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MOTORING NEWS LOCAL AND FOREIGN PART IV Www 3 m \^r*±y^ , -^ IHiZ^i wAv^%^ SH HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE ITS UTILITIES BROUGHT DOWN TO DATE. A SUCCESSFUL ORGANIZATION IS THE DEALERS AUTOMOBILE ASSOCIATION IS PROSPEROUS ORGANIZED FOURTEEN YEARS, WORKS HARMONIOUSLY Motives to Promote, Foster and En. courage Use of Automobiles, Dis. seminate Information, Pro mote Good Will The Automobile l^e::lers' association of Southern California, was orangized In the spring of 1905 with twenty-one charter members. Among theia mem bers are the names of men and firms that have been In the automobile busi ness continuously and art) still promi nent dealers. Mr. W. K. Cowan was the first president, Mr. Earl C. An thony the first secretary. The names of R. C. Hamlin. Leon T. Shettler, W. E. Bush, Auto Vehicle company and Western Motor Car company number among the organizers and are still among the foremost names of the local trade. But most of the original names among the charter members have either gone out of the line or changed in the past five years so that the original roll call would be met with compara tively few "heres" in these days. In 1905 the motor car business was comparatively young. It was a new business presenting problems in con nection with sales, guarantee, parts, re pairs, etc., that it was the avowed pur pose of the new association to solve. Tlje evolution of the business Itself has answered most of the questions, but the scope of the association has broadened from pure commercialism into wider channels and more unselfish aims. The sincerity and hard work of the original members gave to the as sociation a vitality that has survived the years and made it a power for good in the community. Last spring the association was in corporated under the state laws with a membership of, thirty-four firms, em bracing the leading dealers of South ern California. The objects of the or ganization are as' follows: To foster, promote and encourage the Introduction mid use of automo biles, and auto-vehicles of every char acter and description; to establish, con duct and operate means and places of disseminating information as to the adaptability, construction and use of such vehicles and their accessories, parts and equipment, and for such pur poses to establish, conduct and man age exhibitions, displays, tests, trials Los Angeles Sunday Herald and demonstrations in such form and manner as the association may adopt; to promote and encourage in all law ful ways the adoption and enforcement of laws and regulations providing for and securing safety, convenience and comfort In the use, keeping and oper ation of such vehicles; to encourage and assist in the establishment and maintenance of improved highways, roads and streets, and all other means of rendering the use of automobiles and auto-vehicles more attractive; io afford opportunity to the members of associating and interchanging views with one another and establishing cus toms, plans and syßtems, to the end that the manufacture, disposition and use of automobiles may be improved, the service to and requirements of the trade better appreciated and fulfilled, to the mutual advantage of the dealer in and purchaser of such vehicles. Southern California ranks first in the number of automobile owners In proportion to Its population. In the whole country there are In round fig ures about 250,000 automobile owners. California alone has 25,000, or 10 per President of Automobile Dealers' Association --■■■••■■■■'. •'■'■•■ •■■••■■■*•-•■ I •»' ■ •,- ■■ • •■ ■ '■ * ■ ■lite ■■■*iis*** ■ *#*» Hk •*»■•■'■ '■-■■ f " »^^^^w^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - „ . ■ i iHwitrwii'ffim it"*- rr-rr— ■■* RALPH C. HAMLIN, LOCAL REPRESENTATIVE OF THE FRANKLIN CARS, OWNER OF ONE OF FINEST AUTOMOBILE WAREROOMS IN LOS ANGELEB, AND ONE OF THREE OLDEST DEALERS IN SOUTH. ERN CALIFORNIA SUNDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 12, 1900. cent of all, and of the 25,000 Califor nia cars I venture to state that fully one-half of them are south of the Te hachapi. As an industry, exclusive of the great staples, the makingr of motor cars in this country probably ranks first in capital and men employed. Take our own Southern California, the thir ty-four members of our association will distribute' In this section not fewer than 6000 1910 cars, with a selling value of more than five and one-half million dollars. The demand for cars of good reputation all over the country ex ceeds the supply and will continue to do so for five years or more. In thia field with its comparatively scant pop ulation, the demand Is proportionately greater than In any other section, showing that the purchasing power of our population is greater than in any other district. The Automobile Dealers' association stands for clean sport—genuine con tests and a "ree field for all. The reg ular automobile events under its au spices are the Altadena hill climb, in February, the automobile show In Jan uary and the Santa Monica-Dick Forris trophy mad race in July. All these events command national attention, the Altadena and Santa Monica events be ing recognized as classics in the auto mobile world. The local association is free from the petty jealousies and strifes that have snagged similar or ganizations elsewhere. Keen competi tors in a. business way, our members are true friends working In harmony to help others "get along in the world." (Continued on Imf ThrcO TIRE MAKERS FILLING ORDERS DESPITE RISE UNUSUAL SITUATION FACES MANUFACTURERS OPERATING AT DECREASED MAR. GIN OF PROFIT Demand for Rubber Has Mounted in Leaps and Bounds, but Makers of Tires Have Been Generous For the present, at least, the pros perity of the automobile business is deeply indebted to the enterprise and unselfishness of the tiremakers. An unusual situation faces the men who produce the curved rubber-bound cylinders of air which have made the comfort of motoring possible. The automobile business was never what it is Just now.' There never was a time In the history of motoring when so many cars were being turned out. An enormous profit should be the meed to which the tiremaker has perfect right to look. But as a matter of fact the Increased number of tires ho is now compelled to turn out really amounts to a burden on him. He can't get the rubber at a price that will give him a fair margin of profit. The demand for rubber has mounted In leaps and bounds. Where only a year or two ago it cost some thing like 90 cents a pound for the raw rubber, it now costs in excess of fi, and the price is still going up. The Increase is perfectly natural, the result of .unprecedented demands. The tiremaker is the victim of inevitable conditions. Natives Hate to Work Rubber In the crude is not produced in a country where it is only neces sary for some alert official to demand more. The raw n> .aerial comes from the, in terior of Si/Uth American swamps, and the use of native labor is essential. The natives have never learned the hust ling modern methods of the north. They work when they please, and a dealer in rubber has not yet been able to find a way to control their hours. Therefore, the rubber business is largely influenced by the habits of the lazy denizens of the south. Under old conditions it was possible for the alert manufacturer to keep enough rubber on hand to make up for shortages in delivery, but now has come a condition when a demand out of all proportion to the past faces him. The market has not yet succeeded in adjusting itself. Eventually it will so, but In the inter val the tiremaker is the sufferer. Were he any less game, he would temporarily at least have given up the fight. But it is a remarkable demonstration of business enterprise and far-stshted nees that those in charge of the tire business have refused to sacrifice the possibilities of a great future market in order to avoid possible losses this year. Had they declined to make any more tires, and ignored the obligation to fill contracts, it would not have been sur prising. While undoubtedly it would have been a catastrophe, the right ot the tiremaker to recede fey a time from a business in which he could make no money could not be denied. Makers Btand to Their Guns But "they have not stood on this price. .This would have been the natural thing to do, but it would have been a deadly blow to business. Had such a Dlan gone Into effect the automobile business would virtually have been prostrated. But they stood, gamely to their guns. They would tide the motoring business over a most crucial period. Had any thing happened this year that would have made it Impossible to sell the great number of automobiles on which prominent makers have been lavish- Ing their skill and wealth for the last couple of years, the blow would most certainly have been a severe one. The tlremakers did their part. They stood up. And now they are In a po sition to announce through the North American that there will be tire* enough for the present season. The writer has had communication with representatives of the leading companies, and without exception they promised to take care of the motoring Industry on the subject of tires, no matter what money they might happen to drop in the process. Business has seldom seen a more no table act of devotion. The public also owes Its meed of praise to the tire maker. Hundreds who planned to own automobiles this summer would have given up the attempt rather than face the prospect of being unable to get tires at any cost, or of having to pay so much In excess of last year that the result would add more to the upkeep of the car than the prudent motorl3t cared to spend, can thank officials of the various tire companies for having been willing to stand the gaff. The argument of upkeep Is perhaps the one with which the motor salesman has most often to deal. There are thou sands of folks who have the money to pay the first cost of a machine, but who would find it out of the question to Bpend heavily to maintain It. Trouble to get tires would have been a disaster, costing numerous sales. But such a calamity has been averted by the action of the makers. They state unequivocally that they will go right on, and that they will be able to take care of a far greater output of ears than even this year will see. Therefore it Is safe to buy an automobile. There is nothing to stop the man who wants one and who has the price. The tires will be there all season, and whether they do business at a profit or a loss, the makers are going tP see to It that there is no trouble in fitting out a machine. The big dealers and brokers in rub ber all tell the one story—that there is no money they would not be willing to spend in order to get rubber. But they can only depend on their South Amerl^ can agents, who do busienss directly with the natives. The pneumatic tire, though it is just now coming into its biggest demand, Secretary of Automobile Dealers' Association H* ' ''^S?v:" -' J S CONWELL OF MAXWELL-BRISCOE-PACIFIC COMPANY, BEC. RETARY OF DEALERS 1 ASSOCIATION, AND ONE OF BEBT KNOWN AUTOMOBILE DEALERS ON PACIFIC COAST is by no means new. It goes back more than fifty years, In fact. The first pneumatic tire patent was registered In England in 1845 by R. W. Thomson. The salient features of this pioneer's "aerial wheels" were covered in the specifications in this quaint phraseology: "The nature of my said invention consists in the application of elastic bearings around the wheels of carriages for the purpose of lessenlng the power required to draw the car riage, rendering their motion easier and diminishing the noise they make when in motion. I prefer employing for the purpose a hollow belt composed of some air and water-tight material, such as caout-chouc or gutta percha, and in flating It with air, whereby the wheels will in every part of their revolution present a cushion of air to the ground, or rail, or track on which they run." After many experiments with Thom son's "aerial wheels" on all sorts of horse-drawn vehicles covering .a period of several years, the invention fell Into complete oblivion, and it was not un til bicycles became an accomplished fact that the pneumatic tire was - invented, if that word Is permissible, by Dunlop, in 1888. One of the first satisfactory pneu matics tires was that introduced by Michelin in France a few years later. The Michelin tire was detachable, the first of that ./pe, and could be re paired easily on the road by the rider. As early as 1894 Michelin tires had reached such development as to re- semble closely in general features the pneumatics now universally used on automobiles and bicycles. The then struggling automobile man ufacturers, however, could not be In duced to look on the seemingly frail air tubes with anything but disfavor. The late M. Levassor, one of the world's first and most enthusia«tic au tomobile builders, voiced the sentiment of other carmakers when he made his now historic remark: "You might fill a tire with hay or straw and get through an automobile race success fully, but with air—never!" First Triumphs of Pneumatic* It was only after a most severe prac tical road demonstration at the expense of the tire manufacturer himself that pneumatics secured their first firm foothold. This was in the historic Par is-Bordeaux speed and endurance con test of 1895, in which Messrs. Michelln entered a car that they built them selves at their own rubber factory at Clermont-Ferrand, France, in order to prove to the world that pneumatic tire 3 were practical, no automobile manufac turer being willing to risk his car on anything but solid tires. This great and now historic demon stration of the success of pneumatics astonished the world, and only a year later such progress had been made that Count de Dion expressed the firm fjpinlon of all when he said: "We make Khe cars, but Michelin makes the rails." It is a fact that the modern high powered, fast but light-weight automo bile would be Impracticable were it not . Continued on rag» Two PAGES 1 TO 12 FOR HUNDREDS OP YEARS HAS IT BEEN TRIED HORSELESS DRAWN VEHICLES ANCIENT AMBITION SELF-MOVING MACHINES DATE FROM 200 B. C. Greatest Progress in Motor Machines Made Within the Past Fifteen Years, and Yet in Infancy The horseless drawn vehicle which Is to be Keen upon our streets today passes with but little thought from th«j multitude of the enormous amount of study and brains that have been cen tered upon the accomplishment of economy In conveyance and accom panying it with speed In transportation. There are but few possibly that have given the question of our self-propelled vehicles of today the thought as to how they originated or how far back in tho era of time the date of beginning is recorded of self-propelled vehicles. The very first steam engine—that of tho Herlo of Alexandria B. C. 200 —produced rotary motion by the reaction of a couple of steam jets issuing from a bronze sphere mounted upon trunnions. Also that the first engine used for tho imparting of rotary motion to other machinery was that of the Italian Branca and consisted of a kind of wind mill, against the vanes of which a jet of steam was caused to Impinge, and it is interesting to note that the first steamed-propelled horseless carriage was driven by a jet of steam, for it ap pears that over three centuries ago a Jesuit missionary among the Chinese- Father Verbiest—set up a jet and vaned wheel arrangement similar to Branca's engine upon a road carriage, which it propelled through the inter vention of suitable gearing. Passing over the attempts made by various nationalities to perfect a road machine that would transport passen gers and freight without the aid of horses the next practical innovation was in 1769 when Nicholas Joseph Cug not constructed and ran a model in 1763. Upon this vehicle the French mil itary authorities improved and wished to use it in the moving of heavy mili tary ordnance. This never proved suc cessful, and horseless vehicle problems remained a dead issue until in 1822 Sir Goldsworthy Gurney commenced his work upon a horseless road locomation problem, and he was a man of scientific attainments, but disclaimed being a practical engineer, but entered upon_ the subject from a conviction of its great importance. His Ideas were, how ever, that the machine, like the man, should be propelled by a system of legs, of which for his machine he was to have ten leg propellers. It is a nateworthy fact that on the very day Gurney was accomplishing his project a paper was being published by a practical mathematician proving that a steam road carriage could never be made to propel itself at all. The first attempt to propel vehicles by means of stored springs was made In Paris In 1644, and by an Englishman. Thls carriage was intended to convey passenpers from Paris to Fontalne bleau and back in one day, and it was advertised that if this could be accom plished there w-onid be great economy in tht> matter, as at that time hay and feed were quite high. The carriage worked finely in the room, but the labor of winding up the springs, which, of course, was performed by men, was so great that the economy In the feed was all exhausted In the expense of the men. and this project had to be abandoned. With more or less success and more or less failure, the subsequent years passed along without much progress being made In the development of the. horseless drawn vehicle, and, in fact, it was not until in the nineteenth cen tury that anything practical de veloped that gave hope to the aban donment of the horse-drawn vehicle for that of other power. In 1870 a clockwork omnibus was actually tried on the streets of New Orleans, and in the same year a French inventor gave out that his "horseless vehicle would transport three- passen gers at the rate of nine to ten miles an hour, and that his springs required winding but once an hour, which coull be done while the machine was in motion." The next improvement upon this antique method was the announcement that springs would be carried under the floor of the carriage and would be wound up at stations provided for the purpose along the route of the car- ■ (Contlßoea M f»«« Iw»)