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Bismarck weekly tribune. (Bismarck, Dakota [N.D.]) 1884-1943, February 02, 1900, Image 3

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85042588/1900-02-02/ed-1/seq-3/

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Hood's PHIs
Are prepared from Na
ture's mild laxatives, and
while gentle are reliable
and efficient. They
Rouso tho Uver
Cure Sick Headache, Bil­
iousness, Sour Stomach,
and Constipation. Sold
everywhere, 25c. per box.
Preparedby C.LHood & Co.,Lowell,Mmi,
JPKKSS MAJUSS TW5
••Id Russian Spies Are Inspecting Swe­
den's Fortifications.
STOCKHOLM, Jan. 31.—The newspa­
pers are becoming persistent in their de­
mands for explanations from the gov­
ernment in regard to the steps it is
pursuing relating to the Russian spies
who for several weeks past are reported
to have been seen in different parts of
Sweden, especially in the fortified
places. The papers declare that if the
reports are true the government must
address an unequivocal intimation to
Russia that such proceedings must
cease. There will probably be an inter­
pellation in the riksdag on the unbiect
First publication Fob. 2,1900.
Notice of Final Homestead Proof.
Lund oliice at Bismarck, N.D., Jan. 26,1900.
Notice is lioroby given that tlio following
named .settler lias filed notice of his intention
to maku tlnal proof in support, of his claim, and
that said proof will bo made before register
and receiver at Bismarck, N. D., on March
10,1900, viz:
JOHN W. FRYKLUND,
for the soH of Sec. 4, Tu p. 142 north of range 78,
west of the 5tli P. M.
Ho names the following witnesses to prove
liiscontinuous residence upon and cultivation
of said land, viz:
Oskar Lind, Axel Hedst roiu, August F. Ander­
son aud Edward Rassmussen, all of Slaughter,
North Dakota.
STATE
A. C. M'GILLIVRAY, Register.
[First publication Jan. 20,1S00
OF NORTH DAKOTA, COUNTY OF
Burleigh In County Court. Before Hon.
John F. Fort, udgo.
In tho Mattor-of tho Estate of John Barker
Greene, Deceased:
CARRIE U. CROSE, "I
Putitionor.
vs. Ordor to
WILLARD S. WALRATH Show Cause.
and MARY T. FOX,
Respondents.
Tho petition of A. T. Patterson, administra­
tor of the estate of John Barker (ireeno, de­
ceased, having peon presented tT this court,
wherefrom it appears to tho court that it is
necessary to sell the whole of the real estate he
longing to said estate for the purpose of pay­
ing tho debts, accrued and to accrue, against
the estate of said deceased, and said petition
now being filed in .said court
It. is hereby ordered that all persons interest­
ed in said estate appear before the said court,
at Bismarck, said county aud state, at 10 o'clock
in tho forenoon of February 26, A. J). 1900, and
show cause if any there bo why an order should
not bo granted to tho administrator to sell so
much of tho real estate of decedent as is neces­
sary, as set forth in the said petition.
Dated at Bismarck, N. D., this 24th day of
January, A. D. 1900.
[Seal JOHN F. FORT,
.Tudgo of the County Court.
Lot the foregoing order to show cause bo
served by publication thereof for four succes­
sive issues in tho Bismarck Weekly Tribune.
Dated Jan. 21,1900.
[Seal.] JOHN F. FORT.
Judge of. tlio County Court.
(First publication Jan. 5, 1900.]
Notice of Final Homestead Proof.
Land Oilico at Bismarck, N. D., Dec. 30, 1899*
Notico is hereby given that tlio following
named settler has tiled notico of his intention
to make final proof in support of his claim, and
that said proof will be made before the Bcgistor
and Receiver at Bismarck, N. D., on Feb. 10,
1900, viz.:
CARL OSKAR L1ND,
for the oV» of neH and olA of soU of sec. 10, in
twp. 142 north, of range 18 wost, of tho 5tli
principal meridian.
Ho names tho following .witnesses to prove
his continuous residence upon and cultivation
of said land, viz.:
John Frcklund, Alban Hodstrom, C.
Cristianson, Oskar Sundquist, all of Slaughtor,
N' D"
A. C. M'GILLIVRAY, Register.
(First publication Jan. 12,1900.]
Notice of Final Homestead Proof.
Land Office at Bismarck, N. D., Jan. 8,
1900*
Notice is hereby givon that the following
named settler has filed notico of lior intention
to make final proof in support of lior claim„und
that said proof will bo made before register
and receiver at Bismarck, N. D., on Fob. 17,
1900, viz:
LEONARDA E. BARTRON (formerly Leonardo
E Luyben).
for tho so*4, section 8 in township 141 n, range
80 w, 5th P. M.
Slio names the following witnesses to prove lier
continuous residence upon und cultivation of
said land, viz:
Frank B. Simons, Willard A. Simons, Ivor
Johnson, Wogansport, N. D. Gus W. Johnson,
Painted Woods, N. D.
railway
A. C. MCGILLIVBAY,
Register.
[First publication Jan. 12,1899.]
Notice of Final Homestead Proof.
Land office at Bismarck, N. D., Jan. 8,1900.
Notice is hereby given that the following
named settler has filed notico of his intention
to make final proof in support of his claim,, and
that said proof will be made before tho register
and recoiver at Bismarck, N. D., on Feb. 17,
1900, viz:
PETER LUYBEN,
for the neK of Sec. 8 in Twp. 141 north, of range
80 west, 5tli P. M.
He namos tho following witnesses to provo his
continuous residence upon and cultivation of
said land, viz:
Frank R. Simons, Willard A Simons, Ivor
Johnson, Wogansport, N. D. Gus. W. Johnson,
Painted Woods, N. D.
A. C. M'GILLIVRAY, Register.
DROPOSALS FOR LUMBER. DOORS,
WINDOWS, ETC., U. S. Indian service,
Standing Rock Agency, Fort Yates, N. D., Jan­
uary 12,1800. Scaled proposals, indorsed "Pro­
posals for Lumbor, Doors, Windows, Etc ," and
addressed to the undersigned at Fort Yates, N.
D., will bo received at this agency until 1
o'clock p. m., of Friday, February », 1900, for
furnishing and delivering for this agency about
246,000 feet lumber, assorted 15,000 laths, 150,
000 shingles,
100 sets table legs, 350 cedar fence
posts, 150 doors. 300 windows, glazed, and 60
barrels lime. Tho delivery to bo made on board
freight wagonsit Braddock, N. IX, on the Soo
or at Mandan, N. D„ on tho Northern
Pacific railway. Bidders will stato clearly in
their bids tho proposed price of each article,
and also stato clearly tho point of dclivory. All
articles offered for delivery under any contract
will bo subject to a rigid inspection. The right
is reserved to reject any and all bids, or any
part of any bid, if deemed for tho host interests
of the sorvico. Certified checks Each bid
must be accompanied by a certified check or
draft upon some United States depository or
solvent national bank in the vicinity of tho
rosidenco of the bidder, made puyablo to the
orchr of the commissioner of Indian affairs, for
at least five per cent of tho amount of tho pro­
posal, which chock or draft will bo forwaraed
to the United States in case any bidder or
bidders receiving an award shall fail to prompt­
ly execute a contract with good and sufficient
sureties, otherwise to be returned to the bidder.
Bids accompanied by cash in lieu of a certified
check will not be*
considered.. For any addi­
tional information apply to George H. Bingen
heimer, U. S. Indian Agent.
USEFUL SHEEP RACK.
De*iened to Prevent Wiute 'Dnrlna
Winter Feeding.
In regard to this useful sheep rack,
originally illustrated in the Michigan
Parmer, the writer, who furnished the
sketch, is quoted thus: From many
years' experience I consider sheep of all
the domestic animals the hardest to
feed through the winter months with­
out waste.
For many years 1 used the old fash­
ioned slat box rack that almost every
farmer has seen. I found it objection-
IMPROVED SHEEP RACK.
[The wings A in this cut hang on hinges 71 and
nay be tipped up and stand perpendicular on the
outside of tlio rack. These wings arc made of
two wide boards, the wider the better. Wo use
the posts of 2 by 4 stuff on the outside of the
rack, but they can be used cither out or in. D,
baseboard, 9 incites wide K, top board, 0 inches
wide: F, slats, about 3 inches wide G, space be­
tween and D, 12 to 14'inches 11, space be­
tween slats, 8 to 10 inchcs, as to size of sheep
kept. A 12 foot rack will accommodate about 12
sheep on a side. I, bottom boards, placed entire­
ly in under and nailed securely to the bottom of
the rack J, center bottom boards placed on top
and lapping on to the other two, I, 1. This leaves
a shoulder of one inch, against which the sheep
can gnaw car corn or roots of any kind. The
body of the rack should be two feet inside. The
wings should meet within about six inchcs.]
able on the ground both of waste and
getting the chaff into the wool, so 1
constructed a patent or folding .rack.
This worked very well for some time,
but at last the sheep grew cunning,
and if left open enough so they could
reach it at all they would still pull the
hay out and get it under their feet. The
trouble with the patent rack is there is
not enough manger room, so I conceiv­
ed the idea of combining the wings of
the folding rack with the manger room
of the old rack, as shown on the ac­
companying diagram. This proves so
far to be a great success. The hay is
simply thrown on top of the two large
wings.
Will Beea Freeze In Winter?
Discussing the question "Will Bees
Freeze In Winter?" in the light of last
year's experiences, A. H. Duff has said
in substance in Farm, Field and Fire­
side: Bees that are iu proper condition
in the hives will not freeze, otherwise
they will. If a colony of bees have
ample stores of honey and tho honey
so situated that they can partake of it
as they need It, they will not freeze.
Hungry bees will freeze, and losses
largely occur from starvation. Bees
starve with plenty of honey in the
hive. This is true from the fact that
during a loug spell of continued cold
weather owing to the intense cold the
cluster of bees in the hive is unable to
expand In the least, to move sidewise
but a few inches, to where the honey is
located. Thus they starve and then
freeze with plenty of food in sight.
A good winter hive for bees is a long
deep one that admits of all the surplus
boney being stored directly above the
bees, and a hive of this kind will win­
ter bees without freezing from the fact
that the bees have access to the honey
at all times, for the heat of the cluster
naturally rising upward the bees can
ascend with it and thus readily reach
the honey directly above tbem. To
remedy this defect of the modern hive,
which is shallow, the chaff hive is
brought into use. By thus placing
heavy packing around the bees their
natural beat is retained to such extent
that only in very severe cold weather
are they unable to reach their stores.
Extracting Honey.
The honey extractor is one of the
principal sources of profit In connec­
tion with beekeeping, says an authori­
ty in The Farm, Field and Fireside.
This machine extracts the liquid from
the combs and leaves the comb as
clear of injury as before taken from the
hive. In the accompanying illustration
A HONEY EXTRACTOR.
the inside gearing is raised up and ex­
posed to view and shows two comb
baskets, each to accommodate a frame
of comb to be extracted, and by turn­
ing the crank the reel is turned wltb
such velocity as to empty the entire
comb of its contents by centrifugal
force. The empty combs are then
placed back In the hives of bees to
again be filled.
HOW MANY HOGS?
That Depends t'pnn How Well tlio
General Farmer I.ikea Them,
How many hogs should be kept
upon the farm?" is a question upc
which Mr. J. M. Jamison expresses the
following Ideas in The Prairie Farmer:
A farm from which the money crop is
principally hogs should improve year
after year. If the hogs thrive, rich
crops must be grown. Corn will do for
a series of years if the old plan of
hogging down is followed aud only the
meat is taken from the land, but con­
tinued cropping with corn cannot be
followed wlteu the crop is taken off
the land. If the fertility of the land is
kept up, the manure must be returned,
and clover should be grown to keep the
land In good condition. As the land im­
proves the farmer l'eels he must in­
crease his herd of swine, and directly
the question of limitation comes up,
for he knows that with increased num­
bers comes increased risk.
One farmer may be able to raise
more hogs than his neighbor because
he gives them better care and has bet­
ter natural facilities, such as arrange­
ment of fields aud convenience and
abundance of good water. There is a
growing tendency to cut down the
amount of fencing upon the farm, and
this is all right, but it adds to the lim­
itations which surround hog raising, as
it makes it necessary to keep large
numbers together and different sizes
and ages in the same field. By having
several fields the liogs may be shifted
around more, they can have cleaner
feeding grounds at all times, and more
care can be taken in assortiug as to
size.
The farmer himself has much to do
with the number that can be handled.
If he takes no pleasure in caring for
swine, he will find that a very limited
number will be sufficient for his farm.
If the farmer enjoys the presence of
swine on the farm aud takes pleasure
In seeing them well fed, lie. will gener­
ally succeed with them. Then the on­
ly question he need consider is how
many lie can handle aud keep them
healthy.
No farmer should have so many hogs
but that lie can have new feeding
grounds to put them on if there is
danger from disease or so many that
they cannot be shifted to different
fields during the year. On an SO acre
farm for nearly ten years we were
able to send to market In two lots
from 70 to 80 hogs each year. This
was the product of five sows having
two litters each per year.
But when we undertook to double the
number of brood sows and nearly dou­
ble the product of fatted animals we
had trouble. The first year wo put on
the market over 90 witli no loss worth
considering. The second year when
we wanted to put off 125 we got all
our available pasture laud under the
tramp of the hogs, and when disease
came we had no opportunity to divide
them and put them on new feeding or
pasture land.
We shall immediately go back to
about the same number that we had
the greatest success in handling. In­
stead of five sows, we will keep six or
seven, as we have better shedding and
other arrangements than we had when
we kept five. We could doubtless car­
ry the greater number If we had more
lots and spent more time feeding grain
products, but this would increase the
cost of the pork very much over that
made from clover and grass.
Timely and Paying Work.
Many of our most destructive insects
pass the winter either among matted
prostrate grass, among fallen leaves or
especially along osage hedges, lanes
and fence corners. Wherever such
places can be burned over in late fall,
winter or early spring the effect will
be to destroy many of these. Instead
of having our annual clearing up in
May, as many do who clear up their
premises at all, the Ohio station ad­
vises that it be done during one of the
seasons above mentioned, as by May
many of the destructive insects have
left their winter quarters and are be­
yond reach.
Points About Ditching.
In advising a correspondent as to the
best shape for a large ditch The Coun­
try Gentleman says: The round bottom
ditch, Fig. 1, would be far preferable
to the square bottom, Fig. 2. The dia­
gram sent, showing a cross section of
the ditch, is shown by the dotted lines.
The proposed angles as outlined are
too steep. They should be not less than
85 degrees from the perpendicular, and
with this large flow of water an angle
of 45 degrees might be better, since the
sides of the ditch when they are wet
PROPER SHAPE FOR A DITCH.
are likely to cave in. It is therefore
better economy to make the sides of
the ditch fiattish than to have tbem
steep, in which case they are likely to
give great annoyance. Unless the fall
Is considerable, so that the water would
scour the ditch out at the bottom, such
ditches would have to be cleaned fre­
quently. If for any reason it is thought
beet to cut the ditch with a flat bottom,
the general shape of it should coincide
with the black lines and not with tbe
dotted lines.
BISMARCK WEEKLY TRIBUNE FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 2. 1900.
FOREST TREE PLANTING.
An Effort to Promote It Aroon
Farmer* and I.iMilownera.
The division of forestry of the Cnit
ad States department of agriculture
through a recent circular offers prac­
tical and personal assistance to farm­
ers and others in establishing forest
plantations, wood lots, shelter belts
and wind breaks. Applications for the
conditions of such assistance should be
made to Gifford rincliot, forester,
Washington, D. C. The design of this
undertaking is to aid farmers and oth­
er landowners in the treeless region of
the west and wherever it is desirable
to establish forest plantation. In the
very interesting explanatory circular,
No 22, %Ir. I'iuchot touches upon vari­
ous aspects of forestry. Tree culture
In regions formerly treeless, lie says, is
dependent largely upon agriculture.
Wherever largo areas of land have
been brought under cultivation the
growing of trees is yearly becoming
more successful.
Nearly every stato of the plains
region has, among many failures, some
admirable examples of plantations of
INTERIOR OP MIXED PLANTATION.
all ages, from 1 to 25 or more years,
which have been in every way success­
ful. The success of these plantations,
when compared with the more numer­
ous failures, proves the great need for
practical experience, combined with
wide and accurate knowledge, iu grow­
ing forest trees in the west.
The forest plantation at the Agricul­
tural college, Brookings, S. D., of
which an interior view is given in the
first cut, illustrates what may be ac­
complished in a few years on the open
prairies of that stato. This is a mixed
plantation, 12 years old, of birch, black
cherry, green ash and white elm.
The second cut shows a typical view
of a young forest plantation two years
after planting. The plot on the left is
a mixed planting of box elder, oak,
white elm, green ash and black lo­
cust. The plot on the right is set to
Russian mulberry, oak, white elm,
black locust, honey locust, green ash
and box elder. This plantation is at
Logan, Utah.
It is not reasonable to suppose that
forest tree culture can be made a direct
source of great financial profit iu the
arid regions, but if it cannot bring in
important sums it can save the farmer
very considerable expenditures by sup­
plying material which he would other­
wise have to buy. The indirect value,
too, of well established groves, wood
lots, shelter belts and wind breaks in
the protection which they afford is of
the first importance. Such plantations,
in addition to being of direct use for
fuel, fence posts and material for many
miscellaneous farm uses, are invalu­
able in providing protection for crops,
orchards, stock and farm buildings.
One of tbe most Important indirect
services of forest plantations, and one
rarely taken into consideration, is tbe
increased market value of a well wood­
ed farm on the prairie lands of the
west over one without timber. Conserv­
ative estimates made on the ground
Indicate that the farms of eastern and
central Kansas and Nebraska that
have well developed plantations of for­
est trees upon them, either in the form
of wood lots, shelter belts or wind
breaks, are worth more per acre than
farms without them.
In nearly the whole of the broad
prairie belt extending from the wood­
ed regions to longitude 100 degree*
west and reaching from North Da­
kota to Texas trees may be grown
with varying success. In the west­
ern border of the wooded area
nearly all the species may be
grown which are indigenous to the
adjacent woodlands. Farther west tbe
range In selection becomes more and
more restricted until the western limit
TYPICAL TWO-YEAR-OLD PLANTATION.
of successful tree culture on nonirri*
gated lands is reached.
Many of tbe wornout farms in humid
regions may be brought back to their
original fertility by growing forest
trees upon them for a series of years,
and very many of them contain land
better suited to the production of wood
than to any other purpose. Such land
should never have been cleared. It is
fortunately trae that throughout the
regions once woo&ed wornout farm
lands will usually revert to their pre­
vious condition If protected from fire
and stock.
SCALDING VAT.
A Convenient Device In Vac Many
Veai'H.
The accompanying cut illustrates a
scakitng vat we have used for ten
years, writes E. C. Dray iu The Na­
tional Stockman. It is a great im­
provement over the old method of
Bcalding in a barrel. 1 will describe it
so that any pcrsou can make and use
one at a very small cost. The body
of the vat is made of inch lum­
ber, poplar or oak, feet long, 2%
feet wide and 14 inches deep ou the
outside. The end boards are mortised
one-half inch into the side boards, aud
just inside of these one bolt is put
across each end. The bottom is gal­
vanized sheet iron No. 20. It. is 8 feet
long and 42 inches wide. One solid
sheet should be used, which will cost
about $1.75 or .$2. It should be nailed
on with steel roofing nails. The iron
extends up the sides inches. The
BCAMII.NO VAT.
ends are rounded, and the iron extends
nearly to the top of vat at end. The
handles are inches long. 3 inches
wide and are just extensions of the
sides. Two bands or iron are needed
across 1:1iq bottom. These are fasten­
ed on the sides. Old wagon tires are
used to good advantage. The vat is
used at end of sled the same as the
barrel is generally used. Two or three
armfuls of wood will be all that is
needed to scald six or eight hogs. A
trench is dug 18 inches wide and 12
Inches deep under (lie vat the entire ble with tin
length. An elbow aud joint of stove- the m:i nufaoturor.
pipe are used at the end of the trench ter that average
to carry the smoke and produce a seldom look into.
draft. There are four hooks, two on
each side 24 inches apart. Two chains
are used to turn aud lift tho hogs out
of the vat by hooking one end of each
chain to the hooks on tlio side where
tho sled Is placed. Four hooks are
needed so you can set tho sled on ei­
ther side of the pan. Two men can
handle tho largest hogs in this pan,
and in one-half hour after yon start
the fire under the pan you may begin
scalding. You need not stop to heat
the water, as you can replenish your
lire under the pan and keep the wa­
ter hot as long as wanted. Not hav­
ing seen anything of this kind in any
of the farm journals I submit this so
that, those who wish to make the work
of butchering much shorter may make
and use one of these at a very small
cost.
Pure Bred Stock For ItrecdlnK.
At present there is great demand for
good cattle, and there seems to be a
diversity of opinion as to what consti­
tutes good cattle, writes A. C. Sanford
In The Breeder's Gazette. If we take
a trip to auy of the state fairs, we
there see a lot of very fat stock—in
fact, some very much overdone, so
that the flesh Is hard and bunchy.
These are represented as breeding
stock, and tbey are pleasing to the eye,
and the country visitors exclaim:
"What large, nice animals these are.
I must have some of them." Of course
if they purchase they pay a large
price, and then they like to have folks
say, "What fine cattle Mr. So and So
has purchased." This all seems very
nice, but auother problem soon arises.
The cattle soon grow thinner when put
on ordinary rations, aud the chances
are that the stock soon looks common
and often are worthless for breeding
purposes. Now, the former owner of
the stock demonstrated its early ma­
turity, feeding qualities, etc., which
was right, but the buyer is greatly
fooled if he thinks that show stock
will keep in show condition all tbe
while.
It seems to me that the place to
demonstrate the qualities of stock In­
tended for meat would be at a fat
stock show and of dairy stock at the
milk and butter test and at fairs where
breeding stock Is exhibited in its nor­
mal condition, as it naturally is when
taken from pasture or ranch without
grain feeding. Let cows be shown
with the greatest number of their
produce, also sires with their get, and
If under these conditions they make a
good record then let them be classed
as good stock. Barnum once said that
people liked to be deceived, and it
seems as if It were true, for my ex­
perience is that the fattest and lar­
gest stock are sold first and for the
largest price, and often purchasers
leave tbe best behind because they are
thin in flesh and of course not so pleas­
ing to the eye. The cow that is a reg­
ular breeder is apt to be thin unless
highly fed, and the same is true of
other animals. It is not uncommon to.
see a fine young thing beside Its moth­
er, and to me this demonstrates the
value of the dam.
Germany and American Meat.
The department of agriculture is still
Working on the problem of German re­
strictions on our export meats, says
The Breeder's Gazette. It presents a
case very difficult of solution, because
tbe restrictions are allegedly rested on
hygienic grounds, whereas there is
ample reason to believe that a desire
to protect the German producer lies at
the bottom of the embargo. Notwith­
standing this, our government officials
are determined to make out a good
case for the purity and wholesomeness
of our meats, and as one step in that
plan It bas been decided to send to
Germany a practical "working exhibit
of our methods of meat inspection. In­
cluding tbe Instruments used in micro­
scopical examination of pork for
trichinae. It Is believed that an ex­
hibit of this kind will carry some
weight and may induce a modification
of tbe severe restrictions now Imposed
on our exprcts.
'WINTERING SHEEP
InflneniA of rroilint I imiii I.nmbn
anil Wool. 8
There are many ways to winter
sheep, varying with tho age of the ani­
mals and what is expected from them..
To merely keep them through the win­
ter in what is called store condition is
the way that many old farmers adopt,
even with breeding ewes, says The
American Cultivator. But such man­
agement does not pay. for the lambs,
will show the effect of the poor keep­
ing. and many of them will die. The
tleece will also be deteriorated, for
whenever the animal is badly nourish­
ed it makes a weal place in the wool
and lessens its value. All wool deal­
ers and manufacturers know that the
wool from a dock of wethers is al­
ways presumably better than from a
ram or a flock of ewes. Iu the ewes
especially there is sure to be some fe­
ver during gestation, and this has a
bad effect upon the wool that is being
formed during this period. So long its
the sheet) is free from fever there is a
natural secretion of oil that keeps
Mintitken
la-
skin and the fleece moist. Fever dries
this up. making the skin dry and the'
fleece harsh to the touch. Such wool
cannot be easily comhcd and carded.
More often the injury to wool is done
by overfeeding animals that are being
fattened. The sheep can digest even
poor feed, keeping itself vigorous and
its fleece healthy so long ns it gets
sullicient in a mount and of the proper
nutritive value. It needs plentiful sup­
plies of proteids to make the fleece
grow properly. Unless these are given
in some form there is sure to be troti
tleece when it comes to
Yet this is a mat
wool buyers very
Quite frequently in
looking over a fleece there will tie
found a streak running through it at
about the same distance from the sur­
face that, will show hard and dry.
while beneath the wool will be moist
or rather oily, as good wool ought to.
be. Sometimes tills will stop further
growth. P.ut if the check was only
temporary and quickly recovered from
there will lie line threads of wool grow­
ing through the harsh portion and
branching out into good wool at the
surface. P.ut this no less than where
the wool growth is entirely arrested
makes a weak place when tho cloth is
to l)e woven.
There is not enough discrimination
made in judging the quality of wool as
brought to the market by farmers.
Most of the buyers are not so good
judges as the farmers themselves, who
can tell when shearing a sheep many
of the conditions under which different,
parts of the fleece were grown. The
manufacturer knows the effect which
Is produced in the fleece, but he can
only guess the cause. Ry putting to­
gether what the farmer knows and
what the manufacturer finds in work­
ing up the fleece a great deal of valua­
ble information may lie secured how
to keep sheep at all times and how to
feed and manage them so as to secure
the best fleeces. We knew many years
ago a wealthy woolen manufacturer
who was also a keeper of fine wooled
sheep. He told us that it was his ex­
perience in working up wool from ani­
mals that he had himself kept that
convinced him that to make the best
woolen clothing the beginning must be
made in feeding and caring for the
flock, so as to produce suitable wool
for the purpose.
HOR
Breeding.
W. A. I-Iart of Portland. Ind., writes
in the Indiana Farmer a strong protest
against the practice of breeding sows
too young, including both boars and
sows. He does not like to breed a sow
at to 8 months old. at which time It
should weigh 200 to 250 pounds. If it
weighs as much as this at these ages,
it is too fat for breeding, and it is not
often that a sow only 0 months old can
be brought In heat. He advises wait­
ing until the sow is 14 mouths old. and
he says by this time it will weigh
500 pounds and be well developed for
breeding. But either boar or sow that
is fed to make such a weight as this
cannot be kept in condition for breed­
ing. He says himself that 200 pounds
of the sow will be surplus fat. which
will be worked off the sow ou the
young pigs in her first litter. We
should much rather expect that it
would kill the sow and her litter when
the time for farrowing comes. The
chief trouble with breeding sows is to
keep them from becoming too fat
while bearing their young. After tbe
litter is dropped and danger from fever
has passed the sow should be fed liber­
ally of milk formiug rather than fat
making food. All that she eats will
tben go to the benefit of her young.
Trae Farming Spirit.
The true spirit of farming, says Pro­
fessor Shaw, lies rather in growing
products on the farm and in turning
them to the best possible account than
In trafficking in produce. Unfortunate­
ly this spirit is all too prevalent in the
west. It is rooted in the desire to
jump into wealth rather than to grow
Into It. The man who grows nearly all
corn, who buys cattle, sheep or swine,
who literally shovels his corn Into
them, leaving the greater portion of liis
cornstalks in the field, may get rich by
so doing if a shrewd dealer, but he Is
not the man who does the most to en­
rich his country. The farmer who goes
out into a neighborhood and buys a lot
of lambs from different neighbors to
feed may make good money, but he
does so at the expense of the dozen,
men who sold to him. If every farmer
grew his own stock and finished It In
good form, the country would be vast­
ly richer than it is today, and so also
would tbe average farmer be.

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