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"I^OI^TIA APPOINTED &,<& GOVERNOR
PORTIA APPOINTED by the GOVERNOR TT1755 CRYSTAL EASTMAN, the One Woman of **'ithe Fourteen Members of the Employers' Liability Commission, of Which She Is Secretary, Investigates Indusfria 1 Occidents — Scope and Intent of the Work <**v ■: ' ■ '' ' ' .'■ ' *■"*' > "T "(^ .. ■* '''^ ~* - ' '• ' * _J(3rTFsSSMp2iS fc^^^jfj ""L^V^S^C^^ 1 " "• ' KB ~jyM^ \*'CaM^- i^ Effiß Byjy '7 /* '■■■■'■■ ;~"!# «k.^m%^«>^ "■ -^ # *' <* / 4 • ■ i *(TI ■ at-T'vE* «.v JL zdt*' jl« ' ' - J Ciotstal s ( % ■ :'W/^ ->T ' / Eastman i ' fe" .j-l'jr New York, Saturday. A FEW years ago there was r popular belief at the University <>f Pennsylvania that for a standard "f feminine loveliness — well, unlove liness —ali you had to do was to glance over the Law School coeds. The co-eds were treated \\ith according chivalry. When one managed to survive the first year she \*as looked upon with v kind of awe; otherwise she wasn't looked upon at all. The woman lawyer usually is pictured as sacrific ing beauty to brains. Her bulging brow swallows up the rest of her face, aud she's rather clad of it. Portia in floating garments, with urls peeping from under a fetching bonnet, paradea only through the pages <>f Shakespeare or behind the footlights. And even then, to be taken seriously, she lias to obviously masquerade ns a man. The beauty of to-day who walks the devious ways of legal knowledge is apt to be a militant suffragette, regarding law merely as a side issue !o the great cause. Thai is why a j. rasp of pleasurnble astonishment is the result of your first meeting with Crystal Eastman. For .Miss Kastiuan, in spite of a Hue brow, baa brown •■ye;-; that laugh find dimples win h she finds rather difficult to suppress. Likewise, she has youth, a charming, _-i:!ish manner— and seems to delight in making you overlook tin- fact thai her name trails an A. 1., for which Vassal' is responsible; an \\. A., be stowed by Columbia, and a 1. 1.. 8., the resull of a law course at New York L'nlversity. rhese titles an 1 as a court train— mere adjuncts to the attraoth c woman. You look at Mis-: Eastman, talk to ber, nnd rapidly to the conclusion that the State was wise in appointing her the one woman among thirtei i of the Employers' Liability Commission. The mission, of which M nan is secretary, lias been formed to investigate Industrial necidents tind pre pare a report ■ for (his session of the Leglslatui When the ■:•• N'pw York selects a young woman of well, I'm v lire, bui decidedly young, anyway, to lill a posi of Rival responsibility, us' posse i ■ interest to the ■ world. Id n suite set hich up In the Metropolitan Build- Ing there.-* a !nrj;e outer room whose occupants at desk and typewriters look up in quick welcome when an atliMic blue serge ll(jure and ;i focc already miles swing in from ilie corridor like the embodiment of frei-h ;ilr, fun and bij; vitality. Kncli morning be tween nine and icn Miss Eastman hurries through the larger room and Into her private- office, a diminutive place, half window, the re.st cased in shining tnetul like a vault for valuables. The telephone jangles — there's not a sf./ond of feminine uncertainty In the conversation that follows, not an Instant's hesitation In directions given. An Incident In tho lif> of Crystal Eubtinnn'ts mother offers, [ think, a Ut.v to the daughter*) character, Tha wito of Hie T;tM-. 8. R. Kastman, though Intensely and. what is jump, Iniollitoiitly interested In her hus band's work, v. 'is first of nil the home woman, cl<> voted to her three children and entirely apart from the cla^s known as "'professional.'! When the two broth ers of Miss Eastman were still small boys, and *h<s herself was scarcely eight years of ... the father fell ill, without expectation of recovery, iha necessity of supporting iho family devolved upon the mother, and, with that roller rußOijive which occasionally aston ishes one in the gentlewoman, she took her husband's place in the pulpit, proving herself so thoroughly effl cleut that when he finally recovered they continued to work together, They have now Park Church, Eltnira, v. V. "Not that my mother Is any more the professional woman now than sh« 'van years hko," Miss East man added, In telling the story. "Shp's brilliant and capable, but in temperament she tend* all lie other war." (Oopjrtght, 1910. bj the New Yort Herald cv>. Ai: rlghtl reserved.) .And in the mother you hare t<ie secret of Crystal Eastman's success —Pluck! Just before her graduation from New York Univer sity, In J'.">7, she faced the allurement! of beginning the practice qt law on about $j a week. From Two Standpoints. "You see, I hadn't any money to begin with," she explained, leaning forward earnestly In lior wide desk chair. "Then I learned that ih<> Plttsburg Sur vey was sending Investigators to study conditions in the great steel district of Pennsylvania and an op portunity to investigate Industrial accidents for them was open to me. That's how 1 came to take up this work. I'd been Interested in the Employers' Liabil ity law for n long time." "From b humanitarian or legal standpoint':" the writer Interrupted. "Both. I considered it bad law, and unjust, unfair to tiif employe. But principally, it Interested me from a leguj viewpoint." The lawyer triumphed, over the woman. "I went to Plttsburg expecting to lie there about two months and stayed more than a year. Bight months after my return to New York, I began work with the commission." Jusl ■ : lity law and It n .'.iilon in thn numhi'V nallowed up each year lv thi ■ rj, or, better still, boi ;ilcml under .^li , Eu»t linu her discuss the work, you t«. i i , h ,| gincerlty of the woman, but 1 mi of thai fanatlr-ism usually credited to the fern lnln< • i When she tbinka her assistant may more Intimate knowledge of anj particular '^ise, Inglj to him. The following are n fr« of the ti i to thin writer: — Los Angeles Sunday Herald I^^^^^^^^^^^^Pl I }, ;, j 1 A Parting Word to the Secretary I i^« HI I r^p4H IB ' 31 BBbBMHRbk4 :1 < I* Pi Iwl M&i. Arriving at the i- / **■ . Portia in Profile and Diana in the Distance jodn Simpson, engineer, hud for thirty-eignt years been employed in iron works in Twelfth street. One day ho was given a "green" helper. Simpson ob jected, but on being assured that the man^was com petent began during the noon hour to make repairs on an engine. The helper, thrqugh a mistake, started the engine. Simpson was mangled, crushed like a fly on a cartwheel. His widow went to the company that had for so many years employed him. They sent her to the lia bility "insurance company with which they were in sured. There the claim adjuster, rather scoffed at the possibility of her having any claim, since the law provides that'a master is not held liable for the negli gence of his employes if the person injured is a 'Vl low-worker—not a ctranger, that is. Finally he agreed to settle for $200. Again she went to her hus band's firm. They deplored the fact that under their agreement with the insurance company, by which nil such cases were immediately turned over, they could lo nothing. Her husband had worked for them so ong that they would have liked to assist her, but they were helpless in the matter. ■ An act to. provide compensation—but limited to a certain proportion of wages earned—without consid ering the question of negligence, is now being urged. This would do away with the necessity for a medium to settle damages, M well as the eternal question of interminable litigation. It Is remarkable the Ingenuity displayed by ; the type of lawyer known as "ambulance chaser." A woman living in Second avenue was called to the nearest telephone, which happened to be located in a corner drug store. There, she was informed by the police that her son, employed by the Interborough Rapid Transit, had been hit by a derrick mast while go ing under a bridge, and Instantly killed. The woman, too stunned to realize her loss, hurried home. [When she reached her flat in the tenement house, she found a lawyer already waiting to take her case. During the days" that followed she was fairly be sieged, a steady stream of strangers offering to make a fortune for her. One even exhibited as a testi monial the photograph of an eighteen thousand dollar check he insisted had been recovered by him in a similar accident case. In the face of such evidence it is scarcely astonishing to find the poor hastening to place themselves In the hands of the magician. The woman in" this case, however, finally settled for substantial compensa tion, one of the few in stances, according to Miss Eastman's investigation, in which a fair sum has been paid without lawsuit. Another Story. A contrasting story Is that of an Italian killed in March, 1008, while at work on a building in Lex ington avenue. He lid started . work only that day. The scaffolding where lie stood had been broken and . carefully nailed over. But it broke just the same and the man was killed. A troop of lawyers instantly de scended upon his flat In East 106 th street and his widow was forced to bar ricade herself against them. She locked her door, for several days al lowing no one in the place, even barring neighbors who might have helped her. Then she appealed to the company that had em ployed her husband. They would look Into the matter, they mild, but at present uould do nothing. That was two yearh ;;«"• In tho following cave a coroner's jury censured a landlord for the death of :i man employed ax janitor, mi no thing was done In the way of compensation. The 1 husband of Mrs Itnpp, ■ Russian uf th<> better class, was the janitor of a Thirteenth street bouse owned by ;i woman livins abroad. Bapp Informed the agent thai the dumbwaiter rope whs in b^rt er>n iiition. Tbe agent looked at ir. declared it to bo safe and nothing waa done in tho way ft repair. The next Arriving at the Office Commission recelvei a report of all raJJroad and street railway accWeote to tho individual workman. Those In ractorlei are re ported to the State Labor Commissioner. Hut la the oi building trade accidents no Jtotlstlcs are to be bad save the few that labor unions can supply. Francis Bashton acted as night watchman whew ji gt i was being taken dowu and Fifth avenue widened. He had often told his wife it »as v danger ous place and poorly protected, one morning he was found in the basement, dead. There is no knowledge of when thn accident occurred, Hh- man baring fallen, probably, through uncertain planklug. Whatever the cause, Immedltely after his death proper protection w;is placed ;11>-• 11 r i lie opening. The man's wife was treated in accordance with tho lack of definite knowledge. She was offered $-<xt in the same claim adjuster thai had disposed of the case previously mentioned. Finally she decided to accept the su:n, bui was put. off a month, while the iu cidenl was forgotten and the witnesses scattered. Then pame n letter Informing her that the insuranoe company could give her nothing. Tba woman, who is 111, cannot attend to the matter herself, and her two daughters, telephone girls earning $5 a week each, are toy busy t'> give the time to it. These, us 1 have s;i id. are but a small fraction of the Instances the investigations of Mis* Eastman Inn c brought to light Her sympathies arc like the Tower of Pisa, strong pnoqgh to lean dennltely In one direction—that of organized labor -withoui tear <<f linking or falling to the level of prejudice, a paragraph from a paper read by her 1 ently at a meeting In Rochester of tho New York state Har Association will ax plain her attitude toward cases of the kin! above mentioned. "Would ii i)o any m.n-e just," she ways, in speaking of the Injuries iinrt deaths which occur In the «ourso of wi rk, "to shift all this great economic loss from the largely Inevitable accidents of Industry over on to the employer merely because be owns and control:! the enterprise? Perhaps not I suggest merely that the loss be shared between the Injured workman and his employer. For »n theae years wo nave implied In the contract of hire an assumption of risk on tho part of the workman on the ground that hi« compen sation was adjusted to coyer that risk. Now let us turn around and Imply in the contract of hire an as- A Parting Word to the Secretary day the rope broko. The dumbwaiter fell nml Btruck Rapp, causing his death. Immediately the agent tried to get lid of the widow, children and baby grandchild of the victim. He wanted to put them out before the week of customary prayers find mourning has jiassed, but tenants of Hie house raised such an outcry, threatening to leave in a body, that the woman was permitted to remain two weeks longer. Speaking English with difficulty, .Mrs. Hupp later allowed herself to be taken to a lawyer, who has given her principally promises. Had her hus band not been insured in a fraternal order of which he was a member the woman and her fain-, ily would have become charges of charity. Now she helps things along by washing, scrubbing and cleaning houses. The Public Service sumption ou tho p.'irt of an employer to insure his workmen against rl«k—to a limited amount, say one hulf of the loss involved." It's quite possible thai some of those who listened to such words of wisdom emanating from lips rvd nnd well formed though Brm may have found their thoughts wandering during Hn- progress of the nd dress. Eloquence will emphasise a woman's Attrac tion: For the further edification of these, no doubt. as well as'thp numbers who wore not present, tun paper has been printed and five thousand copies ordered tor distribution. The Woman. There's nothing extraordinary, to be sure, in the Lothario who leaves his wile, save perhaps the fact thai the one in question, an engineer, look with him their two children when he disappeared from the home in Floyd street, Brooklyn. Later we Rod him "married" once more (tad tiring in Vast Seventy-fifth street, New York. That was his place of residence when Nemesis de scended in the form of an asblifl that crushed him to death. Wife number one, learning of the accident. Immediately looked up her successor, to offer condo lence, it. may be. The oilier had received #"•">, half of i lie compensation obtained by her lawyer. She gave her visitor a glimpse of the latter* two children, displaying al the same time a baby of her own. Amenities were exchanged, an amicable agreement made, and now the women witli their three children are living together comfortably in Floyd street, Brooklyn. Talk about accepting the goods (he gods provide! .lust as the Englishman enjoys nothing so much as settling his affairs across a satisfying dinner, so jiny thing not Immediately connected with her own office work is disposed of by Miss Eastman :it luncheon, over the table the writer discovered that she is an ardent champion of the shirtwaist strikers, a chance remark that vanity, a love of pretty things beyond tiie limit of their pursestrlngs, was responsible for their dissatisfaction called forth a vehement de fence of them. Were it not out of place that discus sion might here lie set down. When Miss F.astman argues the woman promptly gives place to the law yer, clear beaded, clear eyed, decisive, the adversary in every word and vesture. No, tiiere's nothing par ticularly friendly in her method of argument Need less to say. on this occasion the lawyer won out— perhaps that Is why the writer modestly refrains from elaborating. li >ceius almost superfluous to add that, Miss East man is a suffragette, sjm is—and working with nil the strength of her broad shoulders to push the cause. Yet in spite of her many irons in Ihe fire of activity she does not scorn the feminine arts and graces. The mention of music promptly arouses her enthusiasm and she naively suggests that she has rather a good voice herself. She enjoys the theatre as much as any jriil and laughs al the idea of banishing the frlvoli tie.-, of life because one happens to be engaged In serious work. Neither, by the way, does she snap her lingers at the idea of matrimony. And that Is the crowning beauty of Crystal East man. She's as clear as her name, well balanced, natural find normal. BefOM she leaves the temporary quarters of the commission, in the Metropolitan Building, her book. "Work Accidents and the Law," based on her studies In and about Plttsburg, will be published by the Rus sell Sage Foundation. It is easy to picture her, when that work on which she is now engaged has been completed, flinging her self into the practice of law with the arne energy and ability. But, on the side, there comes a vision of staid Judge and belligerent opponent when they face this modern Portia "f danclug eyes nnd real —not to sa v be wllderlng—dimples. Miss Eastman was asked to glance over parts of the foregoing. To the astonishment •>* the writer she made a significant cross at the last word of the last line. "Can't you cut this?" she asked modestly. "I hate to hay mentioned." The writer gazed at "them." "How could we?" ihepuasled. '•They're there aren't they?" "But I can't help that!" The woman triumphed over the lawyer, and laughpi.. The writer, being also . woman, smiled. "I dare say you wouldn't If ><vj could," she replied.