Newspaper Page Text
«*»- BIRMINGHAM STATE HERALD. >**■_
VOLUME 22: BIRMINGHAM, ALA., SUNDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1895.-TWENTY PAGES NUMBER. 81. TWENTY THOUSAND KILLED Fearful Record of Snake Bites in India. A DEATH EVERY HALF HOUR The Cobra, the Karait and the Dabola Are the Cause of Most of the Deaths—Other Venomous Reptiles. Kvery hnlf hour In India, on the aver age, a death occurs from snake poison ing. The total number of deaths from . this cause in a day is about fifty, and in a year about 20,000. Fortunately for the maintenance of the British power in In dia, these casualties are confined almost . entirely to the poorer and more ignorant r natives. r These natives are themselves largely to blame for the frequency with which they are stricken down by the poisonous rep tile. They habitually go about with bare feet, making so little noise that the I snake is surprised and bites, whereas if it had been warned of the native's ap * proach it would have slunk harmlessly out of the way. India may be fairly called the home of snakes, but all of these are by no means poisonous. It is easy to distinguish be tween those which are harmful and those which are not. Generally the shape of a poisonous' snake's head is oval, and in the case of the venomous colubrldae /there is a scale in front of the eye which - extends down to the scale in which the nostril is situated. This Indicates almost certainly that the species is poisonous. If the snake is marked with white rings throughout its length, which is usually about 3 feet, you may feel sure that you are in possession of a karait. < Karaits are very inconvenient animals to have about the house. They are so ciable creatures and are fond of taking up a residence in human habitations. They have an uncomfortable habit of dropping upon the bed out of the thatch With which the bungalows, or hodses. are roofed. They also lurk in the tops of window sashes, coil themselves up be hind the basin on the washstand, and, when the chance offers, will ensconce themselves snugly in the privacy of a bureau drawer. X llcy Me LUU Siupiu Ul IWU icniut&iv get out of the way, and the result Is an appalling number of deaths from their bites. Throughout northern India the karalts are so abundant that one has to be very cautious In walking across his room at night for fear of treading upon one of these unbidden guests in the dark. Two other snakes In India are more deadly than the karait. These are the cobra, which Is almost as common, and the hamadryas, which is quite rare. These creatures are both related to the karait, and can be distinguished from harmless snakes by the same.signs. You need never fear injury from the cobra If you treat him with even a small degree of consideration. He will retire at the approach of a human being if he has time enough. But his temper Is irritable, and when he does bite he places you im mediately beyond the reach of medical aid. The only thing that will save yon Is to quickly cut out the wounded flesh spot with a knife. Once in India a man who was cutting wood was bitten on the finger by a cobra. !At once he raised the ax In hts other hand and chopped the finger clean off. He began to regret his act, so, thinking he might save his finger, he recovered the severed piece and placed it in position. The poison penetrated Into his system through the rejoined blood vessels, with the result that he died. A woman was bitten In the hand by a cobra while she was nursing her child. Both child and mother died. This story has been recorded officially by a qualified The poison of the cohra has been found to be almost as deadly when dried and ground into powder as when injected by the reptile Itself. Native Indian physi cians use the poison in minute <tloses in various maladies, but the results are not encouraging. The method of extracting the poison is very interesting. A cobra Js placed in an earthen pot and a banana dropped in after it. The lid is then tied down and the pot heated over a fire. The uncomfortable rise In temperature causes the prisoner to become irritable, and it vents its wrath on the banana, biting It again and again in its paroxysms. The fruit is afterwards carefully dried and Js then ready for use. It is said to be a powerful stimulant. The hamadryas is the largest and most formidable of the venomous snakes. Members of this species often attain a length of 14 feet, and they are so fierce that they will sometimes attack, and even pursue anyone who ventures too near their nests. They have been known to Impede travel by blocking the road through a Jungle and refusing to move. The hamadryas feed largely upon other snakes, and from this circumstance his presence in India is not an unmitigated evil. They are frequently mistaken for a harmless rock snake, and natives of India have been known to receive a hamadryas into their family under the Impression that the reptile was not pois onous. The karalt. the cobra and the hama dryas arp all colubrine snakes, or asps, and are supposed to be closely related to the creature by means of which Cleo patra committed suicide. India also has a plentiful supply of vt perifie snakes. These creatures can al ways be recognized without difficulty by their broad, swollen heads and their necks covered with tiny scales. Vipers are divided Into pit vipers, character ized by the possession of a little hole or pit easily visible on the side of the head between the eye and the nostril, and the true vipers, which are without this or gan. The pit vipers of India are related to the rattlesnake, though they do not have rattles; nor are they nearly so deadly as the rattlesnake, though their bite is very painful. They are viviparous, bringing forth their young alive, instead of laying eggs. One of the most dangerous of the true vipers of India is the dabola. This is colored a bright yellow, and is very fierce in disposition, its bite almost always causing fatal results. It Is. however, very lazy, and, instead of advancing or retreating when it happens to hear some one coming, maintains its position and hisses loudly. MOTOR 8 TOJRUN SHIPS. Ocean Vessels Before Dong Will Be Pro pelled by Electricity. Pittsburg Dispatch. Ten years ago a well-known professor of electrical engineering in a leading American college, who had tested almost every form of the storage battery then made, was asked whether he saw any future for the accumulator. His reply was: "The more I see of storage bat tertes the more I am convinced that they are impracticable, apa mat they can nev er be made* '»omifterciaily valuable.” To day the storage battery is working its way into aiq&ost every branch of electri cal work, and if certain promises whicn recent improvements in construction seem to give are fulfilled it is on the eve of its crowning triumph—recognition as a practicable motive power for the com mercial propulsion of street cars. Many electrical engineers have just as little faith in the possibility of driving ships across the Atlantic by electricity as the college professor had as to the future of the storage battery; but, on the other hand, invo .ns are now being perfected which w.il effect an extraordi nary and almost incredible revolution in ship propulsion, and those who know what is being done in this field, which is not yet made public, realize that to name ten years as the period within which electric ships will cross the Atlantic is to allow a very liberal margin. This will probably be effected by machines giving enormous economy of power, but there is already talk of carrying out the idea with existing appliances. A. S. Hickley, a pioneer in American electrical launch construction, holds that the reason vessels crossing the Atlantic make such comparatively slow time is that they cannot drive their propellers fast enough with tht amount of power behind them without shaking the boat to pieces. He proposes to put in an ocean steamship a powerful engine, say a compound condensing engine of slow speed type, connected to a multipolar generator, giving, say, 500 bolts potential. Directly on the shafts of the propellers he would put the armatures of the motors, which are to drive the propellers. These can readily be made to run from 600 to 900 revolutions per minute, whereas the engine is probably making only 60 to SO. Tn this way not only would there be a considerable acceleration of speed, but the vibration of the ship would be almost entirely prevented, and the dipping in and out of the water of the propellers in rough weather would not affect the main engine and jar the vessel from stem to stern as it now does. DEADLY SHOTS FIRED BY THE SUN. In One Instanoe an Innocent Man Was Sen tenced to Be Hanged. Cincinnati Enquirer. In a recent paper appeared an account of a strange accident, in which a man was killed y the discharge of a gun while lying asleep on a lounge in his room, the weapon being discharged by reflected rays of the sun falling upon the cart ridge chamber of the lirearm. Since the publication of the story a correspondent from York, Pa., writes concerning the accident and refers to a similar case, in which, through the ef forts of a clever Cincinnati lawyer named O. C. Wallis, the person accused of the murder and sentenced to be hanged was set at liberty, the circum stantial evidence on which he was con victed being entirely exploded by a wit nessed demonstration as to how the ac cident really occurred. The York correspondent referred to volume 13 of the Criminal Law Magazine, page 607, on which a full account of the case appears. The case was that of the state of Tennessee against Avery, tried In Henry county, that state, an is one of the most remarkable in the history of criminal jurisprudence. In June, 1887, Charles Ensley, the cousin of a man of the name of Avery, was killed In his room while lying on a lounge about 3 o’clock in the afternoon. The weapon which caused the death was a small rifle, sending a 32-caliber ball through Ensley’s brain. No one was in the house at the time but Ensley. An empty rifle was found lying on a rack on a wall of the room In which the kill ing occurred and the bullet fitted the tube. Avery was arrested for the crime, as he was the only living close relative to Ensley, and by his death profited to the amount of about $100,000. Avery was tried, pleaded not guilty, but was con victed of murder in the first degree and sentenced to be hanged. He appealed to the supreme court and engaged Mr. Wallis to defend him. The supreme court remanded the case back to the cir cuit court on technical errors. Two mis trials were brought about and then came the strangest part of the story. The brilliant Wallis struck the keynote to the mystery. In August, 1891, he had the rifle loaded and hung on the wall. A white sheet with the form of a man marked on it was placed in exactly the position occupied by Ensley when lying asleep, and a heavy cut-glass pitcher of water like the one found in the room was placed on the shelf above. The temperature was 90 degrees in the shade, one of the hottest days of the year. The pitcher acted as a sun glass, and the hot rays of the sun shining through the water were refracted directly on the cartridge chamber of the rifle. Eight witnesses were in the room and a few minutes after 3 o’clock a puff and a report occurred and the ball struck the outlined form back of the ear In the exact location where Ensley was shot, and the theory of circumstantial evi dence went to pieces. The incident, be ing witnessed and sworn to, readily ex plained Itself to the Jury. A Missionaries’Museum. Boston Herald. One of the most Interesting museums In Boston has been removed to Hartford —the museum of curiosities collected during seventy-five years by the mis sionaries of the American board, and for many years displayed in cabinets in a little dark room In the Congregational house. The collection is to be deposited In the library of the Hartford Theologi es.'! seminary, and Boston will know it no more. Many of the objects are worthless— unless from a sentimental point of view —pebhles from Palestine, bits of wood or stone broken from temples and the like— but others were of the rarest rarity, in terest and scientific value and some were unique. There were little' Idols from In dia, models Illustrating life and man ufacture in China or Japan, and savage arms and Implements from the South seas. Unlike many similar objects seen nowadays, they were genuine “docu ments’’ of savage or barbarous life be fore it had been touched and Influenced by western civilization. To the eth nographer they were Invaluable. Particularly interesting were the idols and curiosities from the Sandwich isl ands, all of them obtained by the earlier missionaries. They Included the great Idol of the Hawaiian war god, one of the most interesting things In its way ever brought to America. The Hawaiian por tion of the collection was not sent to Hartford, but through the influence of Mr. Gorham D. Gilman? the Hawaiian consul In Boston, it has gone to enrich the Bishop museum of Hawaiian antiqui ties in Honolulu. Wages of Sugar Trust Employes. Kansas City Star. The sugar trust, one of the especial beneficiaries of the United States, has closed all of the Philadelphia refineries, throwing 2000 men out of work. Will McKinley or some other high tarifT champion explain why it Is that the espe cially protected Industries often have less steady work for their men than others which are not similarly favored? A COLONY (^PENSIONERS Something About the New Town of Fitzgerald, Ga. SETTLED BY OLD SOLDIERS Of the Union Army—The People Now on the Ground Represent Thirty-five States. Jacksonville Times-Union. An old soldiers’ colony has been estab lished in Irwin county, Georgia, at the crossing of the Brunswick and Western and the Georgia Southern and Florida railroads, and where a few weeks ago there was nothing but the virgin pine forest there are now lfiOO people. This colony Is made up of old soldiers, who draw pensions from the government, and their families. It was originated by P. H. Fitzgerald of Indianapolis, Ind., a pension agent who. for the past three years, has been working with this object in view. "The colonists have decided to call their magic city Fitzgerald," said a prominent railroad man. It is near the postoffice, formerly known as Swan, in ■■♦rwin county, tVenty-live miles north east of Tifton, but now the postotlice Is known as Fitzgerald. The colonists pur chased seventy acres of pine land, and have plotted a city of 1000 acres, which is rapidly being settled by pensioners of the United States government. In Sep tember the town site was in the pine woods, unmarked. It is now being cleared and will soon be built up. lwi days ago there were 120 colonists at Fitz gerald. Bast Thursday, when I wa$ there, there were 1500 people living at Fitzgerald. By December 1 there will be at least 5000 people there, and by January 1, ISOfi, it. is expected that 10.000 people i . .... » !.■.A In tnurn The people now on the ground repre sent thirty-five states and others are coming from nearly every state in the union. F.aeh ot these persons draws a pension of from *20 to *80 per month. The colony expects to draw a total in come of *I,000,000 per year, which will be spent In this locality. The colonists have applied to the legislature of Geor gia for a charter for -the city of Fitzger ald. and they intend to shortly have the county site located there. A court house Is to be built and also an opera house. There aro now already in Fitzgerald four butcher shops, six restaurants and two barber shops. Other places of business are to be established. The residents of the new town are now living in tents and slab huts awaiting the allotment of bonds, which will take place in a few days. The building lots will be assigned and the settlers will then tear down the shanties and build comfortable houses. The average cost of these houses will be *800. The larger portion of the settlers came from west of the Mississippi river and traveled to Fitzgerald In covered wagons. They are a fine body of people and are ready to begin work at once. The plan is a co-operative on-', and each person will select an individual lot. The alternate lots in the town site are to be sold to outsiders, who will have no inter est in the land originally selected. Negotiations are now pending with the Western Union Telegraph company, and it is expected that a telegraph station will soon be established. Several thousand acres outside of the town tracts are to be plotted Into lots of five acres each to be transformed into gardens and truck farms by the colonists, and later a large percentage of the lands is to be cleared up and used as truck farms. The colonists at present on the ground are perfectly satisfied. The wo men say they are contented, and the prospects are that the colony will be a big success. A majority of the colonists have lived in a cold climate and have raised wheat. The extreme cold weather and the low price of the cereal have discouraged them. They have removed to a warm climate, and all are satisfied. They have an ample income, and care nothing for crops at present. It is in reality a pen sioners’ city._ LINCOLN’S HEROIC FEAT. How He Risked His Life and Saved Two Comrades from Drowning. McClure’s Magazine for December. The flatboat was done in about a month, and Mr. Lincoln and his friends prepared to leave Sangamon. Before he started, however, he was the hero of an adventure so thrilling that he won new laurels in the community. Mr. Roll, who was a witness to the whole exciting scene, told our representative the story, as follows: "It was the spring following the winter of the deep snow. Walter Carman, John Seamon, myself, and at times others of the Carman boys, had helped Abe in building the boat, and when we had fin ished we went to work th make a ‘dug out ' or canoe, to be used as a small boat with the flat. The river was very high, fairly ‘booming.’ After the ‘dug-out’ was ready to launch we took It to the edge of the water and made ready to ‘let her go,’ when Walter Carman and John Seamon Jumped in as the boat struck the water, each one anxious to be the first to get a ride. As they shot out from the shore they found they were unable to make any headway against the strong current. Lincoln shouted to them to 'head up stream’ and 'work back to shore,’ but they found themselves powerless against the stream. At last they began to pull for the wreck of an old flatboat. Just as they reached it Seamon made a grab and caught hold of the stanchion, when the canoe capsized, leaving Seamon cling ing to the old timber, and throwing Car man into the stream. It carried him down with the speed of a mill-race. Lin coln raised his voice above the roar of the flood and yelled to Carman to swim for an elm tree which stood almost in the channel, which the action of the high water changed. Carman, being a good swimmer, succeeded in catching a branch and pulled himself up out of the water, which was very cold and had almost chilled him to death; and there he sat shivering and chattering in the tree. Lincoln, seeing Carman safe, called out to Seamon to let go the stanchion and swim for the tree. With some hesitation he obeyed and struck out, while Lincoln cheered and directed him from the bank. As Seamon neared the tree he made one grab for a branch, and, missing it, went under the water. Another desperate lunge was successful, and he climbed up beside Carman. "It was a cold, raw April day, and there was great danger of the men becoming benumbed and falling into the water. Lincoln called out to them to keep their spirits up and he would save them. The village had been alarmed by this time, and many people had come down to the bank. Lincoln procured a' rope and tied it 4 to a log. He called all hands to come and help roll the mg Into the water, and after this had been done he, with the as sistance of several others, towed it some distance up the stream. A daring young fellow by the name of Jim Dorrell then took his seat on the end of the log, and It was pushed out Into the current with the expectation that It would be carried down stream against the tree where Sea men and Carman were. The log was well directed and went straight to the tree, but Jim, in his impatience to help his friends, fell a victim to his good inten tions. Making a frantic grab at a branch, he raised himself off the log and it was swept from under him by the raging wa ter, and he soon joined the other two victims upon their forlorn perch. The excitement on shore increased, and al most the whole population of the village gathered on the river bank. Lincoln bad the log pulled up the stream, and, securing another piece of rope, called to the men in the tree to catch it if they could when he should reach the tree. He then straddled the log himself and gave the word to push out into the stream. When he dashed into the tree he threw the rope over the stump of a broken limb and let it play until he broke the speed of the log and gradually drew it back to the tree, holding It there until the three now nearly frozen men had climbed down and seated themselves astride. He then gave orders to the peo ple on the shore to hold fast to the end of the rope, which was tied to the log, and leaving his rope In the tree, he turned the log adrift, and the force of the current acting against the taut rope swung it around against the hank, and all on board were saved. The excited people, who had watched the dangerous experiment with alternate hope and fea.r, now broke into cheers for Abe Lincoln and praises for his brave act. This ad venture made quite a hero of him along the Sangamon, and the people never tired of telling of the exploit^ Sacred running oxen. They Are the Greatest Curiosities Among Ceylon’s Domesticated Animals. St. Louis Republic. One of the greatest curiosities among the domesticated animals of Ceylon is a breed of cattle known to the zoologists as the "sacred running oxen." They are the dwarfs of the whole ox family, the largest specimens of the species never exceeding 30 inches or 2% feet in height. One sent to the Marquis of Canterbury in the year 1K91, and which Is still living and believed to be somewhere near 10 years of age, is only 23 inches high and weighs but 109% pounds. In Ceylon they are used for making quick trips across tne country wun other light loads, and it is said that four of them oaiTpull a driver of a two-wheel cart and a 200-pound load of miscellane ous matter sixty to seventy miles per day. They keep up a constant swinging trot or run, and have been known to travel 100 miles in a day and night with out either food or water. No one knows anything concerning the origin of this peculiar breed of miniature cattle. They have been known on the island of Ceylon and in other Buddhistic countries for more than 1000 years. One story told to account for their origin is to the ef fect that they were originally cattle of the ordinary height and bulk; that a Buddhistic priest was once imprisoned In a stone building, one-half of which was used for a cattle stable. During the night he managed to dislodge one of the stoneS in his prison wall. The stone in question was exactly 2% feet square. It was almost daylight when this apos tle of Buddha felt the air rush through the opening he had made and realized that he was all but free. He knew that ho would be unable to get out of the en emy's country on foot, so he prayed that he might be provided with a beast of burden that would safely carry him to the homes of the followers of Buddha. No sooner had he done thls-than one of the large oxen which had been quietly feeding in a stall at his side walked leisurely to the 30 inch square opening and miraculously passed through (V The priest followed and mounted the now' sacredly dwarfed beast and was soon safe in his own country. Since that time, so the story goes, there has been a breed of "sacred running oxen" in Cey lon. which never grow too tall to pass through an opening the size of that made In the prison wall by Buddha’s represen tative on the night when he miraculously escaped on the back of the first of the famous dwarfed oxen. VERY FRUGAL PEERS. Members ot-the English Peerago Do Not Squander Their Wealth Needlessly, i There is no one in the English peerage who has the reputation of driving a closer bargalh and possessing a keener eye to the main chance than Ihe Duke of Westminster, says the Brooklyn Citizen. The young Duke of Bedford, who runs his grace of Westminster very close in the point of wealth, distinguished him self the other day In the London police court by the animosity which he display ed in prosecuting the poor itinerant ven ders of fruits and vegetables who had at tempted to dispose of their wares In the neighborhood of Covent Garden market, which belongs to him and is one of his principal sources of revenue. He claim ed that by hawking their wares on the border line of the market they Interfered with those who rented stalls therein from him. And now we have Lord Ro berts, the richest peer in the west of England, and possessed of the mines in Cornwall, which alone yield him over $250,000 a year, getting the best of a brother peer, the popular Earl of Hard wlcke. by foreclosing a mortgage which had hitherto been considered a friendly agreement. Of course Lord Robarts Is within his strict legal rights, but by his altogether unexpected foreclosure he has managed to acquire Wlmpole hall, the ancestral mansion and country seat of the Earl of Hardwick, as well as the large estate in connection therewith, for one-third the value at which it was of ficially appraised three or four years ago. He Walked. Washington Post. There is a man up on Connecticut ave nue whose coachman has been in the fatftiiy so long that he really feels as If theVlace belonged to him. He felt called upon to attend a funeral—the funeral of sortie personal friend of his—early in the fail, and as an especial mark of respect for the deceased he asked the head of the house to allow his carriage to be driven in the funeral procession. The head of the house good-naturedly con sented, and the coachman, with a colored friend, rolled off to the obsequies. That afternoon there was a football game somewhere in the suburbs, and the head of the house, who is Inordinately fond of the game, went. He went on foot, but J\jst as he trudged In through the gate a carriage passed him going in. It was his own carriage, with his man on the box and four mourners inside. They had set out for the funeral, but the procession happened to pass the football grounds and their sporting blood couldn't resist th*“ temptation to see the gafne. They sat in the carriage in luxury and watched th<> game, while the man who owned the carriage sat on a pleblan pine bench, and, and—well, you know what you’d be likely to say yourself. ... HEW NAMEJOR GARTERS Society Ladies Now Call Them “Silken Circlets.” ONE OF THE LATEST FADS Is to Present Young Ladies With Artistic ‘‘Hose Supporters"—Some of the Latest Parisian Sty las. New fork Press. The fad which a few years ago origi nated in gay Paris among the sterner sex of making gifts to lady friends of fine silken garters In the most exquisite designs Is becoming a very popular inno vation in this city. Formerly the very mention of garters was considered de cidedly mal-apropos, and the person using such “vulgar” expression was gen erally tabooed from the social ranks. But tl}is thing has changed. The word "garter” is no longer sacred. This new fad of making gifts of garters has found much favor in the social set, and is ap proved by them as being the most sea sonable thing out for many years. The society woman somehow or other does not like the word "garters,” and she has christened them “silken circlets,” or, to be more explicit, “hose supporters." The old style garter which holds the stock ings in place by elastic supporters fas tened at the waist are rapidly being ban ished by the woman who desires to be up to date. The superannuated or round the-leg style is now again in vogue. In the silken garter line there are four teen different patterns to select from, ranging; in price from 75 cents to $45 a pair. The Parisian bridal garter is perhaps the most taking design of aoy manufactured. The elastic is of the very richest imported silk webbing iYj inches wide. A solid silver or gold clasp, representing a four-leaf clover or other design, is attached to it, with a beautiful' love knot bow of pure white fibre silk. A name plate is also attached to each Barter, uuon which the name of the giver is engraved. The price asueo xor u pan of those bridal circlets is $45. They are put up in fine plush boxes, silk lined, with lace edges. Another prevailing style Is a very chic affair called the "Motto" fashion, ns each one has a popular wording stamped on the clasps. This style is in more demand by the gay people, being less expensive and more attractive. They come in all shades of the rainbow, and in the Prince ton Yale and Harvard college colors. It Is said that nothing is so captivat ing to the heart of the most fastidious maiden as a pair of delicate silken gar ters. That this is true was witnessed a few evenings ago by about 2500 people at one of our fashionable play houses. It happened in this way: Immediately af ter the curtain dropped on the first act a pretty soubrette emerged from behind one of the wings and bowed coquettishly to the applauding audience. A well known Wall street broker was Been at the same time to extract from his over coat pocket a small box, which he fhtrw on the stage, and hastily resumed his seat. The W)x In its flight came within a few feet of the soubrette, and was opened and found to contain a $42 pair of garters. Amid much laughter and ap plause the soubrette stepped to the front of the stage and kindly asked the gentle man to step forward, please, and place the gift in its proper place. As no one appeared, the unembarrassed actress quickly threw them, over her shapely limbs and disappeared behind the scenes again. Since this occurrence it seems to have become a popular fad nightly among theater-goers to throw fancy gar ters to the actresses on the stage, and has caused the management much an noyance. , ... For the maiden devoted to yachting a special design has been made, which is one of the prettiest on the market. This garter, as a general rule, is made to or der as the material employed is usually the hair of some young man, which is tightly woven, and is clasped by a buckle representing a capstan, anchor and chain. A cynic might be spiteful enough to sug gest that a garter for the bloomer girl was a very unnecessary affair, and only aids to show off her calves to better ad vantage. To say this would be ill-na tured, as even the cynic would confess, were he to wear bloomers. TURKEY. The Moslem Army and Navy—Fortifica tions About Constantinople. The Turkish regular army is composed of seven complete army corps and a strong division. Six of these are formed on the territorial system, battalions be ing stationed in times of peaoe in the districts wherein they are raised. Con scription Is universal everywhere in Tur key save in Constantinople itself. The natives of the Turkish capital have the privilege of exemption. Every other male subject, as soon as he arrives at the age of 21 must present himself at the mili tary center of the district wherein he re sides and draw for the ballot. The men who draw lucky numbers pass at once into the Iktihat. or class of Immediate reserves; the others only reach this dig nity after four years' preliminary ser vice in the regiment. Six years Is the total period of service in the Nizam, or rank and file of the army. At the end of those six years the re servist becomes a Redif for eight years, and then passes into the Mustaflz for the full period of his life during which he is capable of bearing arms. The Re difs and the Mustaflz hold themselves ready to be called upon for military duty in times of war. It is not In the peace establishment of the regular army that the military strength of Turkey resides, but in the enormous expansion of which it is capable at short notice through the mobilization of the Redlfs and the Mus taflz. The men are all In the country and can be got together with the greatest ease, for the Mussulman population is not a shifting one. Every Redif's name stands on the register, and the force Is controlled by the system of muster and inspection which takes place every four months. Five thousand officers are dis tributed among the recruiting districts solely for this purpose. The actual stand ing army of 180,000 men could be in creased to nearly 300,000 at short notice, provided, of course, that there were suffi cient funds in the treasury. Therein lies Turkey's chief weakness. The Turkish Navy. The navy is manned by recruits se lected from the population that lives on the borders of the Black sea. Many of them are Lares, a race specially fond of and specially fitted for seafaring pur suits. They are patient, docile and eas ily trained, with the instinct of discipline strongly developed. The conscript when selected is sent to Constantinople, where he gets his first instructions in the ordi nary duties of a seaman on the depot ship. He then passes on to the gunnery vessel, an old wooden frigate stationed In the Golden Horn, where he learns the use of both great guns and smull arms. His education Is completed on board somevone of the squadron of gunboats which are continually moving about from port to port. Turkey has not had money enough to purchase the Immense armaments which are the boast of her European neighbors. Yet her fleet Is a respectable one, espe cially In view of her natural advantages of defense. She ha3 some nineteen iron clads, frigates and corvettes. This Is the main element of her naval strength, although there are nearly 250 woo 1 n ves sels stationed for the maintenance of order at various points on the extensive coasts of the empire. Of these ironclads three of Uie corvette class are usually away from Constantinople on service, two frigates and two corvettes are In the first reserve, always maintained In a po sition to proceed to sea at the shortest notice, and the remainder are lying tem porarily dismantled, hut ready for use within a fortnight's time. The total ac tive list of officers and men Is 25,590. with a reserve of 36,500. ^ Defenses of Constantinoplo The straits of the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles are so narrow that at their widest point they are not half a gunshot across. Constantinople, with its densely populated environs, covers both sides of the Bosphorus. Immense fortifications guard all the approaches. It is true that the forts and guns on the European side of the Dardanelles are commanded by a small range of hills, and that the holder of the hills would be able to threaten the safety of the batteries. But the Turks are fully cognizant of this fact. They are themselves defending the hills from attack by planting heavy guns upon them. On the Asiatic side there are no such hills. Here the forts are safe from an attack by land. Now, through the Bos phorus and the Dardanelles a quick cur rent Is almost always running in the same direction—that is. from the Black Sea Into the Mediterranean—at the rate of some four miles an hour. The waters are deep and usually narrow. They af ford an excellent opportunity for torpedo defense. A few hundred of these sub merged deadly weapons swept down by the current against an advancing fleet would prove a formidable adversary. Attacks From the North. So much ror an auacx irom me mrai terranean, which affords the easiest means of access to must European pow ers. An attack from the Black sea, though more difficult In its inception, would be more difficult to repel also when once made. In that event ground mines might be place at the entrnnee of. the Bosphorus, while torpedo ships and boats would be kept in readiness to re sist attack by sea and defend the mines. Nevertheless, it is true that if Russia commanded the Black Sea she would hold Constantinople at her mercy. But she does not do so, and It Is not probable that she ever will. Against an attack by land from Asia Minor nature has thrown the bulwarks of mountains, which as yet have few or no roads that could be util ized by an invading army. For six months of the year snow lies thick upon their summits and Increases their natural difficulties. Russia, single handed, would not dare to attack Constantinople by way of the Balkans, as without the con sent of Austria and Germany she could not send an army through Roumanla. Probably she would strike her first blow In Armenia, and through that country prepare to advance toward the Ottoman capital. _ PETRIFIED INDIAN QUEEN. Specimen of an Ancient Raco Which a Trader Tried to Steal. A curious tale is told by the passengers just arrived at Victoria, B. C., from Alaska on the steamer City of Topeka, of the discovery made by one of their number, a Seattle man named Brennan, on Prince of Wales Island, says the San Francisco Examiner. Brennan went forth some time ago with a small sloop laden with miscella neous cargo, on which he realized a good profit, trading among the natives of the northern coast. It was on this expedi tion he chanced to visit one of the largest accessible villages of the isolated tribes on Prince of Wales island, and while there to see the mysterious divinity that is supposed to keep watch and guard over the tribe. A former priestess or queen who, by some rare action of the peculiar soli In which her burial place was made, was not turned into dust, but Into solid stone. Years later the rude grave was uncov ered by chance and the petrified body was found. The natives hailed it as an omen of good and, carefully exhuming It, enthroned It In a place of honor in the village, the Idol so rescued being ever since more honored than the oldest to lem. Brennan claims to be the first white man to see the statue, but so far from feeling awe or being moved to adoration, he at once realized that if it could be safely transported to the United Slates it would be worth a mint of money for exhibition purposes. The petrified wom an, according to his account. Btands as though frozen into the granite while in the act of directing some important movement of her subjects. The features, ns well as the limbs, are clearly defined, as though life was still In the body, and the whole aspect of the strangely pre served body is almost regal, although the goddess was mistress only of a sav age tribe. So much did the commercial value of the image impress the shrewd trader that a few words incautiously dropped partially revealed his mind to the tribe with the result that he was obliged to take to his sloop and sail out Into the thickening storm in order to save his life. He has now sold his sloop atid with the proceeds of the sale, added to the profits of his cruise, ho proposes to pur chase a fast steam launch with which to return and bodily abduct the uncanny deity. According to present arrange ments he will buy his launch on Puget Sound and return as quickly as possible to Prince of Wales Island, Waiting his opportunity to land, seize the Idol and escape before the natives cri discover his presence and frustrate his plan. The "stone queen" has, according to the tales of the tribe, watched silently over their declining fortunes for upward of four centuries. A Question bf Wills. $ The making of one's will Is hardly to be ranked among the pleasant duties of life. “My will," says Slender, "I never made my will yet. I thank heaven. I am not such a sickly creature. I give heaven praise. So also Dame Quickly, when considering Falstaff's spiritual con cerns, hopes that "it Isn’t- time to think of making a will yet." When David Garrick ostentatiously displayed to the great lexicographer his pictures, china, rare books and furniture at Hampton Court, the sage exclaimed; "Ah, David, David, these are the things that make a deathbed terrible I” A story Is told of a dying miser, by whose bedside sat the lawyer receiving instructions for the preparation of his last will and testament. ."I give and be queath," repeated the attorney aloud, as he commenced to write the accustomed formula. "No, no," interrupted the sick mnn. "I will neither give nor bequeath anything; 1 cannot do it." "Well, then,” suggested the man of law. after a few moments' consideration, "suppose we say lend. 'I lend until the last day.’ ” ’"Yes, that will do better,” asserted the unwilling testator.—Temple Bar.