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PACIFIC COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, OCTOBER 14, 1887.
gtolisfintnls. WHAT ARE TRUFFLES? BEN FRANKLIN'S FUND. PACIFIC HABDWAEE CO., L'd, NEW OOODS! NEW GOODS! HOV BOSTON'S WISEST SON MEANT TO HELP OTHERS. THE CURIOUS HISTORY OF A FOR EIGN TABLE LUXURY. The Philosopher's Curious Bequest to "Young Married Artificers" and Its Growth Its Usefulness Hampered by Inflexible Conditions. fBoston GlobeJ every person wno possesses any knowledge of Boston's history, every one who has read the life of Benjamin Franklin, and thousands of newspaper readers besides, know the gen eral fact that that there is a "Franklin fund," that it was in some way intended to benefit young Boston mechanics, and that the changed condition of industrial pursuits has in some way interfered with the original plan of the donor, and that his bequest of 1,000 pounds sterling has grown to nearly $200, 000. So little has been said about it in very recent years, however, that the details of the gift and its object seem to have been forgotten by the major portion of the com munity. Franklin's will was made July 17, 1 785, in the 83rd year of his age. In this he provided for the distribution of silver medals to the most distinguished boys in the schools of Boston, bequeathing for the purpose 100 pounds sterl'iig, the interest of which was to be devoted to this object. This original be quest now amounts to $4,000, which is in vested in city 5 per cent, bonds, but the 50 interest is now inadequate, and the school committee now appropriates annually a much larger sum as a tribute to Franklin's memory. Having thus provided for the encourage ment of education in his native town, he re membered his own early difficulties in the effort to enlarge his business, when a loan of 50 pounds sterling would have teen con sidered almost a fortune. Accordingly, Juno 23, 17S9, he prepared a lengthy codicil to his will. This codicil was the origin of the "Franklin fund," as it is now known, the objects of which will fully appear from the following extracts from the codicil: I, having considered that among artisans good apprentices are most likely to become good citizens, and having myself been bred to a manual art, printing, in my native town, and afterward assisted to set up my business in Philadelphia, by kind loans of money from two friends there, which was the foundation of my fortune, and of all the utility in life that may be ascribed to me, I wish to be useful even after death, if possible, in forming and advancing other young men that may be serviceable to their country in both these towns. To this end I devote 2,000 ixunds sterling, of which I give 1,000 pounds sterling thereof to the inhabi tants of the town of Boston, and the other 1,000 pounds sterling to the inhabitants of the city of Philadelphia, in trust, to and for the uses, intents and purposes hereinafter mentioned and dclared. The said sum of 1,000 pound sterling if ac cepted by the cit' of Boston, shall be man aged under the direction of the selectmen united with the ministers of the oldest Epis copalian, Congregational and Presbyterian churches in that town, who are to let out the same upon interest at 5 per cent, per annum, to such young artificers, under the age of 25 years, as having served an apprenticeship in fiaid town, and faithfully fulfilled the duties required in their indentures so as to obtain good moral character from at least two re spectable citizens, who are willing to become their sureties in a Lond with the applicants, for the repayment of the moneys so lent with interest according to the terms hereinafter prescribed : . As these loans are intended to assist young married artificers in setting up their business, they are to be proportioned by the discretion of the managers, so as not to exceed 60 pounds sterling to one person, nor to be less than 15 pounds sterling These aids may be small at first, but as the capital increases by the accumulated interest, they will be more ample. And in order to serve as many as possible in their turn, as well as to make the repayment of the princi pal more easy, each borrower shall be obliged to pay, with the yearly interest one- tenth part of the principal, which sums of principal and interest, so paid in, shall be again lt out to fresh borrowers. The codiGil expresses the hope that mana gers will devote their time and attention to the matter gratis; that the money will not be diverted to any other purpose, but con tinually augmenting, so that other towns might have some of its benefits. It is esti . mated that the fund would in 100 years reach tbe sum of 135,000 pounds sterling, of which 100,000 pounds sterling, was then to be paid out in public works of utility. The other 31, 000 was to be continued to be let out at in terest in the manner directed for another 100 years. "At the end of this second term," continues Dr. Franklin, "if no unfortunate accident has prevented the operation, the sum will be 4,061,000 pounds sterling, of which I leave 1,061,000 pounds sterling to the disposition of the inhabitants of the town of Boston, and 3,000,000 pounds sterling to the disposition of the government of the state, not presuming to carry my views farther." The bequest to Philadelphia was under ex actly similar conditions to the above. In concluding hia directions, Dr. Franklin said: I wish, indeed, that they may both Boston and Philadelphia undertake to endeavor the execution of the project, because I think that, though unf orseen difficulties may arise, expedients will be found to remove them and the the scheme will be found practicable. The experience of the trustees and man agers of this fund shows how useless it is for man, however wise, to make inflexible condi tions in regard to his property which shall continue in force for a century, or even fifty years. The changes in population, business methods and social life cannot be anticipated by any man for a single generation. In 1791, 50 pounds sterling or 300 was a large sum. Its purchasing power was' more than double that of the present daj If the loans under the will cou?d be made as high as 1,000 or $S00 even, a better class of borrowers would be attracted to them, and consequently a more responsible set of bondsmen would be secured, and the chance of loss be correspondingly diminished. A young man to-day who can not borrow of a friend the small sum of 300 can hardl3r be a desirable borrower from this fund, and still less can he furnish satisfactory bondsmen. At the present there are but three borrowers who are using the money of this fund in pursuance of the system devised by Franklin. Applications are few, and a majority of these do not come within the re strictions of the wilL The trustees have waived the provision concerning apprentice ship, because of the fact that indentures are no longer a part of our industrial system; but they still insist upon the other conditions that the applicant shall be a mechanic, married, under 25 years of age, and furnish responsible bondsmen. There have been several attempts on the part of the Massachusetts Mechanics' Char itable association and others to divert a por tion of the fund to purposes somewhat alien to the illustrious testator's intentions. But the corporation counsel has always wisely determined that the city alone can use the funds, at the period specified in the will, and for "public works" exclusively. The fund, however, will not, at the end of the first 100 years in lStfl, seven years hence reach the amount estimated by Dr. Franklin, who "placed it at 131,000 pounds sterling, or about $530,000. The last report of the treasurer gave the following figures: Amount of fund February 1 , 1 SS3 . . S280.224 79 Interest act rued during the year. . 11,214 44 Dow and Where the Plant Grows Poodle? Trained to Find Them The Only Objection to Their Use The Demand. TNew York. Tribune. - "The importation of truffles to this country is on the increase," said Jecob Meyer, who, until recently, was engaged in raising them in Germany, near Hanover. "They are looked upon as a great luxury in Europe, and I have often wondered why they were not more used here." "What are truffles?" "They are a fungous growth, similar to the mushrooms, and are found generally in soil impregnated with lime and always in the neighborhood of oak or beech trees. They are found under the ground, at a distance varying from an inch to a foot, and are sup posed to be a parasite living in their early stage upon the roots of trees. They are oblong or spherical, and vary from the size of an English walnut to that of a large potato. Quite frequently I have known them to weigh two pounds, and once I found one that weighed three and a half pounds. Some are of a dull white color, but the black or brown truffle has the finest flavor and brings the best price. Their surface is rough and cov ered with excrescences resembling warts, and, judging from the exterior, they would not be selected as an article of food. In ternally they resemble a dark-colored mar ble, and are different from other known forms of fungi. But little is known about their propagation and growth. The repro- aucuve portion is iguna in minute sacs, 1 A 1 M -m wnicn contain a numoer or. spores, ana are thickly scattered through the numberless small veins that traverse the mass in every direction. In growing they are not attached to any other body, and Me loosely imbedded in the earth." "In what localities are truffles found?" "They are found in the greatest profusion in southern France, and these are also of the best quality. They also grow in some parts of England, Germany, Italy, Australia, and Africa. I have never heard of any being discovered in this country. My expeiuice here, where I have endeavored to transplant them, as well as in Germany, where I spent many years in futile efforts to cultivate them artificially, has led me to approve the opin ion of trume hunters, that a truffle is the most contrary thing in the world. When forced or coaxed, not one will appear; and frequently a field will be unexpectedly filled. No one knows where they come from. 1 have taken a small truffle out of the ground, filled up the hole, and the next day taken a larger one from exactly the same spot. Removing this second one, I have taken a third and still larger one from the same spot on the next day. Then for five days not a sign of a truffle could be seen. On the sixth day a small truffle would be found in exactly the same spot, and the others would be found as before. They would alternately appear and disappear in this manner for about three months, and then finally disappear altogether. At times they .grow so quickly as to awaken astonishment, and again will increase in size with the slow ness of a century plant. "The odor of the A-uffle is aromatic, pe culiar to itself and will speedily penetrate every room in a house. It produces nausea in some people, and in others a sense of light headedness." iiT il j. 1 j. r as mere any particular way or nnamsr them?" "Yes. In England and Germany dogs are trained to find them, generally poodles or Spitz dogs. A truffle is given to one of these aogs to piay wnn, ana men is taken into a field and planted in sight of the dog. When feeding time comes the dog is taken to where the truffle is buried, and he is given to understand that his getting food depends upon finding the truffle. Some dogs are remarkably apt, and will gather the idea in a few tr.'als, while others will never comprehend your meaning. As soon as they are trained they are turned loose in a truffle-bed, and will move radidly around with noses close to the ground until they scent the peculiar truffle odor. They will then begin to scratch the soil, and care must be taken to stop them or they will tear the truffle to pieces. A good dog, however, will stop scratching as soon as the truffle comes in view. Sometimes they are buried so deeply that the dogs cannot reach them. They wdl then lie by the hole and patiently wait for help. In the southern part of trance ana icaiy, sows, wnicn are passion ately fond of truffles, take the place of dogs, and search for them as an article of food. Hunters follow the sows around and gather the truffles as soon as the sows begin to root. "There is a company at Perigord, France, who are large purchasers of truffles. They cook them and put them up in sealed tin cans by a secret process. The strong odor is not noticeable in the canned goods, and they have not the delicious flavor of the fresh truffles. The French use more of them than any other nation, and they are almost the only consumers in this country. The only objections to their universal use is their scarcity and cost. There are plenty of truffles beds yet undiscovered, and some day, no doubt, an improved system of searching for them will be invented, and this rare flavor will become common to every table. Delmonico imports truffles for his res taurant direct from France. He serves them sometimes with steaks like mushrooms, but seldom are they eaten alone, on account of their expense, and because the appetite of but few can stand a large dose of them. Thev are cut into thin slices and used princi pally as a condiment for boned turkey and chicken, scrambled eggs, fillets of beef, game, and fih. When mixed in due proportion they add a peculiar zest and spice to sauces that cannot bo found in any other plant in the vegetable kingdom. There is quite a large and increasing demand for them." Gentlemen's Hats in England. London Cor. Boston Bulletin. Gentlemen do not in London think of get ting a new hat every year. Every gentle man must own a high hat; yet it is by no means necessary that it should be new or stylish in fact, to wear a hat that had age on it sesined to me with the Londoner to be an evidence of his well assured position as a substantial gentleman. "'Arry" out for a half holiday might wear a new and shining hat for which he paid his 9 shillings; but my Lord Greystones would pass him on his cob wearing an immensely tall and immensely heavy hat that might be several years old and good for the gentleman for another term. .amount of fund Feb. 1, 1854 S201,43v 23 The Salem Witchcraft. Exchange. The anniversary of one of the families whose ancestors were hanged for witchery has been celebrated in Salem. The houses are still standing were the judges of that famous time lived, and on one of the principal streets is a quaint old gabled structure where one of the supposed witches is supposed to have resided. It is now occupied by a corn doctor, who sells witch-hazel ointment to the credulous. " . F. E HIEES & CO. 99 Fort Street, Have just opened a new consignment of jSTEW and SEASONABLE GOODS. ?Inspection Invited.? 1 T A VT3 IRONMONGERS NEW GOODS Just Received. If you want a fine CIGAR, trv some of Straiton & Storm's, wliicli have just arrived at HOLLISTEE & C0.S, 109 Fort Street. 73 H. E. jVXdntyre & JBro., IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN Groceries, Provisions and Feed EAST CORNER FORT AND KING STREETS. New Goods received by every pacttet from the Eastern States and Europe. Frfi California Produce by every steamer. All orders faithfully attended to, and Goods delivered to any part of the city free of charge. Island orders solicited. Satisfaction guaranteed. PostofBce Box No. 143 Telephone No. 92 60 apl7 1876. GEO W. LINCOLN. 1886. BUILDER 75 and 77 Kino- Street, - - - - Honolulu Bell Telephone No. 275. 65 Mutual Telephone Xo. 65. WINE & SPIRIT MERCHANT CAMPBELL'S FIRE-PROOF BLOCK, Merchant Street, Honolulu. keeps THE Sole Agent of the Hawaiian Islands for JOS. SCHLITZ' MILWAUKEE BEER. Finest and. Best Assorted Stock IN THE MARKET. 4. x X . X X X X.. rV X k. t MOW I m. Xv i7 JO X s wsy x Trr XV jX x X X X XX If. tiEtictanfl 3$reimwj 0a SAN FRANCISCO Respectfully solicits patron age and guarantees com- x iv oil iioiunun l-vj tin XX NATIONAL BREWING CO., SAN FRANCISCO. S. LACHMAN & CO .'S CALIFORNIA WINES. A. FENKHAUSEN & CO., WHISKIES, &c, S. F. Delmonico and Veuve Cliquot Champagnes. . i "KX JL c CONCORD LAMP ATTACHMENT A Kerosene Oil Stove AVhich can be used on a common lamp-burner. NEW LAMP GOODS At very low prices. Latest Improved Burners. A fine line of G LASSAVAE IE Entirely new to this market. QCT'CaM and examine our novelties. 6 M. W. HcCHESMY & SOBS, 42 and 44 Queen St.. HONOLULU. 43 Clay Street, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. Importers" and Wholesale Grocers. A FULL LINE OF STAPLE AND FANCY GROCERIES, COFFEES, TEAS AZSTD SPICES. Plantation Stores, Salmon, Beef, Pork, Flour. Beans, Bread, etc. Fresh arrivals by every steamer and sailing vessel. Special inducements offered to Portuguese Traders, in a variety of Fresh Goods especially suited to their wants. HIGHEST CASH PRICE PAID FOR Diy and Green Hides and Goat SMns LARGEST ASSORTED STOCK OF GROCERIES ON THE ISLAND. ana G-RAIN. HAY 42 rikI 4i Queen Street, Honolulu. 63-my22-ly JO HN NOTT W. C. PEACOCK & CO. Wholesale Wine and Spirit Merchants, 23 NU1JAXU STKEET, HONOLULU, H. I. Have just received ex CERASTES, HERCULES and other late arrivals direct from Europe, Gr. H. Mumm's "Extra Dry" Champagne. Stoves, Ranges and Housekeeping Goods. Plumbing, Tin, Copper and Sheet Iron Work R7 NOW READY. do do "Dry Yerzenay" Champagne. In Pints and Quarts. MELOHER'S ELEPHANT" GrIN In large clear crystal bottles, 5 gallons per case. CASES J. D. K. & Z. GIN . Each 20 bottles, 4 4-5 gallons. J. J. Pellisson's 10-year-old Brandy And a full assortment of the most favorite brands of ALES, WINES AND LIQUOKS, P. O. BOX 502. "Which are offered for sale at lowest rates. 784auslltf TELEPHONES No. 46. LEWIS & CO., Ill Fort Street. Importers and Dealers in Staple and. Fancy Groceries. :o:- FEESH GOODS By every steamer from California, and always on hand, a full and complete line of Provisions, Etc Etc. 61 Satisfaction guaranteed. Telephone No. 240. P. O. Box No. 29f, 18S7. Fourth Tear of Publication. 1887J THE HOISrOlTJCXJ ALMANAC AND DIEECTOEY ! For the Year of Our Lord 1887, Containing an Astronomical, Civil & Ecclesiastic'l Calend'r FOR THE TEAR AN- Official and Business Directory of Honolulu TOGETHER WITH Full Statistical and General Information RELATING TO THE HAWN ISIiAHDS, Great pains and expense have been gone to by the Publishers to make this Almanac and Dibbctory the meat useful and comprehen sive work of the kind ever published in the Hawaiian Kingdom. It will be found invaluable to men of business, travelers and tourists, and is guaranieed a wide circulation at Home and in Foreign Coun tries. Ite Court and Official Calendar carefullv corrected to the latest iroment. Articles of special value to the Islands have oeen prepared by ex pert writers, which are well calculated to beget great' interest in their condition aai prospect abroad. Send in yonr orders for copies early.