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PACIFIC COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, FEBRUARY (, 1888.
A BIG BLUFF. THE GAME BY WHICH OREGON AND IDAHO WERE WON. Some Interesting Facts Unearthed Con cerning the " Louisiana Purchase" Text of the Original Grant 3Iak hus a Successful Territorial Grab. Washington Cor. Globe-Democrat. In the course of his researches, Chief Geographer Gannett, of the geological bureau, has unearthed some interesting facts not generally known about the re gion once described as the territory ol .Louisiana. As early as the beginning of the eighteenth centur' an official attempt was made to change the names of several of the rivers. In 17i t ranee made a grant to Antoine de Crozat of the ex clusive right to trade in the territory. This grant made the first and only state ment of the general limits of the vast re gion. -i'rance at that time claimed much more than is usually understood by the territory of Lo- siana. The grant reads 44 All the territories by us possessed and bounded by New .Mexico and by those of the English in Carolina, all the establish ments, pons, harbors, rivers and especially the port and harbor of Dauphin island, formerly called .Massacre island, the river fct Louis, formerly called the Mississippi, from the seashore to the Illinois, ,together with the river t. Philip, formerly called the Missouri river, and the St. .Jerome, formerly called the Wabash now the Ohio ', with all the countries, territories, lakes inland, and the rivers emptying directly or indirectly into that part of the river St Louis. " A GAM: OF BLUFF. In tracing the transfers of the various portions ot the western country until the ' of o'd pantaloons cling tenaciously to my Drift of the Hudson. New York Letter. The river bring3 its regular supply of drift It brings cordwood, dropped from passing vessels; piles which have rotted away, floated away, and are cruisinir about to find decent sepulture; camp stools tossed from excursion steamers, old boards, new boards, shingles, sticks, chips, bark, old brooms, worn out scrubbing-brushes, bits of torn and tangled seine, runaway eel-pots, dead dogs, dead puppies, an occasional dead horse, ille gally pitched at night oil some New York pier; old boxes and barrels, old pantaloons, bottles some smelling of medicine and others of whisky, corks without bottles, more bottles without corks, hats blown overboard, some old. some new; shad poles, bean-poles, hoop-poles, lunch -baskets, water soaked bread, empty sardine and lobster cans, the debris of floating lunch parties; cabbage leaves, decomposed fruit and vegetables, sometimes a fish pole, with line and hook attached; old painl brushes, everything, anything, and thing cast oil", flung oil, worn oil, torn o t, rubbed oil of the world's surface, in cluding also old boots and shoes, so long as they iloat. Every morning I inspect the bit of strand near my door to see what the river has brought It is an interesting lottery. Sometimes 1 find a late news paper, scaked, to be sure, but when dried on the rocks it reads as well as if just i.-sued. As we have uoregur supply on this bank of the stream, news three or four days old reads just as well, and seems quite interesting until one looks at the date. Some of this drift, when it conies, comes to stay. Particularly old boots and snoes, stuck in the mud. I have become well acquainted by sight with several impaired specimens, regu lsrly appearing before my door at low tide, especialfy one gigautic boot, pre sumably the "former property of some colossal looted jersey shadman. A pair A PRIMA DONNA ON THZ PLAINS. People Miles as nrst and su use included that sec- present limits ot the I nited . tates were determined, 31 r. Garnett finds that this government came into possession of the region now divided into Washington, Oregon, and Idaho through a pure game of bluff. It is certain, he says, that the territory of Louisiana, quently de.med, never Hon. France transferred the territory of Louisiana to Spain in 17G2. A few months later, in a treat-, the western boundary of Great Britain's possessions was made the center of the .Mississippi, and thus the territory of Louisiaua lost all the land east of the Mississippi. By the treaty of San lldefonso in 1?00, Spain transferred the territory of Louisi ana to b ranee. In ;-", Bonaparte sold the territory of Louisi.t'ia to the l nited States in con sidera: on of oO.OOJ.uOO francs and the assump tion by this government of the "French spoliation claims" supposed to amount to about, s..Tol,o(X). The treaty of cession defined the boundaries as the ! same as th.ise specified in the treaty of : San lldefonso. Mr. v, aruett reaches this conclusion: From this it appears that the territory sold to the nited states comprised that j part of the drainage basin of the Missis- j sippi which lies west of the course of the i river with the exception of such parts as were then held by Spain. The want of j precise definition of limits in the treaty j wa3 not objected to by the American 1 commissioners, as they probably foresaw that this very indefiuitencss might prove of service to the c nited States in future negotiations with other powers. In fact, the claim of the t nited states to the area now comprised in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho in the negotiations with t .reat Britain regarding the northwestern boundary was ostensibly based not only upon prior occupation and upon purchase from Spain, but also upon the alleged fact that this area formed part of the Louisi ana purchase. A BASELESS CLAIM. "That this claim was baseless is shown not only by what has been already de tailed regarding the limits of the purchase, .but also by the direct testimony of the French plenipotentiary, 31. Barbe. Mar bois. Some twenty years after'tbe pur chase he published a work upon Louisi ana in which he detailed at some length the negotiation which preceded the pur chase, and, referring to the question, said: 'The shores of the western ocean were certainly not comprised in the cession, but already the L nited States is established there.' " There is also contained in this work a map of the country between the Missis sippi and the Pacific, on which the extent of Louisiana to the westward is indicated by a line drawn on the 110th meridian, which is not far from the western limit of the drainage basis of the Mississippi in Wyoming and Montana, That part of the country new comprised in Oregon, Washington and Idaho, which, it has been c. aimed, formed part of the pur chase, bears the following legend: "Terri tories and countries occupied by the United States, following the treaty of ces sion of Louisiana. " beach, changing their position but little with each tide, and having a startling re semblance in the various attitudes of the legs, as flung about by the waves, to the lim ed part of a drowned man. 13iii Columbus Discover America? (Tall Mail Gazette. A short time ago we referred to the violent dispute going on in Central Amer ica a3 to the last resting-place of Colum bus, San Domingo and Cuba being the claimants for this honor. A solemn con clave of the representatives of various governments recently met in San Domingo to settle the matter; but now another discussion has been raised, the question this time being whether Columbus ever set foot on the American continent at all. It was commonly believed, and is slated in most modern histories, that the great navigator in his fourth and last V03 age landed on the coast belonging to the present republic of Honduras. Three years ago Don Soto, the presi dent of the republic, desired to com memorate this great event by creating a new administrative district at the place and calling it Colon. But he determined first to look into the original authorities ; himself, and having done so found reason to doubt the accuracy of the popular be lief on the subject. Having communi cated his doubts to Den Milla. a learned Guatemalan, who has written a history of Central America, in which he reproduces the usual statement, the latter 're-examined all the documents of the time and came to the conclusion that an error had arisen through a misrepresentation of a single passagein an old chronicler, and that Columbus really never landed on the continent. Oriental Observances. Cor. London Truth. With all princes Iliudoo, Moham medan, or Buddhist on the peninsula of 11 indoostan, a superior is approached by an inferior with presents. There must, in fact, be the earnest of a present, if it be only a lime or a Mower. From those incontestable" of an inferior rank the re ception of the lime or Mower is counted as su i.eient condescension, and as a recog nition of the acquaintance. With those who by right wear a sword, the sword in its scabbard is presented to be touched by the recipient of the visit, and this grace ful address is the shorthand token of the bearer of the sword having o;.ered his services, even to devoting his life. After the lime there is an ascending scale of presents, such as nosegays, trays of fruit, sweetmeats, a palanquin, a horse, an elephant, or jewelry up to the value of the koh i noor. And in every instance the recipient is understood to return a present to the donor of greater value than the present received. It may be in kind, or it may be in favors to be granted, but there must be no mistake as to the worth. Who Kide Four Hundred to Attend a Concert. Cor. Boston Gazett?. I had a letter from Miss Clara Louise Kellogg the other da-, in which she de scribed a part of her tour tome. She i3 now journeying through the northwest, and in all her travels, in Europe or America, she says she has never had so interesting a time. There is nothing very exciting or romantic about the ordinary thriving western town, but the mining towns where Miss Kellogg has been sing ing of late have given her the most pict uresque episodes of her professional career. She has traveled all through the Yel lowstone region, where she says she failed to find the brilliant hues Thomas Moran gets in his water-colors. Coing through this country she rode in stages, and usu ally occupied the seat with" the driver. These drivers she describes as veritable characters out of Bret Harte's stories. They were full of anecdote, and kept her entertained with their adventures and ex periences all along the route. At Mammoth hot springs she gave a concert on Sunday night at 9 o0 o'clock. This, late hour " M as to accommodate people from out of town, from -.00 to -00 miles away, who came to hear the sm ing, for music of the sort Miss Kelloi and her company gave them is scarce in that part of the country. Some of the parties carried tents and provisions and camped out along the wav. After the concert there was a ball, which did' not begin until after 12 o'clock midnight, which made it Sunday morning. Misa Kellogg says that she stayed to the dance, and not only stayed, but took part in it, going through the figures of the Virginia reel and a quadrille with a cow boy for a partner. An old ranchman called olf the figures. Every variety of frontier costume was seen in the dance red shirts, hickory shirts, leather shoot ing coats, top boots and moccasins, all making a striking background to the prima donna's concert dress. It was a strange mingling of Paris and Yellowstone fashions. The natives them selves did not enjoy the fun one whit more than did Miss Kellogg; indeed, not as much, for it was a new and interesting experience to her, while to them it was an old, old story. r 00 Lamar and the Tailor Consrressiina. Washington Latter. Secretary Lamar's dreamy, abstracted ways and his indilFercuco to dress, fur nished many jokes for his brother sena tors while he was one of them. He likes his coats to be loose and comfortable, so loose that he can turn around and shrug his shoulders inside of them, and button them tip with a law book in his breast pocket. He was sitting in his seat in the senate one day, lounging down in the depths of his coat somewhere, with the collar riding up over his oas, when he was joined by Leopold .Morse, a Boston congressman of Hebrew decent, wlro has amassed a great fortune in the clothing busin'.-ss. 3Ir.vMorse seemed nervous about some thing while he sat talking to the great Mississippiau, and when both rose to finish the conversation standing. Mr. 3Iorse's twitching fingers suddenly laid hold of the front of Senator Lamar's coat. Instinct had been too much for him, and holding. the fronts together he shook Mr. i amar far back into the coat and held the great la;is of cloth out before him. "It is a very good piece of cloth, " he said, giving the fine material a professional taress between a thumb and finger, "but there is too much in this coat. "Take a little olf here , "but the astonished Missis sippiau slipped out of the gra-p of the Boston tailor, and asserted his senatorial dignity before the man could liuish telling where else the coat did not fit. VJiere the UIy Ch'irm Girl Comes in. 'Hrooklyn E iIe. "The Mikado" is a great opera for ugly chorus girls. Justice comes in the end to eery one, and the scrawny and unsym metrical members of comic opera organi zations who have been so long relegated to the rear of the stage, while their more graceful sisters ca. lured salvos of ap plause in the front ranks, now have their innings. The Japanese costumes for women have a Puritanical design, which would have caused acute satisfaction to the most proper of the Pilgrim . athers. They are buried up like so many pillows, and there is not the faintest indication of a waist The girls are obliged to walk with their toes turned in. and they wear heelles slippers of grent size. The bigger the feet and the plainer the face the more nearly does the giri come to the ideal of Japanese beauty. -f n intelligent r.i t-jMiiiii c. St. Lo-i;s (ilohDemoorat. A recemt writer in Xature gives an in stance of remarkable adaptation in ele phants. He observed a young one go to a fence and pull out a bamboo stick, which he broke in pieces, but he threw all the p eces away. This he repeated till he se cured a piece that suited him. This he passed under Lis armpit and began to scratch. iown fell a great e.ephant leach, six inches long, which without a scraoer couid not have been dislodged. The writer adds that this custom is an estab lished one among elephants. Thev will also break o.i bushes strip trees nearly down and use them to whip away nies. kingdom. at a voun? Aiitlo.e for Morphine. CLiaqr.- KeraM. A number of dogs were recently dosed with morphine until they became insensi ble, the object being to determine what drug would act must rapidly as an anti dote. It was found that hypodermic in jections of theine neutralized the narcotic almost instantly, although it was em ployed only after the heart had ceased to beat Caheiue had a c -nsiderable anti narcotic power, but was not equal to the principle derived from tea. Setting 'Km Up in China. Interview with John Russell Younj. One of the greatest drawbacks to a con tinued residence in China, according to some Americans, is the fact that there are no side doors to the bar-rooms, a circum stance which renders Sunday a very dull day. This is accounted for by the fact that there are no bar-rooms in the Excise commis-ioners are discount, and white aproned men with diamond pins and black mustaches are un known. On almost every corner, how ever, there is a "tea house, " where convivial Chinamen sit on tea boxes, talk politics and help themselves to any loose groceries that ma3r be lying about Instead of two friends greeting each other with, "Come and have one with me. ole man," the dignified Chinamen walk sedately into the tea house and ask for "Two teas have them hot " Then they throw dice or match pennies to see who will pay for them, but each man seitles for his own tea in the regulation I hiladelphia style. The Art-Lovins: Mexican. Por. Boston Ileral i. The Mexican people, hi'sdi and low, are very artistia I have noted with some as tonishment the artistic faces of the com mon peons at work on the paving im provements on San Francisco street There are faces and forms there that would make an artist or a sculptor envi ous. A week ago the peon paving gang go't as far .lown the street as the windows of a well-known Mexican art store, where are displayed the finest r rench and Ger man engravings, photographs? etc. At the noon hour groups of these peon work ingmen would stand in concourse about the windows of tie store, reveling in the art treasures therein and discussing among themselves the merits of the pictures? Imagine a Washington street paving gang having an eye for the art-store windows. Mormon Kecruits. New York for. D 'troit Fr e Tress. Recruiting for Mormondom seems to go on quite as successfully in some parts of Europe as it ever did. Every month or two a fresh batch of recruits is landed in New York and started olf for i'tab. by the first train. The latest batch, num bering about 00, in charge of. a baker's dozen of elders, was lauded a few days ago. They were picked up in England, Ger many and the Scandinavian country, and in appearance they were at least up to the average of immigrants. The men looked rather dull anil the women rather plain, but that might be said of nearly all steer age passengers when they land. Almost the whole of the Mormon re cruiting is done in northern Europe. France, Italy and Spain don't take to the polygamous idea at all, and the mission aries found out long since that it did not pay to spend either time or money in those countries. Some recruiting is done in New York and the region around, but it does not amount to much. THE CLAY-EATEftS OF MARYLAND. The Sorry Specimens of Humanity Who Inhabit the Eastern Shore. Baltimore Cor. ChL-ajro Tribune. The eastern shore of Maryland has not only been brought into prominence by the wonderful oyster beds that line it, but also by some of the queer people who in habit the almost uninhabitable portions of it A great swamp extends through Wicomico and "Worcester counties. It produces fine cypress, and is the home of the most venomous snakes. It is also the home of the "swampers" and clay eaters. These are not reptiles or animals, but people, human beings, most of whom have never seen a railroad, heard a locomotive-whistle, or voted any ticket It is hard to understand the appetite that craves clay as a diet tome people refuse to believe that the people can live and yet eat clay, but a reputable and truth ful physician" who recently contracted a severe case of the shaking-ague in making a tour of the eastern shore swamps declares that these peculiar specimens of the Maryland population do eat clay and have a passion or habit of chewing it like lovers of hasheesh. There is a kind of clay found in that section that is oily, like putty, and with very little sand or grit in it. The physician referred to says the clay eating swampers are miserable specimens of humanity. With legs that are mere sticks, narrow hips, depressed chests, pot bellies, and bl uish-f ellow complexion, they present about the lowest type of the white race found in the United States. The swampers who acquire the habit of eating c'ay are generally short-lived, but the other inhabitants of the eastern shore swamps are as hardy a3 others and as ignorant as Hottentots. Many 'of their houses are built on piles, and they reach them in boats through the lagoons. Though they shake with ague half the year, and have skins the color of salfron, they seem to be insured against any other disease, for it is rare to hear of any other kind of sickness in the swamps than ague. It is astonishing what quantities of qui nine and whisky are consumed by these people. The women who are not clay eaters chew tobacco and drink corn juice the same as the men. In the summer the women and children gather blackberries, which are plentiful in this vicinity. The 'men go o 1 in the woods and make shin gles, which they sell to the nearest country stores for cheap wearing apparel, corn meal, bacon, quinine and whisky. These people are never readied by. the tax col le tor, the preacher, the book agent, the politician, or the lightning rod agent, and when they are not shaking with chills they are happy and contented. loiiercsa Zqu cling I r t PACIFIC I I loverfe I IS THE IX THE -o- -o- Office, 40 and 48 Merchant Street, Honolii!1 O 1 hi"-"'-, r-ttimrn . Green P.J.L r in Deiu tv st's Monthly. Great hopes were entertained a few 3'ears ago that the inclosing of green fod der in "silos, " so as to keep feed fresh during the winter mouths, would revolu tionize the whoie business of .caring for stock. Ensi age promised to make the feeding of cattie in cold regions a inex pensive as in climates where there is no winter. In other words, it was to do for came ieeu wnat ine canning or pro visions, vegetables and truit did for the iood of man. The method employed was to pack the loader very closely, so that the air would not get to it, but it was found that the feed soured and injured the milk, uuuer anu cneese maae irom tne cows that weie fed on it Mr. (. eorge Frye has just written a book showing how ensilage can be made and kept sweet and fresh. L'nder his system it is not packed ciose, and the fermentation is permitted to go on. Th.-j mass is heated up to 120 degrees, which kills the bacteria, and then the fodder is as good and wholesome as if fed fresh in summer time. This is a mat ter of the greatest moment to all regions of the earth where the winter seasons are long and severe, for with sweet ensilage cattle can be bred and kept in northern regions as cheaply as on the plains of Texas. This will revolutionize stock raising and largely increase the value of northern agricultural lands. THE ADVEETISEK Represents the Interests of the Politician, the Merchant,. xianier, tne ororeKeeper, tlie .Lawyer, the Workman, and.; fact, all Classes of the Community. THE ADYEKTISEE Has for many years been noted for its Reports of Legislative Proceedings, Important Law Cases, etc. These are recorde: Verbatim when the importance of the occasion warrants it. THE ADYEETISEli ' -Lnghsa. speaking. 'Inhabitant of Is a necessity to Every Kingdom who desires to keep pace with the times. THE ADYEETISER n,. Is copious and-prompt in the publication of Local News, ami its readers are kept constantly posted as to the course of erent. in other parts of the world, particularly in the United States. 2s"otes of I'a.nltionable Society. The Ramb'er.l Mr. Charles Tuff hoy got his overcoat out of hock last Wednesday. Mr. James Hightiyer is again wearing his watch and chain. Congratulations. Miss Yseult McMurtry gave a soiree dansante last evening at the residence of her present employer, Mrs. l.e Smythe. Miss Tetite Mooney is seeking rest and recreation at a West Side intelligence of fice. May she soon return. Mr. 11. Clay Cavendish, of the Cuttc Cavendishes, is seriously ill with brain fever. "Where he caught"the brain is not stated. A Ceutenarian's Diet. Chicago Tribune. M. Chevreul, the French scientist, who has recently begun his 100th year, takes breakfast in bed at 7 o'clock two egns, a slice of "pate de volaille, " and a pint of "cate au lait. " At y he rises and dues a good day's work. Dinner consists of a dish of tapioca soup, a mutton chop, a bunch of grape3, a bit of "cheese, and three glasses of cold water, lie never takes lunch, but confines himself strictly to two meals a da', with twelve Uours between them. He never drinks wine or other alcoholic stimulants. Cleanliness of Egyptians. Youth's Companion. J The higher and middle class of Egyp tian Moslems arc scrupulously clean. lhcir rcheion compels them to wash themselves frequently, and thereby pre serve their health, i'ut the foreigner will see in the streets or Cairo a richly-dressed, vei.ed lady, whose person is as clean as frequent and prolonged bathing can make it, leading by the baud a little child with a lace besmeared with dirt, and with clothes which look as if they had been worn for months without being washed. Ihe reason for this strange inconsist ency is that an unwashed and shabbily- dressed child is believed to bedess liable to the dreadful evil eye. Another inconsistency is that an Egj'p tian will go again and" again to the bath in the same dirty shirt. He will wash himself thoroughly, wiil be "shampooed" from head to foo't, and then put on that dirty shirt, because his ideas of cleanliness do not extend to his lineu. . A. ii O.IU'- IDtm An "Everlasting" AVood Pawment. Scientific Exchiin. The Czar MastifC Harper's Bazar. 1 The czar of Russia possesses a magnifi cent mastiff, of extraordinary intelligence and strength, which has been trained to protect his master. This laithful brute accompanies the czar on air important journeys, and sleeps close to the imperial A set of. buttons made from the finder nails of a human being adorns the shirt Uoxxt and culls of a baji Francisco man, U 1 , 4 A. new everiasting wood pavement has been brought out in France. The wood blocks are boiled in a solution of sulphate of copper, sulphate of zinc and chloride of sodium, mixed with a heav v mineral oil, linseed oil and tallow. The blocks are afterward compressed to about one tentn tneir original volume. In this state tuey are said to be practically un-wearable. the and Oil for Anoiutin?. It is essential that the oil used bv Mormons to anoint their converts. also tnose married in the endowment houses, should be obtained from an ani mal caught by some bishop or eider of the church. Xaile iele ihone. rest's Monti, y.' To make a serviceable telephone, from one farm house to another, only requires enough wire and two cigar boxes. First select your boxes, and make a hole about half an inch in diameter in the center of the bottom of each, and then place one in each of the houses you wish to con nect; then get rive pounds of common iron stove-pipe wire, make a loop in one end and put it through the hole in your cigar box and fasten it with a nail; then draw it tight to the other box, supporting it when necessary with a stout oord. You can easily run your line into the house by boring a hole through the glass. Support your boxes with slats nailed across the window, and your telephone is complete. The writer has one that is yards long and cost 4o cents that will carry music 'hen the organ is played thirty feet away in another roorn. Self- Com in un i eg. Bo-tn TranscriDt.J Savs Foirfr. "When I refWt nnon t.Q faults and shortcomings of those about me. lam surprised that they should not forsake their errors and always do riht but when I think of mv own shortcom ings and faults, I am" thoroughly con vinced that a man is a slave to his or ganization, and therefore is nowise re sponsible for his wanderings from the path of rectitude. " mixinjr The first copper furnace in Cuba will be put in operation in a few days, and the metal will hereafter be exported in stead of the ore - A liwl Practice. Till late years tho practice of too nntt win 1 n . 1 n-n. uuov uu icavua was never Known in Japan, but it is said to have become so prevalent that foreign buyers are obliged to make a discount for the dust at a rate of from one to three pounds per box There is hardly a village in Russia in which there is not to be found a bottle of water from the famous river Jordan. Vot what a person reads, but what he wardly digests, make him stronger mentally. weekly Ms Ekiinl An Is specially adapted for Iortiohs of residents of the group. the outlying T erms of Subscription: Daily Edition, per annum. .. " . " Xper half year. " " " per month ... Weekly Edition, per annum. ...?6 to Foreign Countries. 3 00 SO SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. T EE K Pacific Commercial Advertiser THE JOB PKIKTING OFFICE Is replete with every' requisite which modern ingenuity has devised. LATEST NOVELTIES IN Tlie J o"b Printing Departme J Every descriptiou order. of BOOK WORK. Books and Blank Forms Ruled to -:o:- Prices are strictly moderateand will compare favorably with those of other office in the city. 1