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(Continued from Page 1) Patrick Henry, who wanted to be free. But when his army landed on our shores, loyal Americans got their guns and met the King’s soldiers. Our forefathers were willing to stand up to the enemy because their freedom meant very much to them. OUR FIRST PRESIDENT WAS A SOUTHERNER Americans won the war against King George. They were very glad to be free from him and were ready to set up their own government. Men from each state met together and agreed on some laws that all the people would like to have. Then they wanted a President for their new country. They wanted a man who was brave and whom they could trust. So they chose a Southerner who had already proved how brave and honest he was. This Southerner was George Washington. So you see a Southerner was America’s first President. Because George Washington was such a good President and because he did so much for our country, he is called the “Father of Our Country. A SOUTHERNER WROTE THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE Another great Southerner who helped build America is Thomas Jefferson. He wrote the Declaration of Independence. In this declaration Thomas Jefferson told the King of England that Americans were going to build their own country free from Kings. He told King George that one man had no right to make the laws for many men. Thomas Jefferson also helped write the ideas that we Southerners still believe in today about our gov ernment. This great Southerner helped build our American de mocracy. THE STATES FORMED A GOVERNMENT Just as men in business in your own town make contracts with each other, the thirteen states of young America made a contract with each other to set up their government in Washing ton, D.C. If two men want to do something together, they write it down and call it a contract. Both men must do what the con tract says, or the contract will not be any good. So you see, the contract protects both men. It makes them do the right thing toward each other. OUR CONSTITUTION IS A CONTRACT The contract the thirteen states made with each other, form ing their government in Washington, D.C., is called the Constitu tion of the United States. All of the people of the forty-eight states of America today know that the Constitution protects their freedom. The states gave the Federal government in Washing ton, D.C., some powers. But they kept most of their power for themselves. THE FATHER OF THE CONSTITUTION IS A SOUTHERNER When Americans were writing the Constitution of the United States they called on another Southerner, James Madison, to help them. James Madison did so much work on the contract between the states that he is called the “Father of the Constitu tion.” THE SOUTH IS PROUD OF ITS PART IN BUILDING AMERICA Sio you see, two Southerners helped make America’s two most important documents. These men were Thomas Jefferson, who wrote the Declaration of Independence, and James Madison, who is the “Father of the Constitution.” We Southerners are very proud of what our own people did for our great nation. SEVEN OF THE FIRST TEN PRESIDENTS WERE SOUTHERNERS These men were not only Southerners who helped build America. There were many more. We will not name them all. Some of them helped America grow from thirteen states to forty-eight states. And some of them protected our states when they were attacked. Four of the first five Presidents of America were from the South. Seven of the first ten Presidents were Southerners. Some people call the South the backbone of Ameri ca, because our people have done so much for this great country. SOUTH STILL PROTECTS AMERICA Southern children of today are proud of their forefathers who helped so much to make America strong and free. The Come To Cape Cod And Let Us Supply You With Your Needs In j Aluminum Half Screens — Hardware ! Aluminum Combination Doors—Building Materials ! Latex Cr Oil Based Paints ! Dependable Service ; | Red Chase Lumber, Inc. j ! Rt. 28 EXeter 8-2235 West Dennis, Moss. J "THIS MUST BE THE PLACE" The Agony Of The Southern Minister (Continued from Page 1) mitted to full membership, any who wish to worship should be welcomed. The basic position of the mod erates was set forth in November, 1957, by eighty Atlanta ministers who issued what came to be known as a manifesto calling for communication between the races, maintenance of public schools and obedience to law and the courts. A year later 311 ministers and a rabbi representing sixteen denom inations in the Atlanta area, issued a stronger statement along the same lines, the principles of which the Catholic Bishop publicly en dorsed. In many other Southern states, ministers and church or ganizations have published similar assertions of principles. The views of these Southern moderates are, in every case, fully in keeping with the official poli cies of national church bodies. No such organization — Protestant, Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox or Jewish—today supports segre gation in principles or practice. The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, after the U. S. Supreme Court’s school decision in 1954, took a forthright, official position in support of it. In sub sequent years it reaffirmed it and firmly put down all attempts to repeal that resolution. The Na tional Conference of the Methodist Church has made a similar af firmation. The Southern Baptist Conven tion — representing by far the largest Southern denomination — met in St. Louis in June, 1954, and adopted a five-point resolu tion recognizing that “this Su preme Court decision is in har mony with the Constitutional guarantee of equal freedom to all citizens, and with the Christian principles of equal justice and love for all men.” In its 1959 convention in Louisville, Ky., the convention beat down attempts to repeal this resolution and also heard retiring president Brooks Hays — the former Congressman from Little Rock who was de feated for re-election because of his moderate racial position—read a report denying scriptural basis for the separation of the races. Bishops of the Episcopal and Roman Catholic Churches have, (Continued on Page 3) A BOOK REVIEW (Continued from Page 1) multaneously the impersonal ob ject on which they could safely vent all their hatreds and frustra tions. No brief review can begin to convey the depth of the experience Miss Smith makes us live, and the compassion her understanding arouses in us for all the peoples of the south. How this woman loves the land and the people whom she depicts with such dev astating bluntness and accuracy. She develops her synthesis with great power. This is one of those rare works that literally pours out from a mind that has pondered deeply and come to many conclu sions, without ever losing the passion she felt for the subject. The reader lives vicaciously the southern experience and sees how in its senseless way it came to make sense to people in that en vironment. The reader feels the shame, the bombastic puritanism that held all white women sacred and drenched the atmosphere with preoccupations of sexual impurity and blackness and rape and re vival Christianity that merely re inforced these subterranean guilts. White was the color of purity, black the color of sexual violence lurking always under the Chris tian suppression. The reader smells the charm of a southern kitchen and the stench of a south ern lynching; he feels his own ^ mind close to the implausibility of words uttered by Southern dema gogues who would defraud a whole race to win a point. He sees the way social taboos de manded that one conform or risk ostracization or violence from the rest of the community. He sees, not the hypocrisy, but the neces sity of delusion in order to con form socially: “I learned to be lieve in freedom, to glow when the word democracy was used, and to practice slavery from morning to night.” The author explains that one lived the de lusion ‘‘by closing door after door until one’s mind and heart and conscience were blocked off from each other and from reality.” But the delusion could not be sustained forever, as much as it had become an addiction to the southerners. While he raged and struck out wildly, a few like Lil lian Smith began to warn that the world was in crisis, that the world watched the U.S. and saw the great shame of the dream being murdered — and in their disgusts threatened to turn world forces against us. We had no more time for this self-indulgence, she said. one iivvcu me eoocii Udi ti dg* edy, that in depriving others of their liberties, we ended up sub verting our own; that the same processes that allowed us to warp and distort the lives of Negro children. The demagogue at home and in Congress played the game —he called everyone communist who advocated the essential American principles of equality, justice, liberty — the “inalienable rights of man.” And he was be lieved. These super-patriots did the work of the communists bet ter than the communists could possibly have done it, by branding as “communists” everyone who stood for justice, “and giving com munism credit for every brave, intelligent, decent act done by a southerner.” The typical southern racist’s cry has been that no one from outside the area could “under stand” the problem. It has be come increasingly clear that the South itself does not understand it. And this is part of the im measurable value of this work. Certainly, wherever there are men of good will, Miss Smith’s work will be welcomed with grati tude, for it lets all of us see that we have looked with too much shallowness and too much parti san heat on an immensely com plex and tragic problem. All of this would be enough, but it must be added that Miss Smith here shows herself not only a first-class thinker but also a first-class artist and literary styl ist. In its own way, this is a work of art, distilled, beautiful and profoundly moving. — JOHN HOWARD GRIFFIN. mm white men from the South helped build our country and have always been among the first to protect it from any enemy. ^ THE SOUTH IS AMERICAN Did you know your great grandfathers did so much to make a free country for you to grow up in and be happy in? No other part of the United States is more American than the South. Southerners have always protected the things that are American with all their might. WHITE MEN BUILT AMERICA We have learned that our people first came to America from England. This fact tells you that America was built by white men. England is part of Europe where the white race has always lived. When America was founded by a white man, Christopher Columbus, other white men came over and made their homes here. But these settlers were ruled by England, as we have just learned. AMERICA FORCED TO BUY SLAVES One thing that made the Americans so mad at England was her terrible idea of slaves. English merchants wanted to make money. They bought Negro slaves froifr Negro masters in Africa and brought them to America to sell them. The Americans said, “We do not want black men in our country. They will not be happy among white people, and we will not be happy among them.” But King George wanted his merchants to make money. So the Americans were made to buy the Negro slaves. AMERICA NEVER LIKED SLAVERY Americans never did like slavery, but they did not want to set black men free among them. They would like to have helped the Negro build his own country. The Negro is happy among his own race, but two races feel strange around each other. God made them different, so it is natural for them to like their own people better. RUSSIA HAS WHITE SLAVES TODAY The Negro slaves of America were not the first slaves in the world. Some people would like for you to think they were. But these people are not telling the truth. The Old Testament in your Bible has many stories about slavery. And these slaves in the Bible were white slaves. Do you remember that Joseph was sold as a slave to an Egyptian by his own brothers? And King Solomon made slaves of some of his own people. Today, Russia has the largest slave camps the world has probably ever known. And most of the slaves in Russia .are white people.