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THE CROSS VILL,E.f CHRONICLE
Keeps Tabs on Those Who Move People of Birmingham Cannot Escape Bills and Rent by Old Expedient. MUST REPORT ALL TRANSFERS Ordinance Requires Owner of Vans or Other Vehicles to Report All Moving to Police Helpful to Authorities. Birmingham, Ala. Those who find It cheaper to move than to pay rent or meet other bills, are pretty well re formed In this city, or are iu process of being weeded out in either case by means of an ordiuunce so riveted that offenders cannot escape. The ordi nance requires the owner of every transfer or other vehicle to report promptly all moving to the chief of po lice, and entries of the same are at s once njade in a book duly alphabeted and dated, and the book is always open for the inspection of any and everyone who may ask to see it. Of course one who plans to turn delinquent will try to conceal his Iden tity while In the act of moving, but the ordinance makers foresaw that Impulse and attached penalties for false namFs or misleading reports, which fair,' shut out that form of trickery. Altogether the ordinance has worked so well that Birmingham has been solicited by other cities for copies of the act and for the experiences un der it which have made it a magic cure for bill-evasion. It is a fixture In Birmingham, for It has been iu force since March of 1913. Generally Helpful. Its enactment came about In that year through the Retail Furniture Dealers' association. At the ensuing election It bad an able enforcer iu They Got Mr. Lloyd George's Number j These two women really got Premier Lloyd George's number. It was K-2252, and l e gave it, ns required by law, while on his way to vote lu Cax ton hall during the recent abbey election. FRANCE IS FAST Country Making Rapid Recovery From Ruins of War. Houses Arise From the Ground and Fields Covered With Promising Crops Population of Devasted Area Optimistic. Paris. An Impressive picture of the extent of France's achievement In re Storing her war-ravaged regions is af forded by M. Loucheur, the minister of liberated regions, in a' public state ment entitled "The Revival of France." Official statistics of the destruction caused by the ar and the reconstruc tion accomplished up to May 1, 1021, the, minister states, show that "the France of today Is the same as France of yesterday, and that In peace as In war. she continues to work with stead fastness, courage and confidence." After showing that 5,154,000 of the 88,400,000 Frenchmen from 19 to 00 Commissioner of Public Safety Arlle Barlter. who thoroughly believed In it and kept everybody concerned up to the scratch. He found that some of the colored laundresses had a fashion of suddenly changing their addresses when well stocked with the linen of their clients; that In some districts overdue gas bills gave sufficient cause for families to vacate quarters, and delinquents for rent and for trades men's accounts were common In nil districts. The telephone company had occasion to compliment-the commis sioner on the accuracy and complete ness of the records In the book of the chief of police, for in one case the company escaped damages for non delivery of a message, in a suit in which the person addressed had May Use to Raise Ships Submarine Invention Passes Sal vage Test of the British Admiralty. LIFTS 16 TONS OF METAL Believed That Much of Steel and Metals Lost Through Operations of German Submarines May Be Recovered. London. Fishing with submarine magnets for allied ships which strew the bottom of the North sea and the English channel may be attempted on COMING BACK years of age mobilized during the war were killed or wounded, the state ment presents the following statistics of civic reconstruction. Inhabitants Deported because of the war, 2,500,278; returned to France, 1,975,708. Municipalities Abandoned, 3,256; re-established, 3,216. Schools Before the war, 7,271; re established, 6,830. Houses Destroyed, 789,000; rebuilt, 10,213; repaired, 326,700. Land Devastated, 8,240,000 acres; cleared from projectiles, wire entangle ments and trenches, 6,881,000 acres. Agriculture Farm land devastated, 4,571,000 acres; farms now cultiva ted, 3,420,000 acres. Live Stock Horses and mules car ried away, 367,000; restored, 06,303; oxen carried away, 530,000; restored, 120,263 ; sheep and goats carried away, 469,000; restored, 121,164. Roads Destroyed, 32,960 miles; temporarily repaired, 18,825 miles; definitely repaired, 8,426. moved, bin claimed to be living tn lit1 old home at the time of the nieswifje His cluliii was thrown out of court lij the evidence of the chiefs records. Furniture dealers who had been be hind the original enactment soou found their troubles eased by H, and finally they were almost without bad bills. Police Are Benefited. In time the detective department of the city benefited by the ordinance, for it enabled them to locate unde sirables, bootleggers, bond-skippers and the kind of women who scattered themselves over the city after the abolishment of the old red-light dis trict Once there was a concerted attempt by the transfer warehousemen to undo the ordinance. Thev obtained a re straining Injunction against Its en forcement, and went Into court on the Issue of constitutionality. The Su preme court ruled that It was both constitutional and reasonable. Minor changes were made In It, not inter fering at all with Its efficiency, and It Is here to stay, with the approval of every reputable Interest Magnet a large scale In the nenr future If an Invention recently placefl at the dls posal of the British admiralty proves to be practicable In deep-sea salvage operations. It Is believed that the de vice may recover much of the loss In 6teel and metals caused by the subma rines. It is also probable that It may, to some extent, replace' the deep-sea diver. The "submarine electro-magnet" Is octagonal in shape, three feet In width between the opppslte sides,- two and a half inches in depth, weighs seven hundredweight, and is strong enough to lift 10 tons of metal. In salvage work three magnets will be employed simultaneously. In order to get a good hold on the larger sections of armor plate. Glguntic searchlights will first be turned on the wreck, and after the vessel has been blown to pieces by ex plosives the magnets will go down to senrch for anchors, chain cables and pieces of metal. The power will be sufficient to raise all fragments of metal, even though they be encased In wood. - - The mechanical diver's possibilities were demonstrated recently at an ex hlbitlon at the Albert docks, Silver. town, attended by representatives of the British admiralty, the Port of Lon don authority and the salvage and shipbuilding companies. Into 30 feet of water were thrown several steel girders weighing two Tons, some gas a&linders, castings, a section of rail way switch and other metallic objects. Brought Up Girders. Swung by a crane, the magnet dlvd and, to the amazement of the wit nesses, came up with the steel girders glued to Its under side. The operation was repeated until the last piece of metal had been raised. At one stage of the demonstration there was lively competition between a human diver and the diving magnet. The steel railway switch, owing to its peculiar shape, could not be located until a diver had gone down and placed the magntt in contact with the rails. "The magnet is not intended to sup plant divers," said Mr. Neale, head of the Neale Magnet Construction com pany, In charge of the development of the Invention. "It will be of value chiefly in cases of wrecks In deep wa ter, or silted up, where divers cannot go. "It will also be used for loading and unloading vessels, discharging metallic ores, lifting machinery and loading steel sections from rolling mills. A current of 16 amperes, at a pressure of 220 volts, supplies the power." Factories (each having at least twenty employees, 1914), 5,297; de stroyed, 4,700; resumed operation, 3, 645. "France took up arms only in eelt defense, endeavoring at the same time to maintain Justice and liberty for the world," said M. Loucheur. "For nearly five years her richest provinces have endured continual martyrdom. And yet by her own means the ruins are reviving, houses arise from the ground, fields are covered with promls lng crops. " The populations of the devastated Areas believe that they can rely on the spirit of solidarity of all those who have measured the magni tude of their sacrifice and under stood their unquestionable right to the fullest reparations." ' Find Buried Treasure. Berlin. Twenty million marks' worth of gold and silver, which is be lieved to have been hidden by Oer many's legendary "Capt. Kldd" Claus Stoertebecker has Just been dug up near the North sea coast, said a Hamburg dispatch to the Neue Ber. liner 'Zelfubg:; HOW PURCHASING POWER OF DOLLAR HAS FALLEN OFF Addition to National and Indi vidua! Incomes of Little Real Benefit. STATEMENT BY BUREAU ECONOMIC RESEARCH. OF Most of Amount Due to Rise In Prices Actual Total of Commodities Pro duced Increased Little, If at All, and Few Were Benefited New York, Oct. 27. The total na tionai income of the United States in 1018 was 61 billion dollars, as com pared with 34.4 billions in 1913; but this increase in dollars did not repre sent a like Increase In production. Most of It was due to the rise In prices, for the dollar of 1918 and 1019 was a much less efficient dollar than that of 1913, The actual total of commodities pro duced increased very little, if at all and a large pait of those, which were produced were war materials, not of a kind really benefiting consumers, Consequently, individual Incomes, estimated on a per capita basis, rising from $340 in 1910 and $354 in 1913, to $580 in 1918, represent more dollars bufllttle or no real Increase, because the $580 of 1918 Is equivalent to only $372 in terms of the purchasing power of 1913, These are the most important find ings of the National Bureau of Eco nomic Research, made public today in advance of the formal publication of the results of a year's study of "Income In the United States." This study, the most exhaustive ever made of the income question in this country, has been conducted byWesley Clair Mitchell, YVlllford I. King, Frederick R. Macaulay and Oswald . V. Knauth under the auspices and direction of a board of nineteen directors, Including men prominent in many fields of busi ness, education, labor, agriculture, eco nomics and practical statistics, and representing many divergent points of view. This table exhibits the. main find Ings, including the equivalent value of per capita income in terms of the 1913 purchasing power: Total Na- Per Capita tlonal Inc'e Income Per Capita Income in Tear (Billions) in Dollars "1913 D61V 1909 $28.8 $319 1333 1910 31 4 840 319 1911 31.2 333 338 1912 33.0 346 848 1913 34.4 304 854 1914 83.2 336 833 1915 3fi.0 338 350 1916 45.4 446 400 1917 63.9 523 396 1918 61.0 686 37S Distribution of Income. The report says that only one out of a hundred (1 per cent) Income re ceivers In the United States lu 1918 had Incomes of $8,000 or more, and that this one per cent had 14 per cent of the national Income. Five per cent, representing incomes above $3,200, had 26 per cent of the total. Ten per cent, including Income above $2,300, had nearly 35 per cent of the total; the most prosperous 20 per cent, In cluding Income above $1,750, had about 47 per cent. Eighty per cent of the Income receivers had Incomes below $1,750, receiving about 53 per cent of the total income. Shares of Labor and Capital. In most of the years since 1912, the bureau finds that in the principal or ganized industries, wages and salaries were about 70 per cent of the total In come; while capital (Including man agement) received about 30 per cent, out of which were paid rent, interest and profits; but these proportions va ried materially with relative prosper ity and depression. In 1916, for ex ample, the share of capital increased to about 35 per cent, with 65 per cent to labor, while in 1919 capital's share fell to about 22 per cent, while labor got about 78. Of the total payments to employees In the highly organized Industries, about 92 per cent goes to the manual workers and clerical staffs, while 8 per cent goes to officials. Share of the Farmer. The farmers, who during the past decade have made up about 16 per cent of the total of gainfully employed, had from 12 to 13 per cent of the na tional Income In the years between 1910 and 1916 Inclusive; since 1917 they have been receiving 16 td17 per cent, or a somewhat higher propor tion, as the following figures from the report show: Per Cent 1910 12.9 1911 11.9 1912 12.3 1913 12.8 1914 12.9 1915 13.1 1916 12.8 1917 16.1 1918 17.0 1919 ...16.1 8ources of Production. As for the sources of national In come, the bureau finds, taking a gen- art! average since 1910, that agricul ture contributes about 17 per ceut of the total, manufacturing about 30 per cent, transportation about 9 per cent, government about 5 per cent, mining a little mtre than 3 per cent, banking a little over 1 per cent. The many miscellaneous employments, profes sional men, retailers. Jobbers, mer chants, domestics, etc., too numerous to list specifically, contribute 33 per cent. In other words, our highly or ganized Industries, even if we Include all manufacturing, mining, transporta tion, banking, and government activi ties uch as education and road-building, produce only about half of the na tional income. The rest Is due to the efforts of small Independent workers. Income Tax Discrepancies. The report estimates that the num ber of persons lu 1918 having Incomes over $2,000, was 6.300,000, and that their total Income was over 23 bllllou dollars. Income tax returns, however, showed ouly 2,908,000 persons having over $2,000, and their total reported Income was less than 14 billion dol lars. This discrepancy Is due In part to technical evasions and straight Ille gal withholdings, but also lu part to the existence of tax-exempt Income. What this means in terms of the In come tax is that the government re ceived in 1918 about half a billion dol lars less than It would have, if all persons receiving $2,000 had paid their full amount. Contribution of Housewives. The contribution of the 20,000,000 American housewives Is not Included by the bureau In the national Income because they are not paid in money. But the report points out that If they were paid at the lowest possible figure (the average recompense of personal and domestic service) their addition to the total national Income would be about one-third, or 18 billions. Oi that basis, the bureau gives the follow ing conjectural figure ns to the fluctua tion of the housewife's contribution to the national Income since 1909: Total Individual Contribution Contribution (in Billion) Tear (in Dollars) of Dollars) 1909. 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913. 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918. 1919. $500 18.85 600 9 00 600 9 .20 625 9.82 ..... 62C - 9.98 626 10.19 650 10.84 600 11.94 650 14.30 750 ,15.30 900 18.45 Income In Other Countries. Both the total national income and the per capita Income are larger In the United States than In any other country. The report estimntes this as the relative standing of the four coun tries named at the outbreak of the war: Nat'l Income Income (Billions Per Capita 1914 of Dollars) (in Dollars) United States $33.5 $338 United Kingdom .. 10.9 243 Germany 10.6 146 Austria 1.3 2(3 rPliA fonnrt fa In rwnea o rw l ha i.tic i L;vi i us in i coo, ft. ii i n hi , published early In November. How the Bureau Is Constituted. The National Bureau of Economic Research was organized after the war by a group of persons who had come to realize the need for accurate and scientific collation of statistical Infor mation as a basis for Intelligent solu tion of national problems. The direc tors of the bureau are T. S. Adams, advisor to the Treasury department; John It. Commons, of the University of Wisconsin ; John P. Frey, editor of the International Molders' Journal; Edwin F. Gay; president of the New York Evening Post; Harry W. Laldler, secretary of the Intercollegiate Social ist society; Elwood Mead, professor of rural institutions, University of Cali fornia; Wesley Clair Mitchell, New School for Social Research ; J. E, Ster rett, of the firm of Price, Waterhouse and company, accountants ; N. I. Stone, labor manager, IIlckey-Freeman com pany; Allyn A. Young, professor of economics, Harvard university; also, the following appointed by the or ganizations named: F. P. Fish, of the National Industrial Conference board; Hugh Frayne, American Federation of Labor; David Friday, American Eco nomic association; W. R. Ingalls, En gineering council ; J. M.' Larkln, In dustrial Relations Association of America ; George E. Roberts, Ameri can Bankers' association ; Malcolm C. Rorty, American Statistical associa tion; A. W. Shaw, Periodical Publish ers' association ; and Gray Silver, American Federation of Farm Bu reaus. It Is a rule of the bureau that each director must approve the findings of the research staff, or state his spe cific objections as part of the report. In this way, bias Is eliminated, for methods and results are under con stant supervision from men whose points of view are dissimilar. Williams Press Congress President Honolulu, Hawaiian islands. Walter Wllllamn. TTnlvorsltv . At Hfiaannnt . . ........ , - v. WiOOVIill School of Journalism was re-elecfed ' president of the Press Congress of the World by acclamation. The ' con gress passed a resolution petitioning President Harding ' to . admit , repre' . sentatives of the nrefcs to th ilUn rma Bient conference deliberations.