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OUR SPECIAL FEATURE PAGE.
GzZrfeZßunJc, ojv , e^fe^-zzaa" ask UST M years ago the tlrst Atlantic T cable, after an unsuccessful attempt J : tbe year before, was laid between Valentin Island, Ireland, and Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, and the flrst offi cial messages were Interchanged between Queen Victoria and President Buchanan. Then the cable was in wonder of the world.' Today the cable Is scarcely noted. It is looked upon as though It had always been, for there are In operation In vari ous parts of the world more than 2.000 submarine cables, with an aggregate length of about 240.000 tulles, over which millions of messages are sent annually. Of these 13 connect the United States with Europe across the Atlantic, while three span from South America to Af rica. From San Francisco cables stretch across the Pacific to the Philippines and to Honolulu, whence other cables lead to Australia and the mainland of Asia. From British Columbia there also stretches across the bottom of the Pacific a cable to Australia, so that, with the con necting telegraph lines one might well say that the globe is well girdled. Laying cables today Is but a common place bit of work, but In 1858, when the laying of the first cable was accom plished, on July 29, by the United States ship Niagara and Her Majesty's ship Agamemnon, the occasion was one of great rejoicing ln New York and Lon don. It was not until nearly a month later, however, that the 1,695 miles of wire were ready for the transmission of messages. -.-'; Tbe Qneen's nag**?. It was then that the British Queen sent the following: "The Queen desires to congratulate the President upon the successful completion of this great international work. In which the Queen has taken a great Interest. "The Queen ts convinced that the Presi dent will join her in fervently hoping that the electric cable which now con nects Great Britain with the United "States will prove an additional link be tween nations, whose friendship is founded opflS their common Interest and reciprocal esteem. , "The Queen has much pleasure ln thns communicating with the President and renewing to him her wishes for the pros perity of the United States." • . Battling the Plague _£r~£3£, ..,"*, J*T*T^...-'±-^Z ~*X^r TYfOOTANDS TO STAMP I ?m EN millions of dollars ls about the CEN millions dollars ls foot ln or bill L'ncle Sam has to foot ln or- V del' to fight off the grim clutches of King Death, under his favorite guise of bubonic plague in the Philippine Is lands. The plague has always been fond of sneaking into Manila and sweeping through the entire Filipino archipelago taklug toll of the shivering millions by the tens of thousands. Just across a narrow stretch of water from Manila King Bubonic Plague has bis cave, when* be appears to have been born and bred. Right in the teemlrr heart of China, not far from the fens that surround the yellow torrent of tbe Great Yellow or Yang-ste-Klang River appear* to have been tbe prehistoric home and breeding place of King Plague. -.For countless centuries tbe Chinese have -died like flies; from plague. As a result the Chinaman today stands more chance of recovery from bubonic plague than any other race. His blood for cen turies has fought, the deadly germ of this disease—a germ that Is simply a short, stumpy rod, oval In form, which once in the human ' body multiplies'by the billion* and sucks the vitality out of the blood, leaving only a loathsome decaying fluid that carries further death to every bit of human flesh or blood It comes In contact with. Uncle Sam, however, has never turned tall on any foe. and today, quiet, un assuming men and women, physician* and nurses are waging silent.but heroic warfare with the plague bacillus, and If •a - tb* ground (that 1* Inside a human To this acid.us 'greeting President Buchanan replied: "The President cordially reciprocates the congratulations of Her Majesty, the Queen, on the success of the great Inter national enterprise accompllshei by the science, skill and Indomitable energy of the two countries. "it is a triumph more glorious, because ' far more useful to mankind than was ever won by conqueror on field of battle. "May the Atlantic telegraph, under the blessing of Heaven, prove to be a bond of perpetual peace and friendship be tween the nations, and an Instrument destined by Divine Providence to diffuse religion, civilisation, liberty »nd law 1 .roughout the world. "In this view will not all nations In Christendom spontaneously unite in the declaration that It shall be forever neu tral, and that Its communications shall be held sacred In passing to their places of destination, even in the midst of hostiUtles." The Cable In War. In framing the lust paragraph of his message It 19 apparent that President Buchanan was Inclined to believe that the cable would be the only one, and be did well to recommend that It be revered In time of war. In later years, however, the cable became all important In war and during the conflict between this country and Spain the severing of cable communi cation ' formed a most Important part 'if the work Intrusted to our Navy. It was the severing of the cable at Cardenas that cost Worth Bagley his life, for, while this plucky young officer aud his men were at work, a squad of Spaniards fired upon them. When Ad miral Dewey captured Manila, almost his first act was to cut the cable connected with the fulled States. His reason. it Is said, was that he did not want to be hampered with Instructions from Wash ington. But to return to the first cable. On the day following the Interchange of messages between the President and the Queen, there was a great demonstration In New York. A salute of 100 guns was fired, flags were flung to the breeze, bells were rung and at night the city was brilliantly Illuminated. body) before tbe deadly germ, Uncle Sam's physicians with their test tubes and their antl-toxlu always defeat King Plague. They can drive ulm headlong, shriveling and dying from the blood of human be ings Into which a white clad medical of ficer has infused a tiny dose of Yersln'a toxin. But the antitoxin must get there before the plague. The terrific virulence of the bnbonle germ. its deadllness to human life and the utter helplessness of the human pro toplasm or organism when once It* vital element 1* attacked 1* simply but startlingly told by t**. <-ttb rate. Among Europeans and Au.<*. .is the rat* of mortality I* total. That •* non* recover. Occasionally one here and there out, of thousands may survive, but even ln these few Isolated Instances physician* prefer to doubt that tbey ever bad, the true bubonic plague germ. • Death Hale Appalling. But among tbe Filipinos on* out of four recover. Among the Chinese, bow ever, only every other victim dies. The blood of the Chinaman can better grapple with the bubonic germ because hi* father and grandfather and many genera tions back of these hare faced and died fighting this dread disease. Hence, tbe Chinaman's * blood Inherits certain toxic qualities which counteract the poisonous Influences of the germs which swarm In the patient's blood by countless millions. The terrific outbreak of plague and cholera in the Philippines prevented . any welcome by the Filipinos to our .fleet when th* great battleship flotilla Anally LOS ANGELES HERALD SUNDAY SUPPLEMENT Connecting the Continents Thomas Wilson On September 1 a great public ova tion, surpassing anything ever known ln New York up to that time, was tendered Cyrus W. Field, head of the cable enter prise, and his able assistants. It was. Indeed, a momentous occasion and a fit ting tribute to the men who had over come all obstacles and who had accom- * plished what many had declared was Im possible. l.one of First Cable. Unfortunately, after but 400 messages had parsed over the cable. It broke. It was a sad blow to Mr. Field and bis associates, and It was not until 1865 that the project was again taken np. This time the famous steamer Gieat Eastern was engaged. The flrst attempt was a failure, but the following year the vic tory was won, and by the latter part of July of that year, 1,868 miles of cable once more—and this time permanently bound the Old and the New World to gether. Two months later the Great Eastern recovered and spliced together the cable she lost the year before, and since then cable communication has never been Interrupted. It Is notable to recall that, before the cable laid In ISSB became useless, one reached Manila Bay. Just what bubonic plague can do to human beings Is told In the laconic figures of the History of Medicine. In 1334 the bubonic plague was en demic; that Is, It was world-wide and swept the nations with an awful scourge from China clear to. Norway. Nearly a hundred million are ' said to have per ished. Coming down to more recent pe riod*, when records are, perhaps, more reliable, In 1720 86,000 died In Marseilles, In Southern France, .. nearly one-half of the whole population. In 1770 80,000 died ln Moscow, the ancient capital of Russia. Constantinople has repeatedly been dec imated by the plague. In 1803 . 150,000 died there; In 1813, 160,000 fell under the breath of tbe plague. As late as 1877 to 1879 the plague, which ls now causing Russia to tremble and killing thousands, swept like the avenging wrath of a deity over that country and slew no less than three millions of people. The Task Enormous and Cosily. So that It is no ordinary task that Uncle Sara fanes when he ventures to hold up a warriQg band to King Plague nnd undertakes Ito bold him back ln bis present attempt to repeat his historic march of death among tha inhabitant* of the Philippine Islands. V, / * The Intelligent lighting of the plague, of course, began when the germ was Isolated. Yet It was-.a number of years before the method.by which the disease propagates Itself was discovered. Bubonic plague, rapidly as -It .'spreads, yet doe* i net * spread -from. one sick man to , aa- of the messages reported the collision between the Europa and the Arabia, the news saving fully $200,000, which would have been spent In extra Insurance on the vessels and their cargoes. Looking backward now upon the prog ress of the submarine cable, and observ ing bow the ordinary happenings in the most remote portions of the globe are Immediately recorded ln our dally pa pers, we find It difficult to realise that only half a century ago this striking fea ture In modern journalism, the foreign cable news, was nonexistent. The great battles of the Civil War' were not recorded In Europe until nearly two weeks after they occurred, and their effect upon International diplomacy was not known here for a similar period; and, because of this delay, occasions of estrangement and discord arose, which would be Impossible today, with speedy means of communication. The Budget Service. In the early 60's the average ocean mall boat was 13 days en route from Liverpool to New York, but on the sev enth day out the steamers passed close by Cape Race, on the Newfoundland coast. A telegraph line was extended to TNO£UM7mSTO&I&MP \*UTT/rEI}MEA7D2>MEASE lT2li<zbil<9<3.Jby 1 Cla-ne&e *» other. Direct contact Is not sufficient to spread the disease. It must enter the human oody through the stomach, as ln food or by Its most usual route by the flea that lire* on the big oriental rat that swarms ln China and the Philip pines. Hence the slogan of the American physicians fighting the plague In Manila is: "Inoculate a l suspects who have been near a case of plague." "Second, kill all the rats that. can be caught in the neighborhood of a known case of bubonic plague." File*, Fleas and Rat*. Files also spread the disease In the same way that they contribute so large ly to tbe spread of typhoid fever, nanae '.v. by picking up • the germs * through walking In filth and flying Into human habitations and walking on . food ma terial, which is later * received Into * a human stomach. Very simple of course, but tills simple fact solved much of the the cape and from there a small boat was Bent out to Intercept the liners as they passed. Every liner thus became a news boat and on reaching a point abreast of Cape Race delivered her bud get to the Small boat. In thick weather the budgets were put ln a specially con structed canister and thrown overboard, to be picked up later. •,'',.'. The contents of the budget were tele graphed from the cape to St. John's then across Newfoundland to Cape Ray, thence by a short submarine cable to Cape Breton, and from there by relay to New York. By this method fonr or five days was saved and It was a service efficiently maintained from about May 1 to December 31. * In the Intervening months the service wasjrregular, for the terrific storms and acres of Ice floes off Cape Race prevent ed • the ships from approaching close enough to even drop their canisters, and even If they did, the small boats could not get out to reach them. More than one daring skipper nearly lost his vessel In attempting to deliver bis budget In those tempestuous waters. One great liner, nosing her way ln, was brought up when within a length of the huge shelving cliffs and sure destruction. An- UNCLE cSAN !&&I>ENZ2n¥& difficulty in the way of beating King. Plague once tbe scientific men found it. out and Instructed the workers. : , But the rats which carry the Infected fleas appear In Manila nt any rate to be the pest bearers. It must be remembered that in Manila the disease attacks almost entirely the lower , classes. Among tb* population where personal cleanliness Is held next to godliness few cases of plague occur. Of course, anyone Is ex posed to the bite of an , Infected flea I while passing' near some Chinaman- or Filipino who permits* himself, to carry about tbese tiny pests. . As a result of this' fact tha plague fighters of Uncle Sam ln Manila offer re wards for rats dead or alive, no matter where they are caught. This is to at tempt to keep down the number of the 10 --dents throughout the Philippines general ly. But when a case has developed ln a bouse, the rats are doomed-' Trained nit catchers are . sent • wearing; badges from tb*. health .department,., whicb permit other was warned away from the reefs by fishermen shooting guns. . The Allen liner Anglo-Saxon was not so fortunate. Early on the morning of April 27, 1883, slip was making her way In through a dense fog, when she struck on the reefs at Chance Cove. Of the 400 souls on board only 180 were saved, and these by the news service boat. , The news boat service was one of ex ceeding hardship and the work was dan gerous nt all seasons of the year. Tho rugged shore Hue, rising In most placet sheer from the water, afforded no shel ter for the small boats. They had to be entered by swinging down the 'faces of the cliffs on ladders. Two boats were maintained, one" on each side of the cape, but often tbe weather was such that neither could be launched. Even If a boat could be launched and the ship reached and the budget secured, the return was even more perilous lv the breaking sea amid hidden reefs. The Last Budget. The taking of the last budget delivered off the cape was on Christmas Eve, 1865. and was attended by terrible suf fering on the part of the crew. It was a bitter cold day, with a gale and a heavy sea. After starting the crew real ized their mistake, but they dared , not turn back. It was a case of reaching the ship In the terrific seas or else per ish. -■'--.■ In the awful struggle every man was severely frostbitten, wave after wave broke over the gunwales and they reached the side of the plunging steamship with their boat nearly half full of water. By ropes the crew were hauled on board and then, after being given dry clothing and having 'their sufferings alleviated, the steamer made her way Into a nearby cove and landed them with a generous supply of Christmas edibles. It so happened that just after the budget which these men brought ashore had been sent off the short cable between Cape Ray and Cape Breton broke and New foundland was cut off from all telegraphic Intercourse with the world until the next spring, for, owing to Ice floes, repairing in winter was impossible. By spring, however, the trans-Atlantic cable was In operation.. Perils of Repairmen. Not the least dangerous part of the budget service was the maintaining of the telegraph line across Newfoundland thorn access to any place and a big rat bunt Immediately ensue*. * * Even before the rat catchers arrive, come th* medical men with their anti toxin, and frequently they -are compelled to use force in order to compel the Igno rant Chines* and Filipinos, to submit to an operation that will practically save their lives. The photograph, showing the physicians Injecting, the life-saving antitoxin Into the arm of a Chinese caught ln a house where bubonic plague has been found, shows splendidly . the sordid surroundings of these natives and gives A , flne idea of Just what unsani ' tary'conditions the medical men . must contend against. • . The man himself 1* an emaciated speci men whose body would offer practically no opposition to the venomous bacillus of the plague unless he were treated by the antl-toxln and his blood mad* alive with material In Itself poisonous to the deadly plague germs. % Yet even such a poor specimen of a man can be 9 through a country uninhabited and swept by sudden and terrific storms. The land crew faced danger Just as often as did the boat crew; In fact, oftener, and many am the storiesdtold of the narrow escapes of gangs of from five to 10 men who were caught In. blizzards. Once while a gang of linemen were camped in a blizzard one of the men vol unteered to go for wood. The pile was but 30 paces away, and he laughingly de clined the suggestion that he tie a rope to 'himself so as not to get lost. He did get lost, and It was not until the follow ing spring that his body was found, three miles distant -** In another Instance two men were work ing close by their shack when a blizzard swooped down. Quickly abandoning their work they rushed for their "Shelter, but the blizzard was even quicker and burled It beneath a drift of snow. After a long, weary hunt the men finally located the structure by treading on the roof. They only got ln by climbing down the chim ney. ' .\. • * The laying of a cable today Is beset by danger, for despite having flue ships es pecially designed and machinery to handle the heavy strings of steel, copper and gutta percha. It Is work of the most ardu ous kind. In the early days It was Im possible to tell where a cable had broken, but nowadays there ls a delicate Instru ment that will record almost the exact distance from It to tbe severed part. Ref erence to the chart gives the longitude and latitude and a steamer is quickly dis patched to the place. With a grapnel on a stout line the steamer sweeps to and fro until one end ls picked up. This Is buoyed and then the other end Is sought. Both ends are then brought together and quickly spliced so that when the cable Is once more lowered It Is Just as good as It ever was and stronger by reason of the splicing and additional wrapping. As cables frequently span from heights on the ocean bottom, from hill to hill as it were, they are sub jected to a great deal of tension and oc casionally ai;e broken by being struck by a sinking vessel. As a general rule It is the natural cor rosion and the tension that causes a cable to break; but, no matter what the cause. It is speedily remedied, and It -Is not at all likely that there will ever be a necessity for again establishing the bud get service at Cape Race. fortified with antl-toxln .and can bid defiance to the plague bacillus, where formerly such a case would be absolutely without hope and not worth carrying to a plague hospital. Affeotn Men More Than -Women. A most curious fact concerning the plague ls that in Manila since the United States government has been keeping rec ords six men have caught the plague to every woman who has become Infected. Much of this Is supposed to be due to a more natural cleanliness in habits on the part of women. Still, this seems bard to assume as of Itself sufficient to ex plain the death rate of six men to one woman from bubonic infection. * ' When Germ . Waa Identified. The germ wan first isolated by Kttasato and Yersln In 1894. . The sick during the flrst three or ■four days of. the disease frequently wander about the streets with pale, drawn faces. • Their staggering gait would make It suspected. that they were drunken men until closer Inspection shows their pallid faces, their fever withered lips and paln contracted mouths. But all this to . now happily avoided when Uncle Sam's nurses and physicians flrst Inoculate with antl-toxln. Of actual cases about one-flfth can be cured. The old Chinese plague hospital shown in one of the photographs has seen some of the most horrible spectacles under . the old Spanish -regime, where myriads died In dirt and agony. : ' .' ' :■-•'.. Another photograph shows how tbe fishermen I live. * It is in - such* quarters that the plague reaps its richest harvest with a death rate nearly total. The old Chinese quarters show bow the projecting balconies gradually shut out the sky as In some of the medieval cities of Northern Europe. | Tbe battle la severe and recent events show that the men and supplies now on band are helpless once the giant plague specter really bestirs himself lv the land of the Filipinos.' It will take $10,000,000 surely, possibly '- $20,000,000, before tb« work can be considered well In hand, :>.: