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Taft Explains Views on Nation's Resources PRESIDENT TALKS ON CONSERVATION Declares Opposition to Agitation for Federal Centraliza tion of Power LAUDS ROOSEVELT'S SERVICES Appeals to Practical Common Sense in Dealing with Problems of Day I [Associated Presi] MINNEAPOLIS, Sept. 6.—After speaking at the conservation congress in St. Paul tonight, and at the Minne sota state fair grounds outside the city this afternoon, President Taft left for Beverly tonight by way of Chicago. In his conservation address the presi dent won a quick response from his thousands of hearers by an appeal to practical common sense in dealing with conservation problems. In the opinion of many who heard him he also made answer to the recent agitation for a "new nationalism," or a federal concentration of power, by declaring that the only safe course to pursue was to hold fast to the llmlta tlans of the constitution and to re gard as sacred the power of the states. Mr. Taft, amid applause, made fre quent references to the services of .Theodore Roosevelt In the cause of conservation, but he declared the time for glittering generalities had passed. He suggested to the congress that It should invite its speakers to come down to details, to specific evils and to specific remedies. • These sentiments by the president seemed to receive the approval of nearly all his hearers. They came near the end of a long, detailed and ex haustive discussion of conservation, nnd he ended his speech with the au dience on Its feet. Mr. Taft did not attempt to solve the problem of water power control, as between the states and the general government, but after stating the ar guments advanced on both sides of the subject, he said he would submit the whole matter to the federal congress for determination. In his speech at the state fair Presi dent Taft said in part: UNIONS NOT EXEMPT At the fair grounds the president de livered a Labor day address, the most notable utterance of which was a statement that he knew of no intention of the government to prosecute labor leaders under the anti-trust law. At the same time the president said he did not believe labor organizations should be exempted from such prose cution by specific statute. He declared such a provision of law would smack of class legislation. He did not believe labor unions de sired or needed class legislation, and Bald he counted on their help in pre venting such legislation. The president received a demonstra tion, but not an uproarious welcome In St. Paul. The streets were lined from the depot to the reviewing stand where Mr. Taft witnessed the passing of the Labor day parade. At the conservation congress the president was welcomed with prolonged cheering. After luncheon in St. Paul he rode by automobile to the state fair grounds, and received a tumultuous greeting from a throng which filled the grand stand nnd overflowed Into the race track and infield. 'On the way to the Minnesota fair grounds the president was greeted noisily along the way. He dined at a hotel this evening informally and then was driven to his train. EXTOLS MINNESOTA "The magnitude of this state fair and the Immense thron* of people In attendance are FOOTHILL FARMS NEAR THIS CITY Have you ever hoped to have a home of one, five or ten lucres —on the foot hill slopes near LO3 Angeles? Haven't you wished that some friend had taken you by the shoulder and made you pick up a tew acres at Holly wood, Altadena or FJierra Madre before they advanced from $300 up to 13000 an acre? Those placss have passed for ever from your easy reach. Tho Western JOmpire, California's famous homeseekei-s" and rural home Journal, is now completing an organi zation of 200 local anM eastern readers to take over 1400 acres of land at Sun land, in the original Monto Vista val ley. It is a mountain-hidden valley seven miles back of Glcndale. This district surpasses Altadena or even Redlands In its richness and grandeur, and is only fifteen miles from *.he Chamber of Commerce buliilng In Los Angeles. Sunland's Monte vista val ley has tne best climatic, protection of any district on tho coast side of the Sierras. Come and ccc It now. John McGroarty. the famous poet of our southland, says of Ml visit: "And J saw a vale that day as fair as any in all tho Land of the Heart's Desire. I was ashamed to think that 1 had let the years go by and had wandered far in quest of beauty, while all the time Sunland's Monte Vista haa been there 53 its ravishing loveliness just beyond (bo threshold of my door." A few heads of famine* may Join tfcis organization, which secures this land nt a low wholesale pi*.ce. Improves it with roadways, lownsite, schools and trolley line, and distributes the land to members so that the total cose to you is not one-quarter of prevailing prices in the open retail market. When this kind of land Is opened It goes up beyond your reach The dis trict lies in an open val'ey lunnlng from Pasadena west to Fernando, In cluding La Canada, La Crescenta and Monte Vista —Suniand. Don't try to imagine about its conditions—come and Investigate. It is only one hour from town. The editor of tho Western Empire has managed the location of eight suc cessful town projects on this same plan. f This Is your footbyi horn; opportun ity. Level, rich in productivity and ■water, frortless, balmy and IDOO feet above sea level. Daily auto btage ieaves our office 10 a. m. except Sunday, returning 8 p. in. or special trips may be arranged. En gage your reats in advance. Fare ji round trip. Call or write at onca for booklet. Western Empire Suburban Farms ation, 100 to 119 Chamber of Com merce building, Lou Angeles California. convincing evidences of th" greatness of Min nesota as an agricultural state. "This is Labor day, a day given over to emphasizing the Importance of manual labor In our civllliatlon and to properly exalting Us dignity. The two classes In the communlty tl t are most Important are Its farmers and worklngmcn, nnd this occasion and this date suggest thoughts of both. "There Is sitting now In the city of St. I'aul a convomlon for the promotion of the conservation of our national resource.". To no one does the subject come home with more vital significance than to the farmer. If anybody Is to ppoflt by conservation and If anybody Is to make conservation profitable, to others, It Is the farmer. He Is the one who by the manipulation of the soil. Its proper treatment, its drainage or Irrigation, Its fer tilization, 1r to mnke It yield the largest crops under conditions that will preserve It best for future years of usefulness. "Proper farming, according to modern Ideas, Involves a knowledge and understanding of the chemical qualities of the soil and the scientific methods of Its treatment, so that instead of being a mere manual vocation as It was a few years ago It has now become a scientific and practical profession. This has been recognised by the general government In the establishment of a department of ag riculture, where In Its bureaus of research the secrets of nature have been revealed In the possible development of modern farms, and proper publicity has been given so that those who till the soil may take advantage of the new discoveries. FARMERS BENEFITED "Experiment stations have been established the country over; free lectures have been given at the expense of the government for the benefit of farming communities; contribu tions have been made to agricultural col leges, and everything that wise stnti'smnn shlp could suggest has been afforded by the general government within Its Jurisdiction for the production of greater nnd better crops "All this legislation has been in the Inter est of the farmers and might be characterized as class legislation, but bo great Is the gen eral public Interested In the promotion of ag riculture that It cannot be termed unduly privileged or objectionable. "But there Is a kind of legislation to which I would refer, that does not come under the j head of vicious class legislation, and I hope I can make the distinction clear between this and what I have been describing. "A number of statutes have been passed In the states against combinations or conspiracies to restrain trade, to suppress competition or to maintain prices, and there has been sometime* an attempt to insert In euch Btatutcs a pro viso or section exempting farmers or other classes from the operation of the statute so as to enable the exempted to corner products and raise prices, while no other class In the community can do so. "The supreme court of the United States has held that such a law gives an undue privi lege to a particular class In the coramunllty, creates an unjust exemption from the opera tion of a useful law, denies the equal protec tion of the laws, violates the constitution and Is Invalid. COMBINATIONS I>K?»OrNCKD "Apnln, the federal anti-trust law has been held by the supreme court to denounce com binations to obstruct or restrain Interstate trade, and to prohibit therefore Illegal boy cotts to injure the Interstate trade of any person. At the last session of congress, In an appropriation bill, some $200,000 was appropri ated for the enforcement of the anti-trust law*. To this appropriation an amendment was proposed providing that no part of the 1200, --000 should bo used In the prosecution of the workinymen engaged In a boycott In violation of a statute. "That Is not the way the amendment read, but It was. In a way, Us necessary effect, "A majority of the house, after a very heated discussl'i, rejected the amendment on the ground that It was vicious and class leg islation. As a matter of fact, the money thus previously appropriated to enforce the sntl-trust law had never been used for the prosecution of worklngmen engaged In such boycott, because there was no occasion for such use and In all probability the money now appropriated will never be used for such a purpose. "But It was a proper vie^r, of th«" majority who voted against the amendment that on principle such a class exemption or privilege should not be declared an>l approved in a stat ute. I have not th« slightest expectation that the money will ever be used for anything but the prosecution of corporations and busl noss firms engaged In combinations In re straint of trade; but to tie the hands of the executive against an unlawful combination of wnrklngmen or any other men, if such com bination existed, and thus make any group a privileged claas of law breakers Is neither Justice nor wisdom, nor good statesmanship." GIBBONS THINKS UNIONS GOOD ECONOMIC FORCE Cardinal Says Luxuries Prevent Conservation of Resources BALTIMORE, Sept. 6.—Cardinal Gibbons, In an interview today, said that while there wag continuous un rest between the unemployed and em ployed in the United States, the peo ple have nothing to fear from law abiding organisation! and law-abiding corporation*. "In union there is strength in the physical, moral and social world," «ald the cardinal. "Just as the power and majesty of our public are derived from Iho political union of the several states, so do men clearly perceive that the healthy combination of heajthy forces in the economic world can ac complish results which could not be effected by any individual efforts." The cardinal deplored the lack of the practice of economy by the present generation. "The people believe," he said, "that they must have automobiles, must go to tlic theaters, must have various kinds of amusements and must have many things more or less expensive without which their fathers and grandfathers put along well enough and prospered. This desire prevents a sensible conservation of the people's resources." REDS WIN BIG BATTLE IN KANSAS WAR GAME JUNCTION CITY, Kas.. Sept. 5.— This was the banner day of the army maneuvers at Fort Itlley. In the presence of Robert Shaw Oliver, assistant secretary of war, and his staff the red and the blue forces engaged in a battle. The entire com mand at tin 1 camp, with the exception Of the Missouri national guard, partici pated in tiie engagement. A pontoon |.ridge was thrown across the Kansas river early In the day, and the blues marched across it, taking the roils on the lefl Hide of the .stream. In the pitched battle that followed rilles, pistols, field and machine guns were used. The tlmlh were victorious. BRINGS $200,000 IN GOLD SEATTLE, Sept. 5. —The steamship Cottage City, which arrived from Skagway, Alaska, today, brought $200,000 in gold from the Fairbanks mining district. The Cottage City also brought 4000 coses of salmon from southee Alaska. jt'H an easy to secure a bargain In a usM automobile, through want advertt»ln». «- II vied to bo— still la— to aeeura a bora* and carriage. LOS ANGELES HERALD: TUESDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 6, 1010. PRESIDENT GIVES T. B. A SLY POKE Opposes Too Much Government Control in Speech at Con servation Congress DEFENDS OIL WITHDRAWALS Gives Careful Outline of Policies of Administration—Sena tor Nelson Talks (Continued from Page One) tion of public property and that the national and state governments should legislatively co-ordinate to the end that within a reasonable period of time the state governments be con ceded the full and complete admin istration of such conservation laws aa may be found adaptable to the varying conditions of the several states. "Third, that the experience of the conservation states demonstrates that disposition of public property as made under existing national conservation laws and regulations, have tended to intrench monopolies and interests menacing the common welfare: and that modifications of such laws and regulations should be promoted by the conservation congress. "Fourth, that the elimination from the national forest reserve of all homestead and untimbered grazing lands is immediately expedient. "Fifth, that use and control of all water power inheres of right in the states, with perpetual freedom from monopoly. "Sixth, that the privilege of Amer ican cltiens to seek and develop min eral wealth wherever it may be found should be amplified and secured by laws. "Seventh, that the idea of deriving federal revenue from the physical re sources of the states is repugnant to that adjustment of constitutional pow ers which guarantee the perpetuity of the Union." PUBADS FOB STATE CONTROL Governor Hay pleaded for state con trol. He declared there was just as much reason for Secretary Wilson to come out to Washington and harvest their crops as to expect the federal government to attend to the eastern sjates' natural resources. "If the states are not able to con trol the corporations," said he, "they might as well go back to territorial days and be done with it. "President Taft, in his address this forenoon, expressed our ideas better than I can. Also, I might remark, the states which are strongest for national control are those states whose re sources have been disposed of long ago. "A tree is like a human being. It has its maturity and its old age. It should be utilized at its maturity, rather than to be allowed to die and to become a fire trap—a source of dan ger to the mature timber about it." Addresses of welcome by Governor Eberhardt and Mayor Keller, and the invocation by Archbishop Ireland marked the beginning of the congress. President Taft reached the platform from a rear door. As he climbed the steps to the platform the crowd broke into cheers as his head became vis ible. The speech of President Taft de manding detailed statements for or against conservation of natural re sources, rather than glittering gener alities calculated to stir public opinion without pointing the way, was the fea ture of the national conservation con gress today. The president was said by those who are with him on his present trip to have made his most telling speech. He was applaudecl without reference to faction. TAFT MAKES SPEECH President Taft epoke as ollows: "Conservation as an economic and political term has come to mean the preservation of our national resources for economical use, so as to secure the greatest good to the greatest num ber. In the development of this coun try, in the hardships of the pioneer, in the energy of the settler, in the anxiety of the investor for quick re turns, there was very little time, op portunity or desire to prevent waste of those resources supplied by nature which could not be quickly transmuted into money; while the investment of capital was so great a desideratum that the people as a community exer cised little or no care to prevent the transfer <>f absolute ownership of many of the valuable resources to private individuals, without retaining some kind of control of their use. The im pulse of the whole new community wag to encourage the coming of population, the Increase of settlement and the opening up of business; and he who demurred in the slightest degree to any step which promised additional development of the idle resources at hand was regarded as a traitor to his neighbors and an obstructor to public progress. But now that the commu nities have become- old, now that the Hush of enthusiastic expansion has died away, now that the would-be pio neers have come to realize that all the richest lands in the country have been taken up, we have perceived the neces sity for a change of policy in the din position nf our national resources so as to prevent the continuance of the waste which has characterized our phenomenal growth In the past. To day we desire to restrict and retain under public control the acquisition and use by the capitalist of our nat ural resources. "There is no crying need for radical reform in the methods ofdisposing of what are really agricultural lands. The present laws have worked well. The enlarged homestead law has en couraged the successful farming of lands In the semi-arid regions. Of course the teachings of the agricul tural department an to how these sub arid lands may be treated and the soil preserved for useful culture are of the very essence of conservation. BECI*\MATIOX WOBK "By the reclamation uct a fund has been created of the proceeds of the public lands of the United States with which to construct works for storing great bodies of water at proper alti tudes from which, by a suitable sys tem of canals and ditches, the water Is to be distributed over tho arid and subarld lands of the government to be sold to settlers at c. price sufficient to pay for the improvements. About thirty projects have been set on foot distributed through the public land states in accord with the statute, by which the allotments from tlio reclam ation fund are required to be as near as practicable In proportion to tin; proceeds from tha sale of the public landl in Hie respective states. The total sum already accumulated in the IOF ¥OH ■ ' NOT WHAT YOU HAVE BEEN LOOKING FOR, BECAUSE YOU HAVE NEVER SEEN ANYTHING LIKE THEM INDISPENSABLE TO EVERY PROGRESSIVE WOMAN. THE HERALD GIVES YOU THIS SET WITH A PREPAID SUBSCRIPTION FOR THREE MONTHS THIS SET IS ALONE WORTH $2.00, TO SAY NOTHING OF THE MERITS OF THE HERALD, EASILY THE BEST AND CLEANEST NEWSPAPER PUBLISHED IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. ASBESTOS SAD IRONS FOR EVERY PURPOSE. Just hold your hand over an ordinary iron and feel the stream of heat which rises from it. They say that one can cool his whole body by running cold water over his wrists. Doesn't it stand to reason that your whole body will become heated when your wrist is being bathed in the intensely hot waves which rise from an ordinary iron? Examine the sectional view of an Asbestos Sad Iron cut in half. You will note that the core or iron proper is covered with an asbestos-lined hood. When the core is thoroughly heated, you clap on the hood—and the heat is bottled up. Polishing Iron has rounded Founce Iron for Ruffles, Laces, Sleeves— bill to roll collars and cufffe and Iron Stand — which prevents scorching the goose bill extension being specially to bring back the luster to lin- board and does not mar the iron, adapted for this work. . en and mercerized goods. Lil ..lII.MI II I"! '" '""' ..._—-——-———. j, ' ; " • L : ofti T^fc iCbV i^uifc- 'HPfc.. **#*■! M***r fflhi *%. &u?t YfT¥nL"^^fc jj^»^__ -■} address plainly written, for a three | v^ \ /^^wftfl^l^l^^fe\ months' subscription and irons will w ■ *.. ( ( . mß^J^mtmgn^>M • • Waxer, which gives face of iron a M sy be delivered to you at once. velvety smoothness. Asbestos Hood and Handle, : — ■gel, prevents radiatio-ot J ____.j The Numb( , r Is Limited \ ~ The Best Premium Ever Given with a Newspaper Address T. J. GOLDING, Circulation Mgr. Herald reclamation fund is $60,273,258.22 and of that all but *5,491,955.34 has been expended. It became very clear to congress at Its last session, from the statements made by experts, that these thirty projects could not be promptly completed with the balance remaining on hand or with the funds likely to accrue in the near future. It was found, moreover, that there are many settlers who have been led Into taking up lands with the hope and under standing of having water furnished in a short time, who are left In a most distressing situation. I recommended to congress that authority be given to the secretary of the interior to issue bonds in anticipation of the assured earnings by the projects, so that the projects, worthy and feasible, might be promptly completed and the settlers might be relieved from their present inconvenience and hardship. In au thorizing the issue of these bonds con gress limited the application of their proceeds to those projects which a board of army engineers, to be ap pointed by the president, should ex amine and determine to be feasible and worthy of completion. The board has been appointed and soon will make its report. "By mineral lands I mean those lands bearing metals, or what are called metalliferous minerals. The rules of ownership and disposition of these lands were first fixed by custom in the west, and then were embodied in the law, and they have worked, on the whole, so fairly and well that I do not think it is wise now to attempt to change or better them. The apex the ory of tracing title to a lode has led to much' litigation and dispute, and ought not to have become the law, but it is so fixed and understood now that the benefit to be gained by a change is altogether outweighed by the incon venience that would attend the intro duction of a new system. FOREST Ix\NDS "Nothing can be more important in the matter of conservation than the treatment of our forest lands. It was probably the ruthless destruction of forests in the older states that first called attention to a halt in the waste of our resources. This was recog nized by congress by an act authoriz ing the executive to reserve from en try and set aside public timber land.'i as national forests. Speaking general ly, there has been reserved of the ex isting forests about 70 per cent of all the timber lands of the government. Within these forests (including 26, --000,000 acres in two forests In Alaska) are 192,000,000 of acres, of which 166, --000,000 of acres are in the United States proper and Include within their boundaries something like 22,000,000 of acres that belong; to the state or to private individuals. We have then, excluding Alaska forests, a total of about 144,000.000 acres of forests be longing to the government which Is being treated in accord with the prin ciples of scientific forestry. The law now prohibits the reservation of any rr.oro forest lands in Oregon, Washing ton, Idaho, Montana, Colorado and Wyoming, except by act of congress. •'I -am informed by the department of agriculture that the government owns other tracts of timber land In these states which should be Included In the forest reserves. I expect to recommend to congress that the limita tion herein imposed shall be repealed. In the present forest reserves there are lands which are not properly forest land and which ought to be subject to 1 homestead entry. "The government timber in this country amounts to only one-fourth of all the timber, the rest being In private ownership. Only 3 per cent of that which is In private ownership is looked after properly and treated according to modern rules of forestry. The usual destructive waste and neglect con tinue in the remainder of the forests owned by private persons and corpora, tions. It Is estimated that fire alone destroys $50,000,000 worth of timber a year. The management of forests not on public land is beyond the Jurisdic tion of the federal government. If any thing can be done by law it must be done by the state legislatures. COAI, DEPOSITS "The next subject, and one most im portant for our consideration, is the disposition of the coal lands In the United States and In Alaska. First, aa to those in the United States. At the beginning nf this administration there were classified coal lands amounting to 5.476.000 acres, and there were with drawn from entry for purposes of classification 17,867,000 acres. Since that time there have been withdrawn by my order from entry for classification 77, --648,000 acres, making a total with drawal of 95.515,000 acres. Meantime, of the acres thus withdrawn, 11,371,000 have been classified and found not to contain coal, and have been restored to agricultural entry, and 4,356,000 acres have been classified as coal lands, while 79,788,000 acres remain withdrawn from entry and await classification. In Pddltion 336,000 acres have been classi fied as coal lands without prior with drawal, thus increasing the classified coal lands to 10.168.000 acres. "The Investigations of the geological survey show that the coal properties in Alaska cover about 1200 square miles, and that there are known to be avail able about 15,000.000,000 tons This is, however, an underestimate, because further developments will nrobablv In crease this amount many times. There are two fields on the Pacific slope which can be reached by railways at a reasonable cost from deep water—ln one case of about fifty miles and In the other case of about 150 miles—which will afford certainly 6,000,000.000 tons of roal. more than half of which Is of a very high grade of bituminous and of anthracite. It la estimated to ta worth, In the ground, one-half a cent a ton, which makes its value per acre from $50 to $500. Oil. AXD G.VS "In the last administration there were withdrawn from agricultural en try ° R2O 000 acres of supposed oil lana in California; about a million and a half acres In Louisiana, of which only fisoo acres were known to be vacant unappropriated lnnd: 75,000 acres in Oroffon and 174.000 acres in Wyoming, making a total of nearly four millions of acres. In September, I*o9, I di rected that all public oil lands whether then withdrawn or not, should be withheld from disposition pending congressional action, for the reason that the existing placer mining law. although made applicable to deposits of this character. Is not suitable to such lands, and for the further reason that it seemed desirable to reserve certain fuel oil deposits for the use or the American navy. Accordingly the form of all existing withdrawals was changed, and new withdrawals aggregating 2.750,000 acres wore made In Arizona. California, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. Field examinations during the year showed that of the original withdrawals "17(1,000 acres were not valuable for oil. nifci they were restored for agri cultural entry. Meantime, other with drawals of public oil lands in these states were made, so that July 1, 1910, the outstanding withdrawals then amounted to 4,050,000 acres. The needed oil and gas law is es sentially a leasing law. In their nat ural occurrence, oil and gas cannot be measured In terms of acres, like coal, and it follows that exclusive title to these products can normally be secured only after they reach the surface, oil should be disposed of as a commodity in terms of barrels of transportable product rather than in acres of real estate. This is, of course, the reason for the practically universal adoption of the leasing system wherever oil land Is in private ownership. The government thus would not be enter ing on an experiment, but simply put ting Into effect a plan successfully op erated in private contracts. Why should not the government as a land" owner deal directly with the oil pro ducer rather than through the inter vention of a middleman to whom the government gives title to the land? GOVERNMENT CONTROL "The principal underlying feature of such legislation should be the exercise of beneficial control rather than the collection of revenue. As not only the largest owner of oil lands, but as a prospective large consumer of oil by reason of the increasing use of fuel oil by the navy, the federal govern ment is directly concerned both in en couraging rational development and at the same time insuring the longest pos sible life to the oil supply. The royal ty rates fixed "by the government should neither exceed nor fall below the current rates.- But much more im portant than revenue is the enforce ment of regulations to conserve the public interest so that the covenants of the lessees shall specifically safe guard oil fields against the penalties from careless drillings and of produc tion in excess of transportation facili ties and of market requirements. "One of the difficulties presented es pecially in the California fields, is that the Southern Pacific railroad owns every other section of land in the oil fields, and in those fields the oil seems to be in a common reservoir, or series of reservoirs, communicating through the oil sands, so that the excessive draining of oil at one well, or on the railroad territory generally, would ex haust the oil in the government land. Hence it is important that if the gov ernment is to have its share of the oil It should begin the opening and de velopment of wells on its own property. "In view of the joint ownership which the government and the adjoining land owners like the Southern Pacific rail road hava in the oil reservoirs below the surface, it is a most interesting and intricate question, difficult of solution, but one which ought to address itself at once to the state lawmakers, how far the state legislature might impose appropriate restrictions to secure an equitable enjoyment of tho common reservoir, and to prevent waste and excessive drainage by the various own ers having access to this reservoir. PERMITS FOB PROSPECTORS ■ "It has been suggested, and I be lieve the suggestion to be a sound one, that permits be issued to a pros pector for oil giving him the right to prospect for two years over a cer tain tract of government land for the discovery of oil, the right to be evi denced by a license for which he pays a small sum. When the oil is dis covered, then he acquires title to a certain tract, much in the same way as he would acquire title under a min ing law. Of course if the system of leasing is adopted, then he would be given the benefit of a lease upon terms like that above suggested. What has been said in respect to oil applies also to government gas lands. "Under the proposed oil legislation, especially where the government oil lands embrace an entire oil field, as in many cases, prospectors, operators, consumers, and the public can bo ben efited by the adoption of the leasing system. The prospector can be pro tected In the very expensive work that necessarily antedates discovery; the operator can be protected against im pairment of the productiveness of the wells which he has leased by reason of control of drilling and pumping of other wells too closely adjacent, or by the prevention of Improper methods as employed by careless, Ignorant or irresponsible, operators in the same field, which result in the admission of water to the oil sands; while of course the consumer will profit by whatever benefits the prospector or operator re ceives in reducing the first cost of the oil. POWER SITES "Prior to March 4, 1909, there had been, on the recommendation of the it■( mmntlon service, withdrawn from agricultural entry, because they were regarded as useful for power sites which ought not to be disposed of as agricultural lands, tracts amounting to about 4,000,000 acres. The withdrawals were hastily made and Included a great deal of land that was not useful for power sites. They were intended to in clude the power sites on twenty-nine rivers In nine states. Since that time 3,475,442 acres have been restored for settlement of the original 4,000,000, be cause they do not contain power sites; and meantime there have been newly withdrawn 1,245,892 acres on vacant public land and 21,007 acres on entered public land, or a total of 1,456,899 acres. These withdrawals made from time to time cover all the power sites included in the first withdrawals, and many more, on 135 rivers and in eleven states. The disposition of these power sites in volves one of the most difficult ques tions presented in carrying out prac tical conservation. The forest service, under a power found in the statute, has leased a number of these power sites in forest reserves by revocable leases, but no such power exists with respect to power sites that are not located within forest reserves, and the rev ocable system of leasing is, of course, not a satisfactory one for the purpose of inviting the capital neoded to put in proper plants for the transmutation of power. "The subject is one that calls for new legislation. It has been thought that there was danger of combination, to obtain possession of all the power sites and to unite them under one con trol. Whatever the evidence of this, or lack of It, at present we have had enough experience to know that com bination would be profitable, and the control of a groat number of power sites would enable the holders or own ers to raise the price of power at will within certain sections; and the tempta tion would promptly attract investors, and the danger of monopoly would not be a remote one. "However this may be, it is the plain duty of the government to see to it that in the utilization and development of all this immense amount of water power, conditions shall be imposed that will prevent monopoly, and will pre vent extortionate charges, which are the accompaniment of monopoly." Tomorrow's program is headed by an address by Theodore Roosevelt, and in cludes addresses by Francis J. Heney of California, President Fowler of the national irrigation congress, and for mer Governor Pardee of California. Senator Knifte Nelson made the fol lowing address before the conference today: TALKS OF PITBLJC IjAND ACTS Senator Knute Nelson of Minnesota prefaced a careful review of puMlc land acts by the statement that the natural resources of the country should be conserved by the Individual, the state and the nation—the farmer his soil, the state Its lands. Its forests and Its waters, and the federal government the resources of Its mines, its forests and its lands with their appurtenances. H» then sketched the situation at the close of the Revolution, when the money-poor, land rich government sought to dispose cf Its lands. The well meant laws enacted, however, re sulted In small sain to the oountry and a bl« profit to speculators, who did not hesitate at shady methods to Increase their wealth. "The law allowing lands to be secured at private entry wrs repealed In 1889 and the law allowing public sales was repealed In 1891," ho said. "The pre-emption law was also re pealed the same year. These laws had proved to be more valuable to the land grabber and the speculator than to the actual settler and home builder. CONSERVE TIMBER AMD STONE "In IS7B congress parsed the so-called timber and stone act, oritflnall" devoted to four west ern states, but by act of 1892 extended to all public land states. Much valuable land, sult ablJ for agricultural purposes, has been en tered under the law and enormous quantities of our most valuable timber lands have been secured by fraudulent methods by the great timber speculators under Its provisions. These speculators have, directly or Indirectly, em ployed scores and hundreds of men and women to enter vuluable timber lands, worth from (Continue* •■ F««e Eight).