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7. rhe Knoxville Independent GEO W. FORD, EDITOR. 718 GAY STREET. OFFICE PHONE (OLD) RESIDENCE PHONE (OLD). .296 .686 Entered at the postoffice at Knox ville, Tenn., as second-class matter. - Subscription Rates, by mail, one year, $1.00; six months, 60 cents; ' three months, 25 cents; single copies, 2 cents. "No men living are more worthy to be trusted than tnose who toil up lroui ! poverty, none less inclined to take or j touch aught which they have not hou- I estly earned." Abraham Lincoln. j UNITED MINE YVUKKEKS Of AMEK1CA. District iy. Headquarters, ivnoxville, Tenn. Kouni H2 llenson iiidg., vVai Ave. and Prince St. Old i hone 881. 1. J. auiitu President Graysviile, lean. W. H. Lynch Vive-Presideut Jeliico, lean., i. K. Uaiiu Secretary-Ireaa. Knoxville, ienn., uYl'LlLVAIlUNAL iSiUltO M&MHhh jouu Jeilrey miaimrg by LLLU11L IJOA1U) i. L. UOlMiS Woolanage, 1 .an. ttich&rd Lowe briceviile, i'enu, iul Lynch Jsoauy, leuu. lonn MulluuUaa Pittsburg, kiyt oe A. Wtiite East tteruatadt, Ky i AUDITORS. Ihoe. Brorvo . . East Beiiisladt, ny Robert Uano - , Sod ay, Teun. V, T. Floja '. ' Pittsburg, Ky. II.J.I.KHS ' w aue brown .bast Hrusudt, Ky. J. D. Posey Soady. Tenn. J. S. Cousins Newcomo, Tenn. ilfcLJEGAl'ES 1 TENNE8SL rtDLKA AlON U' LAUOlt f. J. Smith Graysville, Tenn. John V. Bowden Knoxville, Tenn. it Gary Knoxville. Tenn LEGISLATIVE LOMAUITEE FOH 1. j. Smith (iraysville. Tenn. DELEGA 11 TO KENTUCKY . O- Eiurior: OF LABOR, lotan Jeffrey Pittsburg, Ky. LEGISLATIVE COMAtlTTEE FOB KENTUCKY Otaas. E. Wells "East Bernstadt, Ky. The Iron Mulders' union of Knox ville, Tenn., has received an increase of 5 cents an hour. Linemen employed by the SSt Paul Gas Light company recently went on Strike for an eight hour day. Organized sheet metal workers in San Francisco und vicinity time raised wages 00 cents a day. The new rate is $6 for eight hours' work, effective May 21. Striking iron molilers in Newark. N. J., have settled with nearly a score of shops. Wages are raised 25 cents u day. Several huudred workers are benefited. Governor Lister of Washington has signed the first aid to the injured bill, which provides that a portion of the cost shall be borne by workers. The trade union movement attempted to have the cost placed on Industry. The strike of ship workers at Wil mington, Del., has been settled. Silk workers in Paterson, N. J., re fused to go to work until the Stars and Stripes were raised on the factory. International Union of Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers has a total membership of 70.000 in 01 1 locals. The United States Steel corporation is already paying the highest wages since its formation in 1901, and the In creases voted last year kept well ahead of the theoretical advance of living costs. Recreation and Houre of Toil. It is often remarked by professional men and women that they cannot af ford to limit themselves to eight hours' work, aud they seem to think that this observation of themselves is applica ble to aU kinds of labor. The writer, the artist, the scientist or the engineer gets much of his recreation In his work. If he rests from It it is often only to take up some other Job which does not Interest him more. This is not in the main true of the wage earn er, especially the factory hand. As a rule, he must get his recreation away from the factory, and his only sure way of getting It is through limitation of hours. It is imperative that he have time away from the monotony and noise of the factory. CONVERTING THE NONUNION MAN Difficulty of Convincing the In different Wageworker. FAILS TO SEE THE BENEFIT Proof of the Fact That the Desire For Liberty Must Be Inherent and Come From Within Progress Made In Emancipation of Labor Has Come Through Self Sacrificing Men. History records two striking episodes In American life when a strong Indi viduality Impressed Itse'f upon the his torical firmament of this nation. The month of February seems to have been the chosen vehicle for the advent of two great personalities, though nt dif ferent periods. Both came at the most Important and critical periods of the American nation, Washington and Lin coln. It seems the frarners of the Declara tion of Independence,, while declaring "that all men are created equal," did not Include the negro, which was partly responsible for the civil war. Here, where history records one of the most instructive lessons that no nation can become free unless that nation itself is imbued with the true spirit of free dom the colonists were willing enough to fight against "English tyranny," but were not willing to concede to others the same freedom. Colonial his tory after the colonial war is only the dawn of a new slavery. With the de velopment of industrial activities in the northern states the "free labor sys tem," or, to use a modern expression, "the wage system," developed along with it. With the expansion of the cotton industry, where the lowest paid labor was In demand, the chattel sys tem flourished in the south in other words, a struggle between the two sys tems, which was inevitable, came into existence, the so called "slave labor" being in sharp competition with tV,e so called "free labor." W7hatever historical critics may say, one thing is certain that the so called "free labor" was no better off than the so called "chattel slave." In some in stances the chattel slave from the eco nomic standpoint had the advantage. If necessaries of life are to be consid ered a standard of well being and eco nomic security, then the chattel slave had the best of the bargain. Of all the ills affecting the work ers of this nation the dread of unem ployment, with its train of misery and poverty, is the worst. The "free w-nborer'--was-free.- TStit : where- were the terms and what was the price of that liberty? Either accept the con- i ditions imposed by the master or sub mit to the indignities which no free man would submit to, or starve. Another striking lesson, which Is the most important of all, is that "free, dom," the desire for liberty, must be inherent and must be secured by the class iu bondage through its own ef forts. It does not come from the top. "Who would be free, themselves must strike the blow." Aside from all philosophical argu ments, the negro himself was not ready for emancipation. Moreover, even today the negro problem is still looming high ou the horizon of Ameri can politics in the soutb and to a very large extent in the north. Every act of segregation in the northern cities is ample proof that the negro is still the football of the dilettante reformer. Be sides, it demonstrates the fact that the emancipation of any race or clans is worthless when given as a gift from without. Freedom and emancipation must be accomplished from within. How many of us are struck with this thought when we go out on a mis sion to convert the unorganized, the nonunion men, to unionism, to make them see the necessity of organization, the necessity of joining us aud make common cause with us! And after pleading and arguing we find out that all our pleading was In vain, that all our arguments somehow or other did not convince. In other words, our effort's were wasted, our ar guments fell on flat ears, just as flat as the ears of the chattel slave when the "abolitionists" preached aud sacrificed their all aye, as John Brown, Love ley, sacrificed their lives for the cause of emancipation of the chattel slave. Every milepost of liberty is strewn with the corpses of pioneers of liberty; every inch of the ground upon which the battles of liberty have been fought is saturated with the life blood of its martyrs. The labor unions are not exempt from that. Every pris on cell from coast to coast could tell the story of the emancipation of labor; every industrial battle produces its he roes and martyrs. What would the world be without men that are willing to stake their all jqst to gain a little more freedom for oiuers, wuiie uiose in wuuse ueiiau me greatest battles of history have been fought are indifferent Xu their own in terests or so c ri ni in ally selli.sh they couldn't see the light of true emanci pation? The same with the "chattel slave." He fought against the northern armies that were shedding their lifeblood to set bim free, and the nou unionist, through his ignorance and Indifference, is fighting the unionist, who Is staking his all for the maintenance of a decent standard of life. Who Is to emancipate the nonunion and indifferent wagtf slave? interna tional ttookhlnder. We do Job Printing at Fair Price. NESSE Epitome of Interest ing Events That Ard Transpiring Oveif the State w . Dyersburg. The two-story residence of Capt. Frank Shepard was destroyed by fire. . , , . f ;t " Jackson. Sixty head of goats were stolen from the farm of Q. L. Isabel of the seventeenth district. Milan. The commencement sermon of the Milan high school was preached by Rev. W. C. Sellers of Memphis. m Knoxville. A military mortorcycle unit has been formed here, thirty-six mortoreyclists joining the company. . Martin. The commencement, exer cises of the-' city high school, was at tended toy a large audience of the par ent and friends. li ' Dyersburg. The civic league of the woman's chiD, under the direction of Mrs. W. W. Powell, will give (prizes for the best canning done lit Dyer county: Jackson. Boys between the ages of 16 and 21 have organized a company of Junior Home guards in Jackson, un der the leadership of S. E. Wilson, Jr., with about 30 members enrolled. ' . ' . ':i l Newbern. The strawberry ; jcrop in Dyer county has almost been gath ered. At first it was predicted that a bumper crop would be produced, hut the cold weather damaged the crop 50 per cent. Knoxville. A Harriman firm has been awarded a contract for" 20,000, 000 feet of shipbuilding yellow pine, to be used in the wooden fleet of mer chantmen that the United States gov ernment will build. .' i. Nashville. Gen. John F. Hickman, commanding the army of Tennessee, has announced the routing of, special trains leaving Nashville for!, the 27th annual Confederate reunion at Wash ington, June 5, 6 and 7. . Nashville. The Nashville, ,'. Chatta nooga & St. Loui3 railway is making a better average in car mileage t)ian.that recommended by the special (commit tee on national defense, according to the records just completed.;, f . Knoxville. 'Senator John CiHouk Is In a local hospital suffering from an at tack of blood poisoning. He accident ally cut his small toe a few days ago, the affection resulting. Physicians be liev4e:iwJUv4oiAk -g. jwiu' I .(..i SV.l .. a , is affected. . '?f"i ' v . Just now, 'h McMinnville hen the price of everything Is soa: ring, Mc- Minnville is very fortunate erlng a coal mine nearby. n discov- I. B. Gu- lick has opened a coal mine in the fa mous Ben Lomond mountain, lslx miles from McMinnville. f 3 Knoxville. The Southern! railway company has issued orders tjo the ef fect that all excursions already plan ned are canceled and that mo more would be undertaken at this Jlme, the nation demanding all equipment possi ble for needs of defense and prepared ness. I v - V Knoxville Fifteen thousand dollars worth of whiskey was stored in the basement of the Federal building here as the result of the seizure . of a car load of liquor shipped to a nearby sta tion from Louisville and billed as hay, which was seized simultaneously by state and federal officers. 5? r m ft ' ' Tullahoma. At the last session of the Tennessee Federation of Women's clubs the convention outlined its poli cies for the year, and these- ranged from the unanimous indorsement of a constitutional convention next July to that of a movement for earlier party hours for children and young people. , . . . . . - Chattanooga. Jesse M. Littleton and George D. Lancaster, attorneys for a large number of liquor; dealers, have returned from Washington, where they were in conference with Congressman Moon regarding a bill providing for the exemption of whis ky in warehouses until litigation over certain tax matters was settled. Rldgely. The biggest crowd in the history of this town attended the cere monies attendant on the flag-raising. Lynnville. The commencement ex ercises of the Jones high school at this place closed with the conferring of diplomas, A Japanese play was presented. Tullahoma. The twenty-firBt annu al meeting of the Tennessee federation of women's clubs was held' here, with ; about 150 delegates from, alj parts of , the state i Clarksville Miss Hattie Haynes, a Bister of the wife of Senator C. Dow len. i; suffering from a stroke of par- a'. .. . . -. ueadly Duel Over War. . Fairfax, Okla., May 24. T. M. Brown, an American, was killed, and J. Wlchlatch, a German, . wais fatally wounded when the men fought a duel with shotguns over Wachlatchs chal lenge that he wished the kaiser would hurry up and make good his intention to capture the United States, i Send Us Your Job Printing. Send La Your Job Printing. TEN THE EFFECTIVE -TRADEUNIONS Invariably Those That Demand High Dues From Members. NO ARISTOCRATS OF LABOR Difference Between Successful Trade Organizations and the Partial Fail ures Is Mainly That of Finance.' Fault Finders Will Profit When They Accept Thie Fact. We often hear the statement that' some organizations are the aristocrats of the labor movement, the intent of the statement being to convey the thought that some groups of workmen have the same attitude toward less fortunate groups that the aristocrats are supposed to hold for the mass of the people. If the statement was made that some groups of workmen enjoy much better conditions than others, that they are able to accomplish more for themselves than some of the other groups, a fairer statement would be made. While it is true that the more highly skilled workmen receive higher wages than workmen with little skill, yet the fact remains that a number of very highly skilled workmen receive com paratively low wages. If those who enjoy calling names with the oiiject of creating an unfavorable impression to ward some union or group of unions would take a little time to study the trade union movement they would dis cover that every one of these unions which they call aristocrats began their present organization confronted by the same conditions and the problems which faced all others; that in the be ginning their wages were governed by the same influences and their hours of labor were as long as those of all other workers; that the employers were Just aa much opposed to their organizing as they were in the other trades and in dustries, but that the successful organ izations from their beginning, continu ally endeavored to educate their mem bers to agitate for Improved conditions and to establish the ways and means by which discipline could be estab lished and through which a sound financial system could be placed in operation. Unorganized or poorly organized workmen may sometimes sneer at the more successful workers and call them aristocrats, but the so called aristo crats secured their higher, wage rate. shorter hours of labor and recognition from their employers because they .-Sytre.rwil!lng to. be, governed by sound, businesslike methods in thetransac- tion of their organization's affairs. No one group of the trade union movement has any claim for aristoc racy of mind, but some of the groups have used the minds which nature en dowed them with more effectively than others. Instead of sitting down, finding-fault with the bosses and criticis ing other workers who were more suc cessful than they were, they have spent their time iu working out meth ods which would enable them to more fully protect their Interests, and they have been willing to go down Into their pockets regularly every week and pay a sufficient amount of dues to give them financially effective organi zations. As a matter of fact, It is ridiculous to talk about aristocrats in the trade union movement, for there is no such thbng. Some organizations composed exclusively of laborers today receive higher minimum wage rates than workmen who have spent years to learn their trade. The differences which exist between some organizations in the labor move ment do not arise from any spirit of aristocracy, but because some groups of workers are more willing to pay their way than others. It will be found almost Invariably that those workmen who like to talk about the aristocrats in the trade union movement are those who are un willing to pay high dues or to finance their organizations so that they may become effective. International Hold ers' Journal. John R. Lawson Exonerated. Attorney General Islie E. Hubbard of Colorado has filed a confession of error hi the case of John R. Lawson. former district president and interna tional board member of the United Mine Workers of America, who was convicted of murder in connection with the strike iu the Colorado coal fields in 1&14. The attorney general recom mends Lawsou be freed. Lawson was sentenced to life imprisonment and re leased on bond pending an appeal to the supreme court. The Union. Lnlted we stand and our freedom com mand. Divided wo fall by the way, And factional strife Is the danger so rife That adds to our doom and dismay. Be brothers, be men. Do you realize when We were slaves to the masters of Bold, ' Deprived of our rights and the world's sweet delights, Enslaved in the dark daya of old? Then pause and reflect and the Union re spect. ' Let nothlns detract from Its aim; Iiet jealousy's dart and all malice depart. Be tardy to censure or blame; Be true to the cause and abide by its laws And cherish its blessings, I pray; Revere It and love it; no cause Is above lt- The Union, dod blese It for aye! Frank J. Hayes We do Job Printing at Fair Price "MA. T)E IJf turns Enlist for America! Enlist to keep American money in America for the benefit of Americans. Enlist in the fight to boom "Made In America" products. Enlist in the army of patri otic citizens of this great and peaceful land who be lieve in spending their mon ey for American goods only so that they will benefit themselves and the poor man who is out of work. Our Querjp KepW What was the occasion of the visit of the Archduke Francis to Sarajevo at the time of his assassination on June 28, 1914f It was the occasion of his annual visit to the annexed provinces of Bos nia and Herzegovina. Is it correct that George Washington was created a marshal of France? It seems that when, iu 1781, the Unit ed States sent to France a special am bassador some difficulty arose between him and the French government as to the command of the combined armies In America. Colonel Laurens, the am bassador, stated very firmly that George Washington, our chief, must com mand, "for it is our cause and the bat tle on our soil." The etiquette of the foreign goremmen t; howti'er,-clajm ed, "C'est impossible!" For here was Count de'ltochambeau, an old lieuten ant general, who could be commanded only by the king in person or a mar shal of France. Th American wit of Colonel Laurens flashed upon the situation a happy thought. He said, "Make our Wash ington a marechal de France and the difficulty is at an end." It was done. When was Castle Garden, in New York, built and when was it destroyed and rebuilt? Castle Garden was built by the Unit id States government in 180T from lans drawn by Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Williams, C. E., and was called Fort Clinton. In 1822 it was ceded to the city, in 1824 it became a place of amusement and about 1S20 got the name Castle Garden. In 1845 the Ethiopian minstrels were there, and In 1847-9 theatrical companies played there. In 1850 Jenny Lind sang there. In 1855 it was closed as a place of amusement aud the commis sioners of emigration took it as an emi grant depot. In 1870 it suffered from fire, and on July 9, 1870, it was burned to the ground. It was rebuilt at once. In 1892 the depot was moved to Ellis island and Castle Garden reverted to the city, which in 1890 opened the aquarium there. What is the amount of the head tax imposed on foreign immigrants arriv ing in this country? Is it done u means of revenue? The first tax, imposed in 1882, was 50 cents a head. In 1894 this tax was increased to $1 a head, in 1903 to $2 head and in 1907 to $4 a head. The tax is not paid by immi grants, but by the steamship compa nies that bring them. It is not im posed as a means of general revenue, but primarily to make the immigration bureau self supporting and, incidental ly, to restrict pauper immigration. The imposition , of a tax was attacked as unconstitutional, but the supreme court of the United States sustained the constitutionality of the law. The commissioner general of immigration says in his report: "There can be no question that the Intent of con gress, not only originally, but upon ev ery occasion, when the matter has been before it for consideration iu connec tion with the increase of the amount of the head tax from time to time, was not to raise revenue for the general purposes of the government, but to constitute a fund from which the ex pense of satisfactorily regulating and controlling our immigration problem might be paid, the purpose of the sev eral increases In the; amount being to afford a larger fund for the mainte nance of the service. Since the law providing for the collection of a head tax has been in force up to the end of this fiscal year (1916) there has been collected over $9,000,000 in excess of I tment T? - - A.MEHICA." ti What are the ceremonial observancee of the United States flag, as prescribed by the government? The flag should be hoisted at sunrise and hauled down at sunset. When the national flag is passing the spectator should, if walking, halt, and if sitting arise and stand at attention and un cover. When the flag is flown at half staff as a sign of mourning it should be hoisted to full staff at the conclu sion of the funeral. On Memorial day. May 30, the flag should fly at half staff from sunrise to noon and full staff from noon to sunset. Please print Thomas Jefferson's "Ten Rules of Conduot." Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Never trouble another for what you can do yourself. Never spend your money before you have it. Never buy what you do not want be cause it is cheap; it will be 6ar to you. -V" : Pride costs us more than hunger, thirst and cold. We never repent of having eaten too JitUsV . Nothing is troublesome that we AO willingly. .. . - ' . How much pain have cost us the evils which have never happenedl - r Take things always by their smooth handle. - When angry count ten before yoo speak; if very angry, a hundred. Will you kindly give the origin othe expression "to take French leave?" The origin of the phrase has been the signal for many philological con tests, but the outcome of them for the most part has been to increase interest In the question. It has been plausibly suggested that the custom of disap pearing unobtrusively from a crowded reception instead of elbowing one's way through a throng of people to reach the hostess, a custom which was the natural outgrowth of courteous' consideration for every one involved; , was borrowed by the English from the French. Again, it has been suggested that the French in the phrase "French leave" has no connection with the French people, except to the extent of what is implied in the etymology of the word "frank," meaning free, and that the expression may mean simply a permission not granted, but assumed. But the question is further muddled by the fact that the French have a phrase, "prendre conge a la manlere Anglaise,'' or "se retirer a l'Anglalse," with precisely the same significance, with the hit at the English. In Ger many the phrase is identical with the English. From Hllpert's German Dic tionary it would appear that it is more ' than 100 years old, while the custom which It celebrates, withdrawing with out final leave taking, was ah estab lish practice in Germany 300 years ago. Was the eouth recognized that Is, as a government by any, government? The southern states in arms against the government of the United State were recognized as belligerents by Great Britain and France. By this rec ognition they treated the Confederate government as a de facto overnmen of states struggling for independency They based their right to do so on th. grounds that the United States govern ment bad recognized the Confederate states as belligerents by blockading their ports and calling for the enlist ment of troops to suppress them. The north complained of the precipitance with which Great Britain and France acted in the case as showing an un friendly spirit and giving moral sup port to the Confederates. There never was much protest against it, how ever, as it gave the right to exer cise against British and .French ships on the high seas the right of visit and search, of capturing contraband, and made clearer blockade rights, , The independence or sovereignty of the Confederate states as a nation was never recognized by any power. ! V if'.