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PACIFIC COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, SEPTEMBER 29, 1887.
3mb ..GET PRACTICE. ,W THE SOLDIER IS DRILLED IN AIMING AND POINTING. Facts Concerning "Sight Estimating" Misses Snre to lie Made In Fulling Off the Tiece Gallery Firing Vari ous Other Difficulties. rCor. Rt. Louis G!ob-Dmocrat.l Tbc target season in the United States army extends throughout the year, win ter and summer alike, during which time the soldier is eternally, drilled in aiming and pointing, in estimating distances by f)aciug and by sight, in gallery practice ndoora at reduced targets and reduced ranees, and in the field before the butt3 at all distances. The regular ' target season begins about May 1. and end? about Oct 31, when the new target year actually be gins. Suppose we commence with the re cruit on .Nov. 1 and carry him through the regular course of training necessary to make a good shooting machine of him, which ends Oct ul of the succeeding year. It constantly happens that men detached from the main body of the army are called upon to determine for themselves their distance from an object to be fired at Ex- Eerience abundantly, proves that soldiers, y continued practice, may learn to esti mate distances up to 000 and b00 yards with considerably accuracy by simple, rapid observation. Every soldier is sup posed to have good eyesight; he, there fore, after a little practice in sight-estimating, learns the following facts: At w0 yards the white of man's eyes Is plainly seen, and the eyes themselves up to bO yards. At 100 yards.all parts of the body are seen distinctly, slight movements arc per ceptible, and the minute details of 1I13 ua itorm can be distinguished. At 150 yards tho brasj button o i the blouse can slill be separate y d st.ri cuished. At 200 yard the outlines of the faca i are confused, and the rows of brass but tons look like yellow stripes. At 300 yards the outtona are no lonjer visible. At 400 yards the face is a mere dot, but all movements of the lgs aaJ arms rro still distinct. A 000 yards deta'ls can no lon;er bo distinguished, though the tiles of p, squad. If the light be strong, can be counted. At 8U0 yards the men in a squad cn not always be couutcd. njr their iudivid ual movements distinguished. - At 1,000 yards a lino of men elmp'y re semble a broad belt; the direction of their march can, however, be reai.Jy deter mined. " At 1,200 3'ards infantry can be distin guished from cavalry. At 2,000 yards a mounted man looks Ilka a mere speck or dot. These estimating drills arc at first con ducted on smooth, level country, and afterward on rough ground. Tho above drills are supplemented a little later in the season by skirmish prac tice, when the soldiers are advanced or returned on a run before a line of targets the size of men lying down, kneeling, and standing, when they load and fire at the sound ot a bugle, depending entirely upon their own judgment as to what diatance they happen to be from the objects fired at It teaches them to be quick and ob serving, and, above all, to depend en tirely upon themselves for the manpula tlon of their sights and the handling of their pieces. The estimating: distance drills are usually kept up for two months, when the soldier is practiced indoors at aiming, pointing, and pulling the trigger. Of all misses made by anybody when firing at an object, charge better than 50 per cent of them to defective pulling of the trigger. .Nearly every rifleman in the world, be he a greenhorn or an expert, de ranges his aim to a more or less degree when he pulls off tho piece. First-class riflemen will, as a general rule, tlaily deny any such imputation against their superior marksmanship, and will claim that they have long ago mastered the defective pulling of the trigger, but the real expert v who is a grade above the first-class rifleman) knows better than this, and that as a matter of fact not one rifleman in a thousand pulls o:Y his piece perfectly. IS'ow, if our best shots can not always thoroughly overcome this one drawback to fine shooting after years of hard practice, how difficult it must be for the ordinary soldier in the ranks to master it! Hence it is that pointing and aiming drills are continuously prac ticed in the army, so as to give the soldier, whether standing, kneeling, or lying down, a perfect command of his rifle, as well as to teach him steadiness of both person and rifle, and to establish between the hand and the eye such a prompt and intimate connection as will insure the finger acting upon the trigger at the proper moment without causing any de rangement in the aim. The next step is gallery practice, which is conducted indoors at a reduced target and with reduced charges. Iron target frames are issued by the ordnance de partment on which are painted targets reduced to any size desired. The eight inch bull's eye of the field target at 200 yards is reduced to one inch for twenty rive yards, the other seciions of the target in proportion. The service rifle is used with a round ball the caliber of the gun, and a charge of powder usually not less than three grains nor more than seven grains. There is no recoil from such a light cartridge, and the soldier therefore quickly overcomes his tendency to flinch. Now if he had been marched direct to the range and given his rifle with the fu 1 cartridge, and told to shoot a score at the regular target, the chances are nine out of ten that he would have tightly' closed both eyes when pulling the trigger and trusted to luck for hits. Iiut the gallery practice for the soldier l aves the wav to field firing, just as the primer enabies the schoob y to progress success ely to the higher studies. Excellent results are attained at the miniature targets, and man, f u I scores are often made. Callery t ring is continued until the ngj'ar t rrcflco tegi 6 on the range, when tbo o r!ier Is regu arl advanced from one lar ge to another t v a system of classi,.csti.m 8.cordii. f the merit of his scores, and icon Uarcs to overcome, as far as possible, all the dirH cultiest.f light, shadow, wind, moiitare. etc., under the competent Instruction of officer. A DECREASING- BIRTH RATE. Some Interesting rct Concerning the (irowtli of the United Kingdom. An eminent British statistician, Mr. Mulhall, lias contributed some interesting information lately on the subject of the growth of tho United Kingdom, which contains, at the same time, many encour aging and discouraging facts. 3Ir. Mulhall finds, for instance, that while the popula tion of the United Kingdom is increasing only 12 per cent, per decade, its wealth is growing 22 per cent, during the same time, its trade 29, and its shipping 67. In vital statistics it is shown that the death rate is rapidly decreasing, that fewer children die and that people live to much greater age than formerly. But what particularly strikes Mr. Mulhall and alarms him for the future of Great Brit ain is the fact that the proportion of births to the population is steadily de creasing and has been decreasing for years. Births per 1,000 of population fell oil aboutJ 1-2 per cent a year in the period 1SS1-85, as compared with 18TG 80, while the marriage rate declined only 11-2 per cent. Mr. Mulhall recognizes the fact that these figures "give ground for an appre hension of physical decadence," and call ujQn the British Medical association to make a report upon it at the next session. Examining the figures by geographical divisions, ho finds that the natural in crease in population, or the excess of births over deatlis, is at the rate of 14.3 per 1,000 inhabitants in England and Wales, 13. J in Scotland and only G.4 in Ireland. This i-; esecially significant in view of tho fucr that marriages are not as child less iii Ireland as in England, and more ' iLi''Lrcn are born to each marriage; but o i t.':s ether hand, the marriage rate in ircland Lj now the lowest in the world, and Ltcadiiy dechnmg in consequence of the emigration of men and women in the tr.iLZ? cf life. The result of this low Irch rr:o i3 very unfavorable to the rc.ir.try. tho decrease in births amounting to 03.033 p?r year, as compared with the In.ct 'Icccdc. f-ucli facts as these are always alarm i2 but a low birth rate seems to come wltli civilization and wealth. France has rcr.cbed nearly a stationary position in re gard to population, the number of births bVing just sufficient to keep up the population. New England has about reached that state, and its popula tion would in all probability decline but forimniigration, and Mr. Mulliall's figures would indicate that Great Britain, which in the past poured forth millions of people to colonize the world, is rapidly approach ing that condition of physical decadence where the number of births will be barely sufficient to prevent a decline in the popu lation of the country. New Orleans Times-Democrat. .aWfrtistincms. Sulphur in the Air. The quantity of burnt sulphur that escapes into the air is very great. Seven and a half millions of tons of coal are annually consumed in London. Now, the average amount of sulphur in Eng lish coal is 1 1-4 2er cent. That would give 93,750 tons of sulphur burned every year in London fires. If we consider that on an average tw'te the quantity of coal is consumed on a winter day that is consumed on a summer day, no less than 347 tons of sulphur are thrown into the atmosphere every winter day in London. This is an alarming quantity, quite suffi cient to account for the density of the fogs in that city. But would it be ad visable to diminish the escape of sulphur from the chimneys? Is it not better to "bear the ills" of the fogs than "fly to others" which the absence of sulphur might encourage? Burned sulphur is not an unmitigated evil. During the fogs the air is still and stagnant; there is no current to clear away the deadly germs that are being vomited into the air from the pestilential hotbeds of tho lowest slums. These death laden germs might le more fatal in the propagation of the disease if the deodorizing and antiseptic properties of the sulphur were not busy at work. Boston Herald. Not Iazy by any Means. There is not so much laziness in the worm as people want to make out. "We all work, but it's always the other people who are lazy. Now take the case of that wealthy traveler who lived at one of our hotels. He did not need to work. He did not work; but what do you mean by palling a man lazy who could be the hero of this story? Ho had a most expensive suite of rooms and no end of extras. A friend went up to call on him in the fore noon and found him just at breakfast. He was drinking tea and eating toast and things. His manner was easy and de liberate. He had finished the cup, and he looked calmly into it. Then he rose and walked across the room and rung the bell. The servant came. -'Ah I" he said, "Walter, I want another cup of tea." "Certainly, sir," said the waiter, and he calmly walked to the table, took ap the teapot and poured the tea into the ?up. "Thank you," said the English man, and went on with his breakfast. San Francisco Chronicle. the range Iceland. l'oret. iUeyhj v:- Ltt! Some of you, perhaps, have beard of the one tree in IcelauU: a dwarfed thin" that the i eoplc wrap n clothes ea h wlntJr to protect Irom the severity of the frosia. I had often been told aud tiad rc&d f this wonder, and naturaUy was anxious to see It, but lo day in this town I came u on three as large aud handsome mountain ash or roan trees as 1 remember ever of seeing. Standing about twenty fejt in height they spread their branches c er a large area, and are. to all appearances, healthy, nourishing trees, of whLh the peopie take no more care than we in our warmer climates do of ours. An Kfllcieut Fire Department. I was present at a big fire in Tangier, cvben tho helplessness of the Moors in ;arcs of emergency was exemplified. A jort of erismporizedfire brigade of blacks tnd Moors was formed, but their method :f crllnjiJiing the flames would have istcnhhcd a London fireman. It consirtc-d of sending negroes by twos ind throc3 down to the beach, some Vrtcx d a mile distant, each with one ear.ll V-c-'cct on his head, which he filled rdtli cend ; then trotting back, poured it Xi tho Crs end returned for more. If jibiering and gesticulating could Ivro put out the flames, little damage jvonlj have been done; as it was, the icno was completely gutted. Foreign Letter. Striking Kesult in IIojp Fattening:. In a study of pigs, the American con sul it Copenhagen has added thirty jound to the weight of some animals by .ving them daily washed. Besides cleanliness, easily masticated food gave uie striking results. When whole corn s fed them, only half of it is available a ood, the other half passing away in an indigested form. Aikansaw Traveler. js'ew goods ! new goods! PACIFIC HARDWAKE CO., L'd, B. P. EHLEES & CO. 99 Fort Street, Have just opened a new consignment of TSTEW" and SEASONABLE GOODS. Car-Inspection Invited. i-IEONMONGEES CIGAR S Ancient Itritish ATigwauis. The earthen floors of eighteen ancient British wattled huts or wigwams exist m the downs east of Dunstable. A land wner is demolishing them, much to the horror of antiquaries. If you want a fine CIGAR, try some of Slraiton & Storm's, which have just arrived at OLLISTEB & C0.S, 109 Fort Street. 73 EL. E. JVldntyre & J3ro., IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN Groceries? Provisions and Feed EAST CORNER FORT AND KING STREETS. New Goods received by every pacKet from the Eastern States and Europe, resh California Produce by every steamer. All orders faithfully attended to, and Goods delivered to any part of thf cuy iree oi cnarge. isiana orders solicited. Satisfaction guaranteed. Postollice Dox No. 145 Telephone No. 92 60 apl7 j l NEW GOODS Just Received. CONCORD LAMP ATTACHMENT UIV1U 1 T7 i u ' i u iau Which can be used on a cemmon lamp-burner. NEW LAMP GOODS At very low prices. Latest Improved Burners. A fine line of GL A SS"VYA JEt E Entirely new to this market. XEgyCall and examine our novelties. 6 M. W. McCHESNEY & SONS, 42 and U Queen St.. 43 Clay Street, HONOLULU. SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Importers and Wholesale Grocers. A FULL LINE OF STAPLE AND FANCY GROCERIES, COFFEES, TEAS AnSTD SPICES. 1876. GEO W. LINCOLN. 1886. BUILDER. 75 and 77 Kinp- Street, - - - - Honolulu Bell Telephone No. 275. 65 Mutual Telephone o. C5. WINS & SPIRIT MERCHANT CAMPBELL'S FIRE-PROOF BLOCK, Merchant Street, Honolulu. KEEPS THE Sole Agent of the Hawaiian Islands for JOS. SCHLITZ' MILWAUKEE BEER. Finest and Best Assorted Stock IN THE MARKET. U XSNT X X .V X X v X XSrt k X X try is xn. o X X . . X. (A) XV X s. p.X Plantation Stores, Salmon, Beef, Pork, Flour. Beans, Bread, etc. Fresh arrivals by every steamer and sailing vessel. Special inducemente offered to .rortugueBe iraders, in a variety of Iresh Goods especially suited to their wants. HIGHEST CASH PRICE PAID FOR Dry and Green Hides and Goat Skins LARGEST ASSORTED STOCK OF GROCERIES ON THE ISLAND. IIY and GKRAINf . SAN FRANCISCO. Respectfully solicits patron age and guarantees com- ilptf cnt!cfartirE r oil NATIONAL BREWING CO., SAN FRANCISCO. S. LACHMAN & Ctf.'S CALIFOENIA WINES. A. PENZHAUSEN & CO., WHISKIES, &c, Delmonico and Veuve Cliquot Cham 41S ami 4i Quieen Street, Honolulu. 63-my221j , J O TrI 1ST NOTT W. C. PEACOCK & CO. Wliolesale Wine and Spirit Merchants, 2't Xl'l'AXU STltF.ET, IIOSOLl'Lr, II. I. Have just received ex CERASTES, HERCULES and other late arrivals direct from Europe, G. II. Mumnvs "Extra Dry" Cliampagne. do do "Dry Yerzeiiay" Champagne. Stoves, Kanges and Iloiisekeeping Goods. Plumbing, Tin, Copper and Sheet Iron Work ff7 In Pints and Quarts. MELCHER'S "ELEPHANT" GrIN In lare clear crystal bottles, 5 gallons per case. CASES J. D. K. & Z. GIN Each 20 boltleg, 4 4-5 gallons. J. J. Pellisson's 10-year-old Brandy And a full assortment of the most favorite brands of ALES, WINES Am LIQUOES, P. O. BOX 502. Which are offered for sale at lowe6t rates. 74rui2lltf TELEPHONES No. 46. LEWIS & CO., Ill Fort Street. Importers mid Dealer iu Staple and Fancy Groceries. :o:- FEESH GOODS By every steamer from California, and always on hand, a full and complete line of Provisions, Etc. Etc. 61 Satisfaction guaranteed. Telephone !No. 240. P. O. Box No. 29?. I0W BEADY. 1887. Fourth Year of Publication. 18872 THE HONOlXJILTJ ALMANAC AND DIRECTORY ! For the Year of Our Lord 1887, Containing an Astronomical, Civil & Ecclesiastic'l Calend'r FOR THE YEA It A N Official and Business Directory of Honolulu TOGETHER WITH Full Statistical and General Information HIZ'LA.TTNG TO THE XT AWN ISLANDS, Great pains and expense have been gone to by the Publishers to make this Almanac and Directory the meat useful and comprehen sive work of the kind ever published in the Hawaiian Kingdom. It will be found invaluable to men of business, traveler and tourists, and is guaranteed a wide circulation at Home and in Foreign Coun tries. Its Court and Official Calendar carefully corrected to the latest moment. Article3 of special value to the Islands have neen prepared by ex pert writers, which are well calculated to beget great interest in their condition aai prospect abroad. Send in. your orders for copies early.