting of the department of physical training yesterday morning in Oak hall found their time well spent. The program was Interesting and the dis cussions which followed the papers were There was a general feeling that the meetings of the physical training depart ment, whose work concerns nnd inllu ences that of all the rest of the school ought to be given In larger halls, and that the programs should be arranged so that the attendance could be much more general. . , Basket ball, football, dumbbell and In dian club swinging were all discussed as exercises to be used either Individually or collectlevly in the schools and each found its supporters. The advantages and disadvantages of these and other sports were extensively discussed. rhe grade teachers who were present asked many questions of the specialists in phys'leal training, and valuable hints and suggestions were given for those schools where no regular athletic and physical director is retained. Pupils May at Least Run One very sane suggestion and one which might be followed in the poorest school, without any expense for equip ment, was made by Lillian Bird Kich, Great Falls. Mont. She proposed that the grade teacher take her class out, line the members up and have them run. This is something in which big and little pu pils may participate without any tedious preparation. It tills the lungs with fresh, pure nir and the pupils derive all tho ebneflts which follow increased activity of the heart and lungs without the dan gers which sometimes attend prolonged playing of such fatiguing games as bas- Mr McClure, superintendent of schools at Yuma, gave an interesting account of a class In club swinging, which had grown so strong numerically that the school campus had to serve as a lu-ld tor the class meetings. Other speakers on the subject were Mrs. M. A. Harper of Los Angeles and San Francisco and A. Claude Braden, superintendent of phy sical training at Pomona college. Teachers Must Exercise Mr. Harry Shafer, principal of the state normal school at Cheney, Wash., scat tered the seed for these suggestions in his practical paper, "What Can Physical Training Do for the Teacher?" His mam idea that health, either of pupil or teacher, Is to be maintained or, if need be, attained, along with the education, was well backed by his proposal of va rious plans for the guidance of all those in charge of public graded schools. Following is a synopsis of Mr. fahafer s "The ideals and practices of any time have found application in the schools of the period. At present the enllKhiuiini.MiL ot a country may be determined largely by attention paid to school hygiene and health training in the schools. "The schools of Spain are inadequate and Insanitary and from 4l» per cent to 6J per cent of her people illiterate. Illiter acy is diminishing very slowly. England for decades has been alive to the value of physical training. Many committees of parliament haw investigated condi tions and recommended measures, lhe small loss of life In the Japanese army. In the Russo-Japanese war, can be traced to the influence of Instruction in schools under the direction of 8000 medical advis ers, Germany and Sweden likewise emphasize such instruction. "American schools aie awakening to the value of physical training. Consulting physicians are becoming numerous, and the main purpose of education, health, is Icing recognized as the great educational Get Neap Children's Hearts "Attention to physical training will lengthen the life of the teacher who leads in most cases, a sedentary life. It will give her the glow of health and its elastic step. She will possess magnetism, energy, vitality to give her school. "Desks properly adjusted, satisfactory temperatures, good light and air, cleanli ness with a minimum of dust in the at mosphere, good order, and clear thinking w ill characterize her school. Such n possibility Is open to every teacher, and will make her labors and those of her pupils pleasurable. "With regard to athletics, the teacher should encourage and direct them, with in reason, and should participate, if pos sible. The teacher who gets next to the hearts and into the lives of pirpils Is the. one who can enter heartily into the sports nd games of childhood and youth. Sh* nd her pupils derive pleasure and profit from physical training." Music and Exercise Harmonize Miss Martha Johnson is director of phy sical education In the public schools of Salt Lake City. Her paper on "The Re lation of Music to Physical Education" was received with great interest. Miss Johnson's discussion of her sub ject was In part as follows: "Popular as the use of music is in the gymnasium in this country, it Is still a mooted question among our educators whether or not we are instilled in Its ex tensive use. The Germans use It to some extent, the Swedes very little and we al most entirely. Are we doing right? "Physical education has two gnat ob jects to be attained— flrst, the stimulation of the nutritive processes of the body, circulation, respiration and digestion; second, the correction of posture. "The stronger the muscular contraction the greater the blood supply to that part of the body and therefore the better the muscular tone. The correction of posture is dependent In a large degree upon the nutrition of the body. WeaE muscles will always cause drooping head, contracted breast and protruding abdomen. Herrce, if we are to correct erroneous posture we must first Increase the blood supply and nutrition of the body. Experiments Show Effects "By experiment it has been proven that the effects of music upon bodily move "l Sound made simultaneously with a movement increases the muscular con- r "2. Intensity of sound strengthens con "3. Higher the pitch the stronger the contraction. , "4 Strength of contraction is affected by music— major stimulates, minor de- P^ SR point of fatigue is postponed. "6 Steadiness of contraction suffers. "Since music strengthens and hence stimulates the nutrition it is a help. But It is a psychic law that the mind can focus Its attention upon but one thing at a time. When music is used the atten tion Is averted from the form of execu tion to the time element. Hence when posture is to be obtained music Is a hindrance. But when correct form has been mastered so that It becomes second nature music again Is of value as a stim ulus. Therefore an Intelligent use of music with physical education Is bene ficial, but its absolute continuance Is harmful." At the close of the program Acting Chairman J| 8. Welch of Salt Lake City appointed a committee on nomination to propose the names of officers for next year for the department of physical UNIVERSITY OF / PENNSYLVANIA WILL GIVE RECEPTION The Alumni association of the University of Pennsylvania will give a banquet at the An gelus tonight. The guests of honor will be former President Nathan C. Schaeffer of the Na tional Educational association and Benjamin Ide Wheeler. University of Pennsylvania men have been urged by the association secretary to be present. training. The members of this commit tee are W. W. Hastings, Springtleld, Mass.: Harry M. Shafer, (.'honey. Wash., an.l Miss Mart'ia Johnson, Salt Lake City. MUSIC CHARMS YOUTHFUL MINDS GREATLY ASSISTS IN SECURING ATTENTION Melody Vitalizes the Child and Paves the Way for Introduction and As similation of Ideas Along Other Lines Of all the speakers who have ad dressed the N. K. A. none has won the hearts of the audiences more com pletely than did Miss Estelle Carpen ter, supervisor of music in the public schools of Han Fram Isco. Miss Car penter spoke yesetrday morning before the department of music education in the First Congregational church on "The Vitalizing of tho Child Through Song," and in a delightful informal way Illustrated her address with child ish souks and drills nnd succeeded In not only Interesting her audience but making them enthusiastic in her out lined work. The first paper. of the session, writ ten by Fannie Edgar Thomas of New York city, was read by Mrs. Frances E. Clark on the topic, "Free Musical Edu cation a Necessity for the Musical Art of a Republic." The paper was in part as follows: The lecture was under three general heads: 1, weaknesses and evils or' paid musical education; ~, values and In fluences of fri c musical education; 3, music In the public schools not a de sideratum but a bridge between desir able and undesirable courses. Following are some of the salient points of the lecture: "Why the United States found it necessary to establish a 'free' system Of general education. Suppose that all our general instruction today were In the hands of whoever chose to consti tute himself 'teacher,' and do as ho pleased without knowledge, training- or supervision, and dependent for the pay ment of rent, meat and milk bills upon moneys derived from pupils. Some in evitable reasons why people dependent for a living upon moneys paid them by pupils cannot possibly teach properly. Disasters to students and to the music life of the country outside of the teach ing field as result of 'trade' and 'specu lation' in musical education. How paid private music teachers came to establish themselves. They not so much at fault as conditions. "Musical education must be subject to logical pedagogic law as all other educations, with classification of de partments, grading, examination, pre paration by pupils, training of teach ers, etc. Why a government must feel the responsibility of correct and pure art education. What our government could do in the matter. Results In valuable besides actual Instruction. France does this; how it is managed; some results in production and the value to national art, to the art of the world and to home taught nrtlsts. Seeks Better Instruction "Is not the music as taught in our public schools equivalent to this? No, it can be but the alphabet. Complete musical education is impossible to pub lic schools by reason of the existence of other studies, and tho difference in gift and life-object of the pupils. It can bo but preparation for the specialising or equipment of the artist for profes sional life. This preparation and spec ializing of our artists is left to chance, haphazard and to foreigners. The public schools must not depass their province as preparation. There Is dan ger of that now. They must bridge the clumsy chasm at present existing be tween the preparatory and the special izing fields. And they must Instruct the public in the possibilities and necessities of free musical education. They are doing this now. Tho great est credit and honor arc due the lead ers and workers In our public school music, for devotion, energy, knowl edge. Intuition, courage and for mar velous results. Also for the harmony, disinterestedness and generosity to wards each other, in Btrong contrast to the private paid contingent. Normal training in music has been evolved in the schools. Scientific education is being followed there. They have fine outlines, advanced standard, prospec tive uniformity, also hunger and thirst for greater skill. "Is a distinct musie.il education pos sible to our government? Now? Why? When? What? Arise, let us go hence; tli" end is not yet." Natrop libimcnfcld of Los Angeles ren dered several tine violin selections, which were greeted with much applause. Miss Carpenter then read a very inter esting paper, after which she told of the work In the music line accomplished in San Francisco following the earthquake, when music largely held the children to gether, doing the work that the truant Officers failed In doing. Miss Carpenter told of her work In tho school established for the refugee children In Golden ilate park, and of the Hinging exercises in the temporary school buildings, where thero were neither seats nor hooks, and of the. work that was accomplished at the grad untlng exercises. Mrs. Clark, supervisor of music. Mll u :uik' o. Wis.. opened tho discussion of Miss Carpenter's paper, and in an able manner pointed out tho need of sym pathetic interpretation on the part of the teacher. "To vitalize the child means first to vitalize the teacher." said Mrs. Clark. "She should not stand off ten feet from the nearest scholar, n veritable statue, aloof from the children, and expect to create enthusiasm from, fifty little wrig glers, who are thinking of something en tirely different. "Our children hear too little of the really good music and too much of the ragtime or comic operatic selections. (Continued applause.) "We should bring to the children the good artists of the community In Inter preting the music which they have studied." Mrs Clark outlined her plan of study- Ing the music with the aid of the local musicians in interpreting tho advanced work. Mr. Forosmnn followed, giving his plan of vocal study In the school, which was Illustrated by Miss Elizabeth Warwick, a former pupil. During the afternoon the lasl session of the music department was hold, when a round table was held. The committee, of ported on "The Syllabus for the Lnf form Trnlninß of Supervisors and Grade Tenches." followed by .-i discussion. Charle r. nice, supervisor of music or Worcester. Mass., led the discussion on "Needed Change! In Musical I^omencln- A huslnoss session WBJ hold nnd reports made closing the work of the department for 1907. KINDERGARTNERS ELECT OFFICERS Mothers Asked to Establish Higher Grade of Home Culture to Assist in Promoting School Work Miss Bertha Payne of Chicago was yesterday morning elected president of the kindergarten department of the Na tional Educational association. Miss Barbara Greenwood of Pomona was chosen vice president, and Miss Bertha Rockwood of Cleveland, Ohio, secretary. At the meeting of the department in the Immanuel Presbyterian church the fol lowing resolutions were adopted: "Resolved, Thu,t a committee of five be appointed to confer with the officers of the International Kindergarten union for the purpose of bringing about a closer affiliation between the two de partments; that we use our Influence in such a manner that mothers will de mand a higher standard of culture In the nurses or maids entrusted with the home care of children; that we extend our thanks to tho officers of the Ebell club for their reception; that we thank the members of tho From Time to Time club, which has invited us to a recep tion tomorrow afternoon from 4 to 6 o'clock in tho kindergarten rooms of the normal school, and that we thank the press." An Interesting nnd instructive pnper on "Home and School Life- in Germany was read by Miss Amnlie Nix, president of the German Pedagogical society ot Minnesota, wh" said In part: "The present high standard of intel lectual development of the German na tion has its origin in tho careful, wise training of the child at homo. The typical German home is the preparatory department of the primary school. Children arc taught to be obedient, In dustrious, courteous and charitable. A spirit of harmony pervades the atmos phere of most German homes. Rever ence for age is shown by children. Ser vants must have references and arc en gaged by the year. "American teachers nnd students who study the school systems of Saxony realize that they are inspired by the new educational thought and arc bene fited in their psychological researches. Edwin D. Ressler. president of the state normal school, Monmouth, Ore., was to have spoken on lhe Kinder garten Curriculum," but was not present. PEDAGOGICAL LABORATORY IS ADVOCATED TO BENEFIT THOSE SEEKING KNOWLEDGE The department of normal schools i held its session at the norma school l 1"'l 1 "' 1 ' 11 '^ yesterday morning. President. J. R. KirK, president of the Kirkville, Mo., normal SC presiden C t Sl X < irk read an exhaustive pa ner on "The Issues Now Conlronting the ftormal Schools of the United, States ' which was followed by a paper read by W. A. Clark, professor of psychology and pedagogy, state normal school, Kearnej, Sreb. His paper was In part as follows: "The pedagogical laboratory is ns indis pensable in the scientific study of peda gogy as the chemical laboratory is in the study of chemistry. Pedagogy is the sci ence of education. Education is the con structive directing of another s life by controlling its experiences. So defined, education may be made the subject mat ter of a true science; and pedagogy, like any other modern science, demands Its laboratory work shop. "The pedagogical laboratory, like labora tories in general, has two distinct func tions, discovery and exemplitication; or there are two forms of the laboratory, the research laboratory for the discovery of new truth, and the teaching laboratory for the corroborative exemplification of laws already known. "A pedagogical laboratory, whether for research or instruction, is an experimental school, equipped with children and the common material resources and appliances of the school room. A pedagogical experi ment is a teaching uct, conducted and valued as such. In his laboratory tne pt'dagogist studies critically his own edu cational processes, with a view to dis covering pedagogical laws. Each experl ment has a single, well defined purpose: the educative materials are carefully se lected and allowances made for possible errors; and the developing results arc watched with a view to modifying the experimental process at any stage. The great value of the child life upon which the experiment is performed demands that the experimenter shall always be a teach er, and that his experiment shall be a teaching act valued for Its helpful effect upon the child's life. "While the research laboratory is prac tically unknown in the study of pedagogy, a scientific study of educational principles and laws demands the establishment of such laboratories in our universities and normal schools. They will do for peda gogy what they have done for every other modern science in which they have been employed." Mrs Ella Flag Young, principal of the Chicago normal school, made an address dwelling qn the laboratory work and ad vocating more concentrated action on the part of the teachers and students. Charles C. Van Llcw, president of the state normal school, Chico, Cal., read a report of the committee on the statement of tho policy regarding tho preparation and qualification of teachers of element ary and high schools. The report is as follows: "1. That the candidates for admission to normal schools should have a high school education. "2. That tho normal school should pre pnro secondary teachers by giving three and four year courses to persons who already have high school educations. They should have academic departments as strong as colleges and have the high school as a part of the training schools. "3. That the universities and colleges should give full credit to normal school graduates, year for year, provided they had a high school education when they entered the normal. "4. That the public schools should be freed from the domination of the higher institutions. The public schools are schools of the people, and each grade or school above should be a receiving school for the one below." E. E. Balcomb, profesor of agriculture, state normal school. Weatherford, Okla., read an interesting paper on agriculture In normal schools, after which he offered the following resolution, which was adopted: "Resolved, That the department of the normal schools of the N. E. A. hereby indorses all legitimate efforts to secure national aid for normal schools In pre paring teachers for teaching agriculture, manual training and household Bdence in our public schools." R. J. Crosby of the department of agri culture spoke, on the best methods of get ting congressional attention regarding the resolution. Officers of the department were elected as follows: A. O. Thomas, president; Mor ris E. Dalley. vice president, and Henry G. Williams, secretary. * Enough in Itself Charlie Softleigh is thinking—" "I'm glad to hear that." "But [ hadn't told you of what he was thinking." "No. but the mere knowledge that he was thinking made me glad.' HOW LIBRARIES ASSIST TEACHERS SYSTEM ADVISED IN USE OF REFERENCE BOOKS Use and Abuse of Libraries, and Diffl. culties Which Must Be Met by the Person in Charge Officers for the ensuing; year were elected yesterday morning at the meet- Ing of the department of school ad ministration. N. E. A., In Alhambra hall. The nominating committee proposed the names: W. O. Thompson, president Uni versity of Southern Ohio, Columbus, president; J. W. MoClymonds, Oakland. Cal., vice president; William George Bruce, Milwaukee, secretary. Telegrams and letters of rtgrot from the men who were to have appeared upon the program were road, nnd ns there were no substitutes offered to dis cuss the themes of the morning the meeting adjourned to meet again this morning In connection with the library department. Practical Value of Reference Books "The grown up novel debauchee " is the rather strong language In which President Edwards referred to the con firmed fiction reader In his paper read nt the meeting of the library section N. E. A. in Alhambra hall yesterday afternoon. His subject, "How the Librarian May Help the Teacher," was full of splendid suggestions, which will prove valuable to both teacher and librarian. Prof. Edwards said in part: "It is a comparatively easy task to point out ways in which the librarian may render efficient aid to the teacher. It is more difficult to insure In every instance that mutual confidence and spirit of helpfulness between teacher and librarian which are essential to any real co-operation. In many cities the joint efforts of librarian and teacher arc achieving an encouraging success in truining pupils to a wise use of books. That this co-operation does not exist in every place may be due to local jealousies, to a distrust of new methods and outside aid, or to other similar feel- Ings which may and should be over come. "It Is also to be remembered that the use of the public library as an aid to the school is a comparatively new idea, and neither school nor library can be immediately and everywhere adjusted to the new relation. The library should exercise considerable influence in di recting the reading of its patrons, es pecially the children, into the best channels. But still more directly may the librarian aid the teacher. He may instruct the pupils In the use of the library, in the consultation of reference books, etc. He may put Into the hands of the pupil lists of books for general reading suited to his age, and lists of references upon the various topics in his school work. Often a collection of selected books may be loaned to a school at tho time when they will be specially -wanted by the pupils. The story hour is an established feature in some libraries. And In many other ways the school may profit by the in telligent and sympathetic assistance of the librarian. Let librarian and teach er consult together freely and they will find many avenues of mutual helpful ness." Librarian Should Be Teacher President Wilkinson of Emporla, Kas opened the meeting with an ad dress in which he treated of the librar ian as a teacher, and qualiiled this by suggesting that the most efficient form of teaching Is the Incidental form, which ii particularly in the province of the librarian. Mr. Wilkinson said in part: "The librarian should bo estimated on the basis of ability to teach. Too fre quently the librarian's work is estimated as people estimate the work of a janitor. The low view holds the librarian respon sible mainly for such things as keeping the books In their places and keeping off the dust. These things are, of course, important, but only as they contribute to the real end of the^ librarian's work, v.hich Is the teaching of the reader. Teaching Is the highest function of the human being, and the conscious giving of instruction is the activity that most distinguishes man from the other ani mals. He who creates and stimulates a ckslre for knowledge and places that knowledge in the reach of the seeker is doing the very best ot service as a teacher. "The librarian Is In charge of a field vhere many go at first for casual brows ing only. He should be able so to herd all who enter this field that they will find rich pastures and be sure to come ngain. The reader may come seeking an lrlerlor book, but the librarian, If not able to furnish the. book sought, should be able to find some other that will inter est. The reading of inferior books would not be a loss of time if It should be the v/av of approach to an interest in good books. Without the guiding influence of a living present personality, tho habit of reading worthless books Is likely to be come fixed and the time spent upon them to be worse than wasted. If a reader Is to grow he must be helped to a compre hension of books beyond his grasp. The putting of the question 'Understandest thou what Ihou readost?' opens the way for instruction imto life and salvation just ns surely now as it did In the days of Philip the eunuch. "While the library is properly a labor atory for independent research, the stu Eat for contentment. \' / Eat for good nature. Both are the result of physical health. The most nutritious food made from flour is Uneeda Biscuit Every bite a mouthful of energy. sfh , In dust and y 0 moisture proof packages. NATIONAL BISCUIT COMPANY dents In thii laboratory need an ever present teaehler in the person who has charge of tl\o laboratory. When tho reader sails foil- a book or is looking along the shelves, tfae librarian can learn his taste, and, by fan Intelligent interest In What interests \hlni, guide him into the way of life. ThU> Wisconsin plan of em ploying a man I to furnish members of the state legislature all that is in print on a subject under discussion illustrated the librarians teaching function. The reader needs notS merely Instruction 111 bibliography, but iki such matters as how to make notes ton personal use and In common thlnfl id definite in general use ns Is alphatMtlck] arrangement. "Tho librarian ftves Instruction to many people not eorrt/nonly thought of as under such tuition. La dies' dubs not the librarian's help in makl/ig their programs and for individual preparation on the f-.ubjects. Books arc selected by the li brarian to .send to the fire departments nd street car barns of eftles and tho light Houses and life-saving stations ot the sea coasts. Pictures are select leaning to the homes that tho taste of the whole family may be Improved. Tho librarian goes with a supply of Oooks as a missionary to the slums. The recrea tion parks and the library children's rooms have. the. story tolling hoe,,, the librarian is doing the most difficult kind of teaching, nnd doing so as to add to the interest in tho books, 1 Ik, i are of fered there. The teaching lihrartan guides the reading of the children so they will not continue, in just one class' of hnnka nd thus Incur an arrested development. "The librarian is, in a sense, the heaq of n great school open to all every da>t of tho week, nnd every hour of the <3ay\ nd presenting as co-operating teacher** tho authors of all lands and nil ages.! This school tenches on a liberal plan 1 what the ordinary day schor] K |ves in I more Intensive fashion. In vlaw of these facts, It would seem thai trie librarian should bo selected with reference chiefly to natural fitness for teaching, and should bo trnlnod with strict reference to effect iveness as a teacher. " From Librarian's Side The librarian's side of the question was presented by Miss Jacobus, librarian of Pomona, Cal. In a scries or very perti nent suggestions concerning the use and abuse of the library and its librarians by the teachers nnd pupils or the public schools she took occasion to urge very strongly the learning of the alphabet, an old fashioned practice now generally dis countenanced by modern educators. Miss Jacobus says, however, that, the duties of the librarian would be very generally lightened if the pupils knew' how to look In an index, and also if tliey were not continually cautioned against the use of the dictionary anil encyclopedia. Just (he reason for the prejudice Against these two old reference standbys. ghe does not understand, and none of; the teacheri present nt the meeting undertook to en lighten her. J Suggesting that the puplfe of the school should be taught the proffer use of the hooks nnd also urging thaft the teachers would be at the pains of giving a little warning to the librarian before sending a group of boys nnd girls mto the library in search of material upon some abstruse problem, but offering all her remarks In a spliit of kindness and with the hope that by becoming familiar with tho meth ods, the guides and guldeposts oftho vast waste of books spread out for their use, the henollt might bo magnified and in terest of both teachers and pupils In 11 brnrlos become increased. President Johnson of Rock Hills, S. C. spoke briefly concerning the need of working with children to form a good literary taste and emphasized the good, that teachers can do in ihls respect when working under the advice and with the helpful interest of tho local librarian. Officers Elected The nominating committee. President Johnson, chairman, reoorted nominees for officers of the department for next venr as follows: President, Dr. J. R. Kirk, president of the state normal school at Kirksvillo. Mo.: vice president, B. W. Knuffman, Pomona. Cal.; secretary. Miss Ida Dacns. librarian Wlnthrop Normal college Wlnthrop, S. C. This report was accepted and the officers elected by ac clamation, after which tho meeting ad journed to meet this morning in conjunc tion with the department of school ad ministration. MEN TOO FLIPPANT OVER HER LOST GARTER BUCKLE Special to The Herald. PHILADELPHIA, July 11.—Adver tising a lost diamond garter buckle has brought to Miss Mary Heavlow no end of interested inquiries, although it has not restored the buckle as yet. Miss Heavlow, who Is an attractive blonde of about 20 and lives at 2337 South Eighteenth street, is in distress over the report that she removed the garter in the St. James cafe. The fact Is that she took it off in the dressing room at the solicitation of a woman friend, who desired to show it to a Jeweler for the purpose of having It duplicated on an enlarged scale for a belt buckle. The jeweler was also a member of the party. "On account of these stories, said Miss Heavlow, almost in tears, "I have been heaped with insults. Dozens of anonymous letters have come to me criticising me for doing something which I didn't do at all, giving flippant advice or asking to make appoint ments. "I am afraid to answer the telephone for fear it is some fresh insult. I don't know how many strange men have called me up to say that they would be pleased to get me another garter buckle. If it continues I shall report the matter to the police." "So you are going to Europe?" "Yes,' 1 answered the man who aspires to be a prominent citizen. "I don't care much about the trip, but the re porters never seem anxious to inter view you about American affairs until you have been abroad long enoug-h to lose track of them."— Washington Star.