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Birmingham state herald. (Birmingham, Ala.) 1895-1897, November 03, 1895, Image 11

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Prof. W. J. McGee’s Theory of
the Ascent of Man.
How Man Was Forced Into Social Habits—Ad
vanced Ideas of a Disciple of Dar
win and Huxley,
Here is a new theory relating to the
_ ascent of man from the ape form. It
will doubtless excite the Interest of
scientists in every country when brought
to their attention . It is divulged by
Prof. W. J. McGee of the bureau of
ethnology of Washington, one of the
best known evolutionists in American
scientific circles. According to the Phila
delphia Times, it has never before been
published or publicly communicated to
the scientific world.
Professor McGee last fall, while ex
ploring the desert regions of southwest
ern America, discovered a collection of
ruined cities, thought to belong to an
ancient aboriginal race living in what is
now Arizona and Mexico. A study of
those regions, together with that of other
deserts of this country and the old world,
led him to the belief that the desert,
lather than the fertile country, must
have been the cradle wherein man de
veloped the greater part of his superiori
ty above the ape form. Hitherto It has
been the universal belief that lands of
fertility served this elevating purpose.
The desert, Professor McGee believes,
was also the home of agriculture. He
also is of the opinion that a future step
In the course of man's evolution will be
the disregard of agrlfculture and the at
tainment of mineral food directly from
Ithe earth. In this future stage man will,
therefore, cease to eat vegetables and
animal food, and his alimentary organs
pmst be changed in accordance with his
This theory will doubtless appear in
more extensive and technical form in
eume of the professor's future scientific
publications. However, the brief inter
view following, which tho writer was
recently granted by the author of this
theory, contains the substance of tha ar
gument, omitting all technicalities, such
as might fatigue the popular mind. ,
"I l>elleve,” began Professor McGee,
“that the desert was originally tho home
of agriculture, and that to Its burning
panda and barren wastes man directly
owes his present state of advancement.
In other words, the desert is one of the
principal factors in man’s evolution, and
In his latter strides on planes above the
simian form.
“It Is now a generation since Darwip
showed that not only are the bones, mus
cles, nerves and other organs of lower
animals essentially similar to those of
man, but there are found In the human
body certain rudimentary organs without
function and whose presence can only
be explained on the hypothesis of de
scent from ape-like or monkey-like an
cestors, to whom these organs were use
ful. Later observations, made most con
spicuously by Huxley and Haeckel, have
convinced nearly, all biologists that the
human species Is related to the man-like
apes, and through them to every lower
order of earthly life.
"During the historic and the immedi
ately previous prehistoric age, made
kr.pwn to us through archeology, intelli
gence prevailed, and man came to rule
f ver the earth and to destroy or mold
o his will Its animals arid plants. While
bhanges In man’s o-Wn body now seem
to have ceased, his work and his Institu
tions are constantly changing, ever for
’ the patter. His last short age, therefore,
(s characterized by change more rapid
l' than ever before In the history of the
t“No definite record has yet been found
( the beginning of human existence on
he earth. Written history ends at 5000
' >r 6000 years ago. But man was then a
blinking, speaking and writing man, like
khe higher barbarians of today. The indi
cations of human antiquity found In the
ifllrect products of Intelligence would
Ipeem to carry the beginning of the race
et least 10,000 or 20,000 years, or, perhaps,
twice as long, into the past.
“After man really became man, differ
entiated from the ape, he lived for some
time in fertile and humid regions, where
he was brought into conflict with other
organisms, and where he made conquests
because of his omnlverous or all-devour
ing character. Like the beasts he went
to the water sides to find drink and to ob
tain the products of fertile and humid
soil. As his Intellect budded, bloomed
and bore fruit In new conquests over na
ture he dug wells, opened canals, con
structed water ways and converted riv
ers. He, did not go into the desert region
.until pushed there by other men, in fact
there are few organisms that push into
arid regions except as a sort of overflow.
SMan must have exactly the same, first
hunting the humid and fertile regions of
the earth, where he might find food of
some kind without much search. But
as the races of mankind grow larger and!
larger some wera pushed Into the desert
regions, where they began to develop In
new lines. But It was through this mis
fortune, mark yoCT, that man gained his
present supremacy over other animals.
He was forced to learn the science of ag
riculture, and it was only after gaining
his superiority that he spread the science
of agriculture over the whole earth.
‘All animals and plants of the desert
live In colonies, between which there is
nothing but barren sands. The struggle
for existence is between the animals of
plants and the physical conditions of the
locality, and they have learned through
Instinct that aiding each other is the only
means of prolonging their lives. Very
often their dependence upon one another
lias become so extensive that one cannot
(exist without the other. For Instance, the
yucca-moth can only live on the yucca
tree, and the farmer ant now eats nothing
"but the grass which It has cultivated in
its peculiar little farms.
“Assume that mankind is introduced
Into the desert. He is compelled to co
operate with other living things, Just as
■well as any other animal. Now, we have
a term by which to express this co
operation, and that term Is agriculture.
In every part of the world we can trace
Culture, as recorded In history, to an
tirld region. The oldest countries of the
Western hemisphere In which we find cul
ture were Egypt and Babylonia. These
Were both desert regions.
‘'I have noticed many interesting cases
of this co-operation between plants and
Animals'In arid lands. For Instance, in
Our desert lying in southern Arizona and
further south from Mexico a mesqulte
tree will spring up In the plain. Wlthlp
two or three years the birds resting in the
branches drop the seeds of the cacti,
Vvhlch they have gathered In their daily
labors. Some species of cactus, like
pithy vines, are unable to grow alone;
so the mesqulte tree and the cactus o?ten
combine their thorns for mutual protec
tion. Then grass seeds, blown by the
wind, lodge about the roots and grasses
grow and go to seed beneath the shelter
ing branches. Next small animals dig
their holes among the roots, fertilizing
the'ground and giving channels for the
waters of the rare rains. Meanwhile the
Annual and soml-annual plants which
maintain a perilous existence on the des
ert take root in the ahellej'ed and fertil
ised soil, beneath the ohetus and mesqulte
i * mi In “moo all 01 this becomes a min
lature garden of beautiful foliage and
bloomage. Certain ants afterwards
come for the seed, certain flies and wasps
pour the nectar and certain birds to build
their nests In the branches. So the more
Intelligent the organisms the more per
fect Is the co-operation. Men, ants and
bees head the list of Intelligent creatures
on the earth, the ant being second only to
“The whole tendency of the work lately
accomplished by the bureau of ethnology
In the southwest goes to support the the
ory'that what we call the old world Is re
ally the old world. That le, the eastern
continent Is older than the western con
tinent. Similarities between human and
ape skeletons are closer when we com
pare men with the old world apes than
when we compare them with the apes
found In this country. America hasn't
what are called anthropoid or man-like
apes, such as found in southeastern Aqia
and Africa. The chimpanzee and the
ourang are the most conspicuous of these.
In this country we have really no apes"
closely approaching man. Hence man
must have originated In the old world.
Geological Indications seem also to show
the greater age of the eastern hemis
phere. We have never found here any
conclusive evidences of tertiary or early
nuarternary man, such as are claim ed
“It is probable that man first entered
our continent across Behring strait, or
over the Alutlan islands to what we now
call Alaska. The Kuro-SIrro, or Block
stream of the Pacific, which corresponds
to the gulf stream of the Atlantic, flow
ing northward along the eastern- Pacific
coast, determined then, as now, a path
way strewn with an abundance of food
all the way to the Aleutlon islands. Even
as far north as this abounded salmon, <
sea lions, whales, etc. On arriving here
they were naturally led to continue their
Journey south along our coast, which of
fered a still greater food supply as far
south as Lower California.
Thus the desert of the olil world was
really the home of man's agriculture,
while the deserts of America served the
same purpose for our earliest aborigines.
In all probability the desert man of the
old world learned the science of agri
culture before coming to this country.
It Is practically certain that he forgot
all that he knew about agriculture on his
way here and that he did not learn it
again until he pushed into our deserts.
Our agriculture, therefore, was undoubt
edly indigenous. The home of corn was
In the desert plantations and mduntain
valleys of Mexico. But corn was not
a useful food plant so long as It remained
in its primary home. It required irriga
tion. Observation Indicates that in arti
ficially irrigated lands plantB are changed
more rapidly than elsewhere. The most
useful grains and fruits are deformities,
so far modified by cultivation that their
original forms are unknown. The fruit
of the apple, for instance, was originally
a thin skin protecting the seed. Cattle,
sheep, fowls, swine, etc., the chief sources
of animal food, have likewise become de
formities, as compared with their bodies
before domestication. They, like domesti
cated plants, are now helpless without
man’s aid. Man’s food substances can be
represented In a graded scale, beginning
with the simplest minerals and running
up to the highest animal compounds.
Man has, therefore, conquered the veg
etable and animal kingdoms, shaping
them according to his wants.
"Thus, by improving his nutrition
through agriculture, man has gradually
increased in stature and longevity—for
I do not believe that man ever enjoyed
a larger frame or a longer life than
that which he has now. His intellect,
likewise, grew with improved physique.
As an example of this the smallest and
most ignorant tribes in Africa, the Bush
men and Batuans, know nothing of agri
culture and are deprived of sufficient
“Now I have shown that through the
birth of agriculture in the desert man at
tained his present place In nature. Let us
next look to the future. Will man some
day outgrow agriculture entirely? The
plant gets nourishment from mineral
products of the earth, the animal then
gets it entirely from the plant, and man
either indirectly again from the animal,
or, like the animal, from the plant.
“In the cases of salt and water it
comes directly from the earth. But will
man ever take all of his nourishment di
rectly from the earth, ceasing to eat
vegetables and meat. If we look for
ward in an indefinite fashion we may ex
pect the time to come when food will be
obtained in this Way, without the expense
of energy on plant and animal domesti
cation. Already we have advanced a
step in this direction In what scientists
call paratrlptic plants, paratriptles are
literally waste preventers, including tea,
coffee, alcoholic beverages, tobacco, etc.
These in some way retard the waste of
tissue, and consequently the dissipation
of energy. Some are very powerful, as,
for instance, the cocoa plant of South
America. The Peruvian on a long Jour
ney takes a few leaves of cocoa, which
invigorates him and enables him to do
much more work than ho would other;
wise accomplish. In Africa the nuts of
the kola tree are used in the same way
The experience of chemists in the syn
thesis or chemical compounding of qui
nine gives us reasonable oause for man
ufacturing such food as kola nuts and
coca leaves in a compound. Although
paratriptic plants will not at first act
as foods in the ordinary sense of the
term, they will be beneficial accompani
ments of food. So that, forecasting, It
seems to me that we may anticipate a
partial replacement of ordinary foods
from time to time. These changes in
food mean future steps in evolution. 1'he
digestive organs of man must change in
accordance. Now, however, according to
the unhappy manner in which men are
constructed, they must eat, even If they
eat trash, in order to live and keep the
alimentary mechanism running."
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The Berney National Bank,
Birmingham, Alabama.
Chartered January 2Sr., 1886.
Capital Stock, $200,000.00. Surplus and Profits, $28,000.00.
Successors to City National Hank of Birmingham January 8, 1895.
Special Attention to Industrial and Cotton Accuunts
J. B. COBBS, Pres’t. W. F. ALDRICH, Vice-Pres't. W. t. G. HAKDING, Cashier.
J. H. BARR, Assistant Cashier.
DIRECTORS—B. B. Comer, T. H. Aldrich, Robert Jemison, W. F. Aldrich, Walker
Percy, Robert Stepheus. Charles VVbeelook, James A. Goinsr, J. B. Cobbs.
N. E. Barker, President. W. J. Cameron, Cashier.
W. A. Walker, Vice-President. Tom. O. Smith, Ass’t Ca9hier.
T. M. Bradley. 2d Ass’t Cashier.
Capital Stock, - - ^250,000
Designated Depository of the United States.
Chartered May IS, 1884.
DIRECTORS—J. A. Btratton', F. D. Nabers.W. A. Walker, T.#C. Thompson, W, S.
Trown, T. H. Molton W. J. Cameron, N. E. Barker, Geo. L. Morris. _
R. M. NELSON, President.
A. T. JONES, Vice-President.
W. A. PORTER, Cashier.
H. L. BADHAM, Assistant Cashier.
CAPITAL $500,000.00.
S. E. Cor. First Avenue nod Twentieth S reet, Birmingham, Ala.
BUYS and pells exchange on all principal cities in the United States, Europe, Asia, ATrica,
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banka and individuals.8 29
Birmingham, Alabama.
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Buy county and city bonds.
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The Metropolitan Hotel and Restaurant
Nos. 8 and 10 North 20th Street, Corner Morris Avenue.
Birmingham Paint and Glass Company
Faints, Oils. Varnish, Glass, Sash, Doors and Blinds.
1916 Third Avenue.Birmingham, Ala.
Dr. Dozier & Co.’s
A famous and successful institution for the cure of
Chronic, Nervous, Blood, Skin and Private Diseases of both
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0. T. DOZIER, M. D.,
Our Specialties.
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SYPHILIS In evry form effectually
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All Irregularities and cases of weakness
In woman.
Dr. Dozier gives his individual study
and efforts to the diagnosing and treat
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thus securing to every patient the high
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as security against mistakes and the use
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BLOOD, KIDNEYS and of the Genito
urinary Organs, and do not coptine our
selves to PRIVATE DISEASES alone;
hence we are patronized by the best peo
ple of b6th sexes, and any lady or gen
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matters sacredly Inviolate.
Easy payments and liberal terms to
all, especially the poor.
Persons who cannot visit us In our of
fice can, by sending us their name, re
ceive our "Perfect Question Blanks,"
which will enable us to TREAT THEM
OFFICE HOURS—9 -i. m. ‘to 12 —.; 2
p. m. to 5 p. m. Sundays, 9 a. m. to 12 m.
Send 2 cents for question list and
"Book for Men Only.”
Send 2 cents for question list, for /«
PRESCRIPTIONS, but prepare and fur
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That we publish no Individual testi
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our office.
Dr. Dozier & Co.,
P. O. Bex 112. Birmingham, Ala.
Clippings Prom the Press.
The Dally State.
Dr. O. T. Dozier, the specialist physi
cist. of the Southern Medical Dispensary,
Is one of the most successful practition
ers of the south. He Is a man who loves
the world and his fellow-man. Patients
learn to love his ever sympathetic na
ture, as they respect and confide In his
consummate skill.
It always affords a public journal
treasure to testify to merit where It Is
deserved. Jt is therefore with pleasure
and pardonable pride that the Age-Her
ald Jons with Its brethren of the press in
testifying to the merit, skill and reliabil
ity of Dr. O. T. Dozier, Principal of the
Southern Medical Dispensary of this city.
Dr Dozier ha^ resided for many years In
Birmingham, and each successive year
has added to his reputation, to his use
fulness and to the esteem In which he Is
held by our best citizens. His long rec
ord and approved abilities entitle him
to the proud distinction of standing at
“the head of his profession.”
Bessemer Weekly.
There Is probably not a more highly
educated physician In tl^ls section than
Dr. O. T. Dozier. He Is a specialist of
many years’ experlenoe and successful
practice. He is noted for his thorough
mastery of the details and Intricacies of
his profession, and for unusual selentlflo
(Dally News, Birmingham.)
Dr. Dozier, the head of the Institution.
Is a physician and surgeon of eduoatlon,
skill and experlenoe. a man of cultiire ana
Ijlgh literary attainments and a gentle
man respected by all who know him. He
oan be relied on In all matters pertaining
to his profession. The ISfews commends
him most cordially to all those in need of
his services.
Weekly Mirror. Selma.
The doctor Is highly recommended by
the press of the state as being a reliable
(Masonic Guide.)
Dr. Dozier comes from a family of
prominent physicians, and with his full
store of medloal knowledge and his va
ried and large experience in his profes
sion, Dr. Dozier can be relied upon to
treat all diseases In the most successful
Sumter County Sun.)
Dr. Dozier's reputation as a specialist
overstepped the bpunds of Alabama,
and he Is known all oVCr the south. Dr.
Dozier Is not only an eminent physician,
but a brilliant writer and poet, His work
in this line lias ben compared to that of
the late Father Ryan, the priest poet.
(Labor Advocate.)
Dr. Dozier bears the reputation of be
ing one of t{ie most Successful practition
ers In the south. A personal acquaint- >
anee with the prnclpal warrants the La
bor Advocate In giving the institution the
warmest recommendation to Its every
(Bessemer Journal.)
Dr. Dozier's reputation IS a brilliant
one. Ho is a specialist of nearly twenty
years' experience In aotlve practice and
is strictly reliable and has the Confident
of the public and Indorsement of the
press. ThC doctor tg a distinguished
graduate In every department pf medical
science, and Ills success with patients Is
(Winona, Miss., Times.)
Dr. Dozier Is a specialist of great repu
tation and has been unusually successful
in his practice. He never undertakes a
case unless reasonably sure of a cure. Hs
Is a high-toned gentleman and Aan be con
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(Atlanta Constitution.)
Dr. O. T. pozler, the head of the South
ern Medical Dispensary of Birmingham,
Ala., Is a specialist of nearly twenty
years' experience In the treatment of
ohronto. nervous and private diseases and
his uniform success has given him a lead
ing position In the medical profession in
that city.
(Sunay Morning Star.)
Dr. Dozier’s success has been simply
marvelous and has elicited the most en
thusiastic words of praise and gratitude
from the dispensary’s many patrons from
all over the state.
(Eutaw Whig and Observer.)
While in Birmingham recently we had
the pleasure of meeting Dr. Dozier and
found him to be an Interesting and genial
gentleman. He has not only the reputa
tion of being a fine physician, bitt Is a
writer of considerable character.
(The Southern Odd Fellow.)
We cannot add anything to the reputa
tion Dr. O. T. Dozier has already ac
quired In the line of his profession, but
we know him to be a brother Odd Fellow
that can be relied on to carry out every
promise he makes to those needing his
(Mountain Home, Talladega.)
The press of Birmingham and all over
Alabama speak In the highest terms of
Dr. Dozier as a physician, surgeon and
gentleman, and we have no hesitancy In
recommending hint to those of aur pa
trons who need -his serviced.
(Alabama Christian Advocate.)
The Southern Medical Dispensary Is
the leading Institution of its kind in Bir
mingham and has been Instrumental In
effeothg the cure of many serious pases,
and thus carrying healing and happiness
to many homes. Dr. O. T. Dozier, head
of ^he Southern Medical Dispensary,
gives his entire time and personal Super
vision to the work, and brings to bS4r a
careful medical training In the best col
leges of the land and a long and valua
ble experience In the treatment of special
diseases. His professional standing Is
unimpeachable and his character as a
gentleman and citizen Is above reproach.
(Anniston Hot Blast.)
Among the most noted and successful
specialists In this country are Dr. Dozier
& Co. They have extended their business
from year year and the patronage
given to them in the several surrounding
states Is most gratifying. Dr. Dozlor
Is a high-toned, polished, Christian gen
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friends In Anniston who knew him years
ago when practicing In Rome. Qa.
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