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PACIFIC COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, JANUARY 21, 1888.
A SPRING GREETING Va What is this th bluc-tirds call, Seeking mate and nesting tree, ' ' Fatting bright through forest haU, Merrily, cheerily? . "It is spring be joyous all !" This is what the blue-birds calL What Is this the robins sing, r Wooing from each leafing tree. Making all the woodland ring, Merrily, cheerily? i 1 "It is spring, eladsome spring!" r This is what the robins smg. I What is this our blithe hearts say. As the wakened earth we see Broidering her robes so gay. Merrily, cheerily? "Spring has come in spring's old way This 13 what our blithe hearts say. 1 1 "Spring's old way," and spring's old song, Only sung in newer key; Gladdened lives to spring belong; Merrily, cheerily, i Sing we then, sing loud and long, "Weloorae. spring, in spring's old way!" Mary Clark Huntington, in Good flotueheeping. AN ANTISEPTIC SWEET. Something: About Saccharine, Its Virtue and Its Probable Future. 1 After giving the story of the discov ery of saccharine by a German chemist (Fahlberg) at the Johns Hopkins Uni- versiiv in uammore. mq.. it is saia r x t i a. r i . that while it took a long- time and much hard study to , learn the philosophy of its production, it hp.s taken eight years to reduce the manufacture of it to a commercial basis. It was formerly supposed that the plrysical quality of sweetness was typified by the carbo-hv- drates; that is, the sugars and those xwuiion a iy aw m angiana. starches which, by chemical treatment, Daniel French had litigation with are brought into the group. But Fahl- Fulton about this steamboat, claiming berg's discovery does away with this that the latter had appropriated his in old standard practically and scientific vention, but Fulton wa3 backed by Liv cally. It is 230 times sweeter than the ingston's influence and capital, and, best cane sugar, equal to unity. What though the case was before the courts is more extraordinary, it differs wholly for many years in one form or another, in principle from the carbo-hydrate French was finally defeated. Although group that is, from all other known tne oscillating engine on exhibition in sugars in not being susceptible to fer- tne Steamboat Inspector's office was not . -r-i . - - i :n :i l -t onn 1 a. mentation. Every house-wife knows how preserved fruit mildews, how jam molds and how j-east ferments and :i a t-t a . . epulis. ah mese operations are the result of the action of organisms feeding on the sugar, here tofore an inseparable feature of all sweetening processes not produce fermentation in saccharine. To the contrary, it is powerfully pre servative a quality it possesses in com mon with all the coal-tar products. Of this the correspondent says he had some curious illustrations from the samples Mr. Salamon had brought with nun 11 um luagueourg. nere were strawberries, for instance, put up over HC li mi a year ago, which had never been eooked and which preserved absolutely their flavor of the garden. The jam tad been boiled, but with the non-fermenting saccharine there was no boil- ing away, no need of skimminsr. with which ordinary sugar involves a loss of ten per cent. It is not necessary to speak of other samples. Every one can see what the effect must be, in all these lines of production, of substitu ting for ordinary sugars a sweetening power which can not ferment, and which is strongly preservative. Another novel and interesting quality of this new p?od- Dct is that it is strictly anti-diabetic untoucnea. ijrerman physicians are making much of this phase of the discovery, and there has already been . established an independent factory for the manufacture of anti-diabetic biscuits for the use of the large class of patients to whom all sweetening has heretofore been forbidden. An immense factory, with the best machinery and appli ances, was started in Magdeburg, Ger many, in February, employing between two hundred and three hundred work men, to manufacture saccharine, with a capital of $900,000. The correspondent i&ys that "of course the principal idea of the introduction of saccharine, so 4ar as America's sugar trade goes, is, that by combination with glucose, a sugar can be made which will drive cane sugar to the wall." He was fhown a sample of sugar, composed of two parts of saccharine and one thou sand parts glucose, which seemed to sight and taste to be good enough ngar. The correspondent goes on to peculate upon the new industry and its tffects as follows: 'If a combination with saccharine can make a harmless, non-fermenting, non-crystalizing sugar out of glucose, at a cost enabling it to compete with, not to say drive out, cane sugar, then clearly a tremendous ana commercial and sectional revolu tion will be at hand. Buffalo, Peoria end other centers of the glucose indus try will have the Louisiana and West Indian trade and the great refining works of New York and California at their mercy. This seems among the possibilities, to state the case mildly, and it is surely worth thinking about." The coal tar to be used in the Magde burg factory- comes from England, which country produces many thou- eauus 01 ions ot this product of making. Light, Beat and Power. gas Warmth of Drained Soil. The curious parldo'x is presented in nderdraining land that it freezes more deeply m winter, but so soon as sprint comes it rapidly grows warmer than land not drained. There are much E f trinef temPerature, and both heat and cold favor the disinter . toon of the soil and the development of plant food. In well-drained land there U 110 surplus of water beyond what the oil will naturally retain. Its freezing, therefore, does not make a solid stratum cf Iceland when it thaws the water percolating to the tiles is followed by tT. infpri?S is alys warmer than the so,l At night when the sur- Tace freezes the expansion of the soil cxixds the air, which is replaced on the morrow when the sun is shining brightly !StWa.inthe 8pr!veniT; cii culation of air, and thus keeps down tlieerature until the waterls "yry?K the sum- AN HISTORICAL MODEL. A Steam Engine Built in 1809 Still in Per fect Running Order. Retained in perfect running order in the United States Steamboat Inspector's office in this city is an oscillating en gine constructed in 1809 by Daniel French. It is only of model size and is probably the first engine of the kind ever constructed. Its description is . simple. Having its piston-rod attached directly to the crank-pin, as the crank revolves the cylinder oscillates upon trunnions, one on each side nt it, through which the steam enters and leaves the steam-chest. The valves are within the steam-chest, oscillating with the cylinder. It is perhaps as sat isfactory an engine of this class as has ever been built, for it is well known that the mechanism actuating the valves in oscillating steam engines has seldom proved perfectly satisfactory in its operation. The inventor, whose son carried on a ship-yard for years at JefFersonville and was well known to many of the older citizens of the city, was contemporane ous witn rtooert Jbuiton, wno Duiit a steamboat on the Seine in 1803 with Chancellor Livingston, and who, in 1806, with Livingston, had a boat built on the Hudson in which he placed ma- chinery claimed to have been made by built till 1809, it was by no means the first attempt French had made to invent an engine applicable for steam naviga tion. He had been known as an inven tor for a quarter of a century before, and his numerous inventions of different kinds had given him an extensive and esteemed reputation. Those who knew him were wont to say that he was half a century ahead of the time in which he lived. It is not improbable that Fulton was familiar with French's experiments with steam. It is an historical fact that n connection with his profession as an engineer he had passed years in the scientific experiments the result of which forever identified his name with steamboat navigation. It is not to be doubted, therefore, that he was ac quainted with the efforts of every experi menter of the power of steam in this direction, from the time that Blanco de Garay is supposed to have actually ap- plied steam to the propulsion of a ship at Barcelona, in the year 1543, up to the time when, in 1763, William Henry, of Cheater County, Pennsylvania, tried his model steamboat oh the Conestoga river. Fulton witnessed that experi ment, and it is a matter of record that he was familiar with the work of the numerous contemporary inventors in America, and had visited England, where he found others at work on the same problem. But with this invention, as with all others, though the claimants may be numerous, the credit attaches to the one most successful in bringing it before the public. Louisville Courier' Journal. ENORMOUS FORTUNES. Wealthy Men In the United States, gland and on the Continent. Free England and democratic Amer ica lead the rest of the world in very rich men. The free play of modern in dustries and the absence of a paternal government favor the growth of enor mous fortunes in the English-speaking countries. Outside of the few Jewish bankers, such as the Rothschilds, ahd Herr Krupp, the great gun-maker, there are very few millionaires on the conti nent of Europe. In Prussia, Herr Krupp has an income of 5,000,000 marks, about $1,250,000 of our money, on which he pays $37,000 tax to the government. Next comes Baron Roths child of Frankfort, with about $680,000, and Baron Bleichreder, whose income is about $600,000. There are only two other Prussians with an income over $300,000. We beat the world in mil lionaires. This is accounted for by the fact that on the continent the rail roads and telegraph are owned mainly by the government, and the profits on transportation accrue . to the benefit of the National treasuries. In the United States the railroads and telegraph are in private hands, and the manipulation of their stocks, as well as the profits of the business, goes to pile up the enor mous fortunes of our Jay Goulds, Van derbilts, Stanfords, Huntingtons, Sages, not to mention the hundreds of others who have become millionaires as the result of manipulation in the stocks of corporations. It may be worthy of note, in passing, that wealthy real es tate owners, outside of the Astor family, are not very common in this country. Our laws provide for the breaking up of great estates .upon the death of the head of the house, and this puts a check to accumulations of landed wealth in a few hands. But personal property, in the form of the ownership of shares in corporations, can be better kept together in this country, and it will be noticed that in the wills of Com modore Vanderbilt and his son, Will iam H., provision was made for con centrating the wealth on one or two of the heirs. 'The Astor estate in New York has been held together, it is be lieved, by an evasion of the law regu lating the discount of bonded property. But the time must come when it will be scattered among all the heirs. J)em oresfs Monthly. ofTM-11 fh'e noted twenty passes loofl?1011?8 are more than 10t000 f set aWa the sa level. &vtttl$tratnt$. CHRISTMAS ANNOUNCEMENT EX S. S. AUSTRALIA, The Gal. Fruit Market Is now replenished with Fresh Fruit, imported especially for the Holiday Season. t Fresli Grapea Apples and Pears, All sound and large variety. Nuts, soft and hard shell, Smyrna and Call fornla Flcs. fresh and juicy. Also, on consignment, this year's Canned Fruits; such as Peaches, Apricots, Bartlett Fears, Plums., eto. Canned Jellies Strawberry .Raspberry.Quince, etc., etc. Also, a Prime Lot of Mustard and other Pickles, small and large bottles. Kegs of pickles very obeap. Potatoes and Onions, extra quality. White Heart Cabbage and Cauliflower. Cases Columbia River Salmon and Smoked Salmon. Canned Tomatoes, Catsup, Sardines. The above goods on consignment will be sold on liberal terms to the trade. FBOM WAIALUA One Hundred Corn-red Turkeys, , (Heavy.) 3T Goods in our line packed carefully for shipment. California Fruit Market, Corner King and Alakea streets. phone 378. Mutual Tele- GRASS SEEDS. COCKSFOOT, RYE GRASS, ENtf LISH RED CLOVER, COW GRASS. THE ATTENTION OF ALL INTERESTED IN improTlng tbe pasture lands of the Islands is ealled to the above valuable f eeds, which we offer for sale in lots to suit purchasers. We have also on hand sample lots of White Clover, English Alsyke, Timothy, Rib Grass. Crested Dog's Tail, Tall Fescue, Italian Rye Grass And Lucerne seeds, which we offer in small le ts for trial, and will also receive orders for quantities of not less than half a ton weight, and execute same with dispatch. 7l7-juael8tfd&w WM. G, IRWIN & CO. BUHACH ! THE GREAT CALIFORNIA INSECTICIDE. Beware of Imitations, Which are being put upon the market. THE GENUINE BUHACH sold only bj Mm, Mil & Sole Agents in the HAWAIIAN ISLANDS FOB THE Buhach Producing and Mfg. Co. STOCKTON, CAL. 78 anjiiatf NOTICE. WE HAVE JUST RECEIVED A NEW LOT OF MANILA CIGAKS, 0fthBeitAM Brand, m the Market, which tw aeuitt jioweai jrrices. either In Bond or Bntjr Paid. Fresh Lots received by every Steamer. MEE PONG fe CO.. Kins' St., Bet. Slaanakea and Xanana. 3m Waterliouse & Lester, IMPORTERS OF - WAGON LUMBER AND CARRIAGE MATERIAL 16 to 23 Beale street. Can Francisco. pW M. PHILLIPS a Co.. Clot wMwvrm ana v? nniMai w m la a4 Faney ooo X 'iHiSbSlSK Co. rr-i Eommerc IS IN PUJBIjISMKP jevery morning. Office, 46 and 48 Merchant Street, Honolulu. THE ADYEBTISEE Represents the Interests of the Politician, the Merchant, the Planter, the Storekeeper, the (Lawyer, the Workman, and, in fact, all Classes of the Community. THE ADYEKTISER Hasfor many yearsbeen noted JorJit3 Reports of Legislative Proceedings, lmportaut Law Cases, etc. These are recorded Verbatim when the importance of the occasion warrants it.' THE ADVEETISEE Is a necessity to Every English-speaking Inhabitant - of the Kingdom who desires to keep pace with the times. THE ADVEBTISER Is copious and prompt in the publication of Local News, and its readers are kept constantly posted as to the course of events in other parts ofthe world .particularly in the United States. Ai Weekly Mi Is specially adapted for portions of Terms of Daily Edition, per annum per half year.. " " per month Weekly Edition, per annum " to Foreign Countries 6 50 SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. THE Pacific Commercial Advertiser THE JOB PRINTING OFFICE Ii replete with fcvery'requirite which modern ingenuity has devised. LATEST NOVELTIES IN The Job Printing Departmen Every description order. of BOOK WORK. :o:- Priee are strictly moderand will i- . " , , Wttistmtnts. If vert THE THE GnnH Mwtk residents ofjtheoutlyg the group. Subscription : Q 00 . . . L.' 3 00 m 5 00 Books and Blank Forms Ruled to compare favorably with those of ''any t Siwrfittmtnts. PACIFIC Commercial Adverti lser STJCAM BOOK AND JOB PBINTING OFFICE Is prepared to do all kluds Commercial & Legal Work Having juatBeceived aComplete and ft. Assortment of - w Job Types and Oraamis Of the Lategt Styles, from tbe moist Ctl brated Foundries of the United States, and employing only Experienced and Tasty Workmen, we are prepared to turn out; Letter lletu. Dill Heads. Circulars, Note Henda, Statements, . Bills of Ladfar, htecfe Certificate. Business CarIs. Meal Check, til Ik Tickets, JBanli fneefcs Contracts, Sfertsranre Blanks,;: Leases, Shipping Contracts, I an Hawaiian A Engllih) CalsndarsJ BlankJ Checks, Orders, Beeelpts, If arrlaare Certificates, Diplomas, Catalogues, Blotting Pads And in fact everything which a first-claei office can do. Australian Mail Service. FOR SAN FRANCISCO. (tfhtt new and fine Al iteel teuashlp ".A.-.L.-A.ME J the Oceanic 8 teamship Company, will be due at Honelulu from Sydney and Auckland on or about February 12th, 1888, And will leave for the abeve port with mall and passengers on or aboqt that date. For freight or passage, having HUPERJOK ACCOMMODATIONS, apply to Wm. Gr. Irwin & Co., AOENTS. For Sydney and Auckland. The new and fine Al steel steamship MARIPOSA. 99 Ot the Oceanic Steamship Company, will be dne at Honolulu from San Francisco or or about January 19, ' 1888. And will hare prompt dfcjpatcn with malls an aasengf rs for the abore ports For freleht or nassare. barm SUPERIOR Al COMM ODATION8, apply to Wm. Gr. Irwin & Co., AGEirrs Notice of Kemoval. THOMAS 1.1103 SAY Uaniifacturing Jeweler, HAS REMOVED TO, Thomas Block, Kinc? St. .