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THE SELLERS OF THE HESSIANS
(Copyright by JamM ElTcrson.)
#-- |MERICAN history has much to say
I J-l I about the Hessians, and very little
ImLJmJ about their rulers. We arc told
1 how these troops came to take part
Vußßlf in the war of the Involution, but
our histories are silent concerning
their princes— the men who sold their subjects
for British gold and sent them across the sea
to fight against liberty.
Patriotism did not enter into the bargain
on either side. The word had no special
significance for the Landgraves of Hesse. They
had sold their soldiers from time immemo
In 174."? Hessian fought against Hessian,
000 serving in the army of George 11, of
England, and a like number against them,
or under the banners of the Emperor Charles
These mercenaries were- compelled to march
at the beck of their grasping rulers. They
were on the market at so much per head;
and when Kngland. failing to buy allies from
Kussia, and being refused the services of Hol
land's famous Scotch brigade, turned to the
German States, she found a listening ear.
In the struggle for independence six Ger
man princes let out their down-trodden sub
jects for service against the Colonies.
These rulers were: Frederick H, land
grave of Hesse Cassel; William, his son. the
independent Count of Hesse; Charles Alexan
der, margrave of Anspaih-Bareuth; Prince
Frederick, of Waldeck; Charles I, of Bruns
wick, and Frederick Augustus, Prince of An
The most important of these "traffickers
in man" was the landgrave of Hesse Cassel.
He was about sixty years old when he sent
his soldiers to America.
Though the population of his territories
was but little above three hundred thousand
souls, he had an army of twenty-two thou
sand, and it was understood throughout Eu
rope that the highest bidder could secure
Frederick was fond of display. He built
great theatres, which demanded an enor
mous outlay of money; but, at the same time,
kept an eye on the treasury of the country.
lie proceeded from the first to drive a hard
How the Girls Went Chestnutting
CONTINUED FROM TAGF. FODR
Shower after shower of chestnuts came rat
tling to the ground. It was a very short time
before hotli baskets were full to the brim with
great, shining chestnuts. Then Farmer Haw
kins insisted that the little girls should fill
"I ain't going to have your father Fay 1
didn't treat you square," he said, when Doro
thy declared that they couldn't possibly car
ry another one.
"Now, if you'll just wait till I hitch up,
I'll meet you 'round by the road and take
you home. Louie, you bring 'em to the ruad,
and carry their baskets for 'em."
Mrs. Merton was on the porch, watching
for the children, when up the carriage road,
in the twilight, came two happy, tired little
girls, laden with autumn leaves and chest
"Oh, mamma!" cried Dorothy, as she wav
ed a bough of yellow leaves in greeting — "oh,
mamma, nave the boys gotten back?"
"Gotten back! Why, Dorothy, where did
they leave you? You surely didn t come home
"We've been alone most all afternoon,"
spoke up Beth. "We couldn't keep up with
the boys, and they went off and left us.'.'
"But where did you get all those chest
"Farmer Hawkins' dog scared us!" explain
ed Dorothy. "And then Farmer Hawkins
came along and said he knew papa and he'd
give us some chestnuts, and he took us to
the two big trees on his place and clubbed
us all these, and then brought us home, and
he has a boy thafs very kind, only—"
"Only he has freckles," finished Beth,
"Well, Jlal and Carl deserve a good scold
ing for leaving you," said Mrs. Merton.
"Here they come now," she added, as two
CONTINUED FROM PAGE FIVH
covered that our provisions, our matches, our
coffee-pot and everything floatable had been
borne away by the midnight intruder, I gave
in, and meekly saddled my pony and followed
Will's lead down the trail in the direction of
"There's our coffee-pot! cried Will, a mo
ment later. _ ...,.,
And glancing in the direction indicated, 1
beheld that useful utensil gleaming in the
morning sun on the opposite side of the little
stream, where it had lodged against a root.
But I kept on my way, moodily, making no
effort to recover it. What was a coffee-pot to
a vanquished hero like myself?
All that day we had nothing to eat but
some water-soaked crackers; but late in the
evening we struck a wagon road and soon
came upon a freighters' camp, where we ob
tained our BUppers and dried our blankets by
Our unfortunate plight expoßed us to the
curiosity of the men, who questioned us until
we made a clean breast of it and related our
experience. Then they had a good laugh at
our expense, and a big mountaineer said to
"Why, you young greenies, don't you, hon
est, know where that creek sprung from?"
We assured him that we did not.
"Well," said he, "if you'd gone on up that
BOYS AND GIRLS MAGAZINE SECTION
bargain with the agents of the King of Eng
land. He knew that George was hard press
ed for soldiers, and such was the finesse he
displayed in the negotiations that counting
the levy money anil subsidies, l»e obtained
nearly ?.'570 for each man.
He agreed to furnish 12,000 soldiers, but
afterwards furnished smaller detachments,
for each of which he made special bargains,
some of which must have caused King
George to wince.
William, the son, who at the time governed
the independent county of Hanau, was the
father's equal in many respects. He, too,
wan close-fisted and a hard ruler. When a
son was born to him he added, as a tax, one
kreutwr (about a cent) to every bag of salt
taken from the mines. The money thus ob
tained he placed to the credit of the child.
William was a petty tyrant of the (.ester
order and a man wholly devoid of feeling for
his subjects, for, out of the enormous yearly
subsidy which he received from Kngland for
his troops, he remitted no taxes, except to
the wives and parents of the hired soldiers.
It lias been ascertained that he furnished,
all told, 20.422 men for service in America.
He would have sent more if he had had them
at his command; but, his territory being
small, he could rot gratify his wishes in this
Several accounts say that Brunswick sold
about seven thousand men to King Qeorge.
Duke Charles was the ruler of the country,
and was deeply in debt. Indeed, at this time
there were few princes who had any money
The duke was a man who was willing to
do almost anything for gold. Alchemy, or
the so-called art of making gold, was nne of
the delusions of the day, and the avaricious
Charles dipped into it with a miser's eager
ness. Night after night his castle was the
scene of these futile experiments, and the
shrewd alchemists pocketed the duke's gold
and left none in the melting pots. Therefore,
the man-hunt of George HI was a godsend
to him, and, closing the bargain as soon as
possible, he received more than a half mil
lion dollars for his troops.
Anspaeh and Bayreuth had been lately
united under th" margrave, Charles Alexan
der. His predecessors were merciless men, who
shot their subjects without provocation; but
small figures, carrying large, empty baskets,
came slowly up the walk.
"And not a thing in their baskets!" ex
claimed Dorothy, opening her eyes in •won
der. "Well, I never!"
"Come here, boys!" called Mrs. Merton. in
a voice that she tried to make severe, al
though she felt like laughing at the lads
sheepish faces and dejected appearance.
Carl and Hal approached very slowly, evi
dently they had something on their con
"Come, give an aerount of yourselves," said
Mrs. Morton, sobering her face as they drew
near. "Here the girls come home alone, with
their baskets full of chestnuts, and their
brother and cousin, who were to protect them,
come straggling in some time afterward, with
their baskets empty, and looking very much
ashamed of themselves."
Hal stared in great astonishment, first at
the girls' baskets, then at his mother, then at
"Where in creation did they get all
those?" he gasped. "Carl and I couldn't find
There was a savage accent in his voice as
he said the last words.
Dorothy danced about, first on one foot
and then on the other, giggling with glee,
while sedate Beth looked on with quiet satis
"Wouldn't you like to know — wouldn't you
like to know?" sang Dorothy.
"No, I wouldn't!" growled Hal. "I don't
care where you got 'em. Come on, Carl.
Supper must be ready."
"That's right; co on and get ready for sup
per," said Mrs. Merton; adding, as the boys
disappeared, "It will be time enough for the
scolding afterwards. Perhaps I won't scold
them at all if I find they're sorry."
Dorothy and Beth went into the house to
show their chestnuts to their father, and to
let him into the secret.
gorge about four miles further, you'd 'a found
out the mystery. There's a plateau \ip there
where a couple of Norwegians have pcot a
big ranch, and when they want to irrigate,
they just dam off Cayote Creek for a few
weeks. When they've got enough water, they
break the dam and turn it on again; and
that's what they did last night. It isn't much
of a stream, you sec, and the creeping, creep
ing sound you heard was the water stealing
along under the leaves. And you greenies got
right under the little falls and laid for it with
your mouths open!"
The men laughed at us so much that we then
and there resolved never again to relate our
adventure, and to this day the folks at home
do not know where we were and what we went
through during that week of absence.
— Young Brindle — "Pa, can't I have a flan
nel shirt like yours?"
Mr. Brindle (speaking from experience)—
-"My son, you may have this after it's wash
— "Caws and effect," said the farmer, whose
ornfield was cleaned out by crowg.
— Little Johnny calls neighbor Jones' bull
he seems to have learned a lesson from their
cruelty, for he was .1 little more humane.
In early youth Ik? was sent to the Univer
sity of Utrecht, and afterward to Italy, where
he" was instructed in all the princely gracca
of the time. He came back a young prince
broken down by dissipation and deeply in
The outlook for money was not very en
couraging, but just then the American Revo
lution offered a field for his army, and hia
twelve hundred took service under the Crot-s
of St. George. He sold them outright for
five hundred thousand dollars.
Beside a man like Charles Alexander, the
Prince of Waldeck is almost entitled to a
patent of respectability. The princes of thi3
petty State were soldiers themselves, and
could look back upon a line of fighting men.
Waldeck lay westward of Oissel. Being
a small country, it could not furnish many
soldiers for the unexpected market; but 1225
were equipped and sent to our shores. They
arc said to have made the best soldiers of
all the mercenaries, and distinguished them
selves on sever.il battle-fields.
The last prince to be mentioned among
those who took English gold and gave in ex
change therefor sturdy German soldiers is
Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst. He
\v;\« looked upon as the caricature of the
petty princes of his day. He controlled bare
ly twenty thousand subjects, and spent nearly
all his time amid the luxuries of Basle and
Luxentberg, and forbade his servants to trou
ble him about the affairs of his principality.
His army of two thousand was mainly
upon paper. It numbered no less than eleven
colonels, and its condition was such that when
the prince agreed to furnish so many troops
to England, he was compelled to go beyond
his l>oundaries to complete the contract.
Anhalt-Zerbst had neither arts nor manu
factures. It had suffered from war, pesti
lence and famine; but its ruler needed money
and had to sell his soldiers to obtain it. Brit
ish gold was the key that unlocked the bar
racks of the German States.
Of the several bargains mad«- by England
for the services of the Hessians (so called
from the prominence of Hesse Cassel, which
furnished the most men), the Prince of Hesse
fared the best, while Brunswick was least
"We're going to roast some of them to
night," said Beth, "and we're going to in
vite the boys. Then maybe they'll treat us
better next time."
When Beth and Dorothy came in to supper
they found between their places at the table
a little round cake covered with pink icing.
Dorothy wanted to express her satisfaction,
but refrained, thinking that after all it was
too bad to hurt the hoys' feelings. 80 she
contented herself with squeezing Beth's hand
under the table. When it came time to cut
the cake, Mrs. Merton said:
"Papa and I don't wish any, Dorothy. We
have other cake. You and Beth divide it
There was a pause. Carl and Hal tried
to appear perfectly unconcerned. Carl even
attempted to whistle, but remembered in
time that he was at the table.
Dorothy held the small silver knife sus
pended for a moment, and then, with the air
of one who has thoroughly made up her mind,
cut the cake into four equal parts.
"Take a piece, Carl. Take a piece, Hal,"
she said, holding out the plate to the boys.
"No, thanks; eat it yourself," replied Hal,
crossly, while Carl slapped his breast, and
said, in melodramatic tones:
"No, my dear cousin; remorse is gnawing
at my heart. Nothing could prevail upon me
to take that cake after what I've done. It
would choke me. I deserve to be choked.
Beth and Dorothy began to laugh, and soon
Hal joined in.
No one knew how it was, but when the
laugh had subsided, the four pieces of cake
had been appropriated, and four children
were eating them with great satisfaction. As
the last crumb disappeared, Hal could con
tain himself no longer.
"Dorothy," he burst out, "do tell us where
you got those chestnuts. I shan't be able 10
sleep tonight if you don't."
S"" WIMMING is at once the most de
lightful, healthful and strengthening
EBKjaJ of recreative sports, and when to
sji. jHfl the invigorating tendencies of the
"pastime are added the pleasurable
excitement of the muscle play of
I stubbornly-contested football match, it would
seem as if the perfection of physical exercise
had been reached.
Football in the water? Yes, there ia such a
It has been imported from England,
where it is known as "water polo,' but
"water football" would seem to be a more
appropriate name, since neither ponies nor
sticks are used.
dog Posterity. Johnny has recently been told
that "Posterity" means those who come after
«-A fly crawled into a syrup jug.
And issued a sadder and wiser bug,
And he cried in a voice that was shrill and
"Though I'm stuck up, I am not proud!"
All the troops hired did not leave home at
the same time. From year to year recruits
were sent out to America to the various
These additions required new impress
ments, and some of the little countries were
taxed to their utmost capacity. Men were
taken from the field and workshop; they
were dragged from their families and crowd
ed into a hated uniform to fight against lib
erty because their rulers had sold them for
a mercenary purpose.
This action of the German princes in traf
ficking in flesh and blood aroused the indig
nation of Europe. Lord Inham cried out
that ' # ' tne , landgrave of Hesse had his proto
type in Sancho Panza, who said that if ho
were a prince, he should wish all his subjects
to !«¦ blackmoors, so that he could turn them
into money by selling them; that Hesse and
Brunswick rendered Germany vile in the
eye! of Europe."
Mirabeau, the eloquent Frenchman, lam
pooned the same princes in a scathing pam
phlet, and Frederick the Great said that had
the landgrave come out of his school, "he
would not have sold his subjects to England
as one sells cattle to be dragged to the Biiam
It is said that on several occasions the king
compelled the Hessians passing through his
realm to pay so much per head for the privi
lege, like cattle being driven to a foreign
Having sold their subjects, the German
princes did not seem to caro how they fought.
The Hessians, in some instances, made good
soldiers; but they were rapacious and cruel,
like most mercenaries.
Many deserted at the first opportunity, and
never returned to their native land. They
furnished to the historical struggle such of
ficers as De Heister, Knyphiiusen, Donop and
Kahl, the latter of whom fell in Washing
ton's attack on Trenton.
In the. end the man-sellers of Germany reap
ed bitter fruit from their inhuman action.
The sending forth of the able-bodied men
stripped the harvest-fields of laborers; it de
populated the little countries, brought sor
row, want and woe into hundreds of homes,
and iirofited only the rapacious princes who
had sold their subjects to a foreign task
master, and th^n but for a brief season.
Dorothy looked up with a gleam of mis
chief in her eyes.
"If I tell you where we got them, will you
tell us how it was you didn't get any?"
liil hesitated, and then his curiosity got
the better of his pride.
"Yes, I'll tell you," he said, slowly.
"Honor bright, of course, Dorothy; only
you've got to tell me first."
"Well. I will."
And Dorothy proceeded to give a glowing
account of their afternoon's adventures.
"What makes you boys act so queer?" she
said, at the end, for Hal looked the picture of
astonishment, and Carl was crimson with sup
"Now it's Hal's turn," said Beth, "Hal's
going to tell us why he and Carl didn't get
"Oh, I can't tell you," said Hal, shaking
his head mournfully. "You tell 'em, Carl."
"Indeed I won't. Brace up, Hal, old fel
low, and out with it."
"Well," said Hal, plunging in, "you see,
girls, we were after Farmer Hawkins' chest
nuts all the time. After we left you we lost
our way, and it took us a good while to find
the trees, and when we did get in sight of
them, there we saw Farmet Hawkins, with his
big dog, under them, and we didn't dare come
Dorothy began to laugh.
"Didn't you see iis, Hal?"
"We saw two girls, but we didn't know
they were you and Beth". We thought you
had gone home."
'Never mind; we'll forgive you," said Beth,
with a motherly air. "Won't we, Doro
"Yes, and invite you to our chestnut roast
tonight. Will you come?"
Hal looked at Carl Carl looked at Hal;
and then in one breath they answered:
'Well, I rather guess we will."
Two goals are placed 100 feet apart, sad
six men are the complement on each side
The players stand, or rather swim, in the
centre and the referee at a signal throws the
ball between them.
Then comes the tug of war, scrambling
wrestling and fighting to push the ball, which
is of inflated rubber, seventeen inches in cir
cumference, to the goal.
There arc no particular rules of play and
the players must be expert swimmers, as the
game is played in deep water, and it is noth
ing unusual for eleven players to pile on one
and the entire twelve then go to the bottom '
It is a common sight to see a violent an
tagonist suddenly disappear from view, as if
seized by a man-eating shark or alligator but
in this case merely a pair of hands about the
The ball must be kept in the water and
shoved, not thrown, between the goals. This
leads to desperate measures in front of goals,
and frequently the entire inning of fifteen
minutes is played within a few feet of the
desired point without any result.
The innings continue fifteen minutes and
tbe beat two goals out of three constitute a
It looks like a rough game to the onlookers,
but it really is much less dangerous than the
ordinary game of football, and is certainly