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Established July 2, 1856. VOIi. XXI.. JSO. 3985. HCXNOIUXTJ, HAAIIAK ISLANDS, FRIDAY, MAY ' 1895. PRICE: 5 CE3STS. i. BREWER k CO., LIMD Queen Street, Honolulu, 11, I, AGENTS FOR Hawaiian Agricultural Co., Onomea sugar Co., Honomn bugar Co., Wailuku Sugar Co., Waihee Sugar Co., Makee sugar C)., ilaleakaia Kanch Uo., Kapa- pala Kanch. Planters' Line San Francisco Packets . Ohas. Brewer & Co.'a Line of Boston Packets. Agents Boston Board of Underwriters. Agents Philadelphia Board of Under writers. L.I9T OF OFFICERS: P. C. Jonks President Qso. H. Robertson Manager E. F. Bishop Tres. and Secy. Col. W. F. Allen Auditor O. M. Cooke ) H. Watebhocse. . . ... ...Directors A. W. Cabtbr ) 0T1R PEOPLE'S MONEY Is what we want, but in order to ob tain it, we must give VALUE FOR VALUE and invite the attention of the PEO PLE (tourists especially to make a thorough examination of our stock and prices, in Sterling Silverware Souvenir Spoons, Plated Ware, Watches and Diamonds, Native Jewelry, manufactured in unique de signs and to order. Jacobsou & Pfeifier. FORT STREET, Wenner & Co.'s Old Stand . The Hawaiian Investment Co, REAL ESTATE -AND- LOANS. FOR SALE. Desirable Property in all parts of the Oity. Four Houses on Punchbowl street at bargain. A 4-acre Lot at Makiki. Lots 4 and 5, Block 25, Pearl Oity. A2)-acre Lot at Kalihi. Residence at Kalihi with barn, pig pens and chicken coop, 120x10 ; suitable tor a Chicken Ranch. 13 and 15 Kaahumanu Street. Telephone 639. Near Postoffice. Castle & Cooke L'd. LIFE AND FIRE AGENT8 FOR NEW ENGLAND MUTUAL Life Insurance Company . OF BOSTON. Itaa Fire Insurance Compy OF HARTFORD. HONOLULU CARRIAGE MANUFACTORY! W.W. WRIGHT, Proprietor. Carriage -: Builder AND REPAIKER. 'All orders from the other islands In the Carriage Building, Trimming and Painting Line, will meet with prompt attention. 'P. O. BOX 321. NOS. 128 AND 130 FORT STREET JIassage. MRS. PRAY WOULD ANNOUNCE that she will attend a limited num ber of patients. Address at H. M. Whitney's, King st. ; Bell Telephone 75, 3228-tf INSURANCE AGENTS. lutsincss Curtis. M. E. Grossman, D.D.8. DENTIST, 93 HOTIL STRUT. 'Orric Mo eras 8 A. u. to 4 r. m . New Goods A FINE ASSORTMENT. TILES FOR FLOORS ! And for Decorating Purposes ; ALiTTtHQ OF ALL KlNDS, M axil a Cigars . WING WO CHAN k CO, No. ft J"i3T rv-i W. F. O'HALLORAN, Contractor and Builder 'Estimates given on all kinds of Brick, Stone and Wood Work. gjW Jobbing promptly attended to. 506 lillSTO STREET, F. H. Redward's Old Stand. CONSOLIDATED Soda Water Works Company, Limited Esplanade, Corner Allen and Fort Sis. HOLLISTER & CO., Agents. ?. JAOUEN. Practical Gunmaker Will do any kind of repairing to Fire arms, also Browning and Blueing and restocking equal to Factory work. Satis faction guaranteed. Union street, with C. Sterling, Painter. WM. L. PETERSON, Notary :- Public, -: Typewriter AMD COLLECTOR. Office : Over Golden Rule Bazaar. DR. J. UCHIDA, Physician and Surgeon. No. 5, KUKUI LANE. Office Hours: 8 to 12 a. m. and 8 p. m. Mutual Tel. 532. PIONEER Steam Candy Factory and Bakery F. MORN, FrsctlnU Confectioner and Baker, ISTO. 71 HOTEL ST'RICICT. HONOLULU IROH WORKS CO., Steam Engines, Boilers, Sugar Mills Coolers, Erass anil Lead Casting;, And machinery of every description made to order. Particular attention paid to ships' blacksmithing. Job work exeated on the shortest notic. LEWERS & COOKE, Successors to Lewers & Dickson. Importers and Dealers in Lumber And all Kinds of Building Materials. HO. 88 FORT BTRKET, HONOLULU P.O. Box 386. Mutual Tel. 544. NAN-YD COMPANY, LIMITED, Commission Merchants IMPORTERS ASD DEALERS IS Japanese -:- Provisions AND GENERAL MERCHANDISE, 411 KING- STREET, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. New Goods bv everv steamer. MERCHANTS' EXCHANGE, Corner of King and Nuuanu Streets. Just received by the Australia, a fresh invoice of Enterprise Beer and Oysters FOR COCKTAILS. Telephone 806. Business Caros. JENNIE L. HILDEBRAND. M. D. Homeopathic Pbysitiiau. Corner Fort and Beretania streets. Office honrs : 0 to 12 a. v. ar..l S to 4 p. m. telephone No. 92. LEWIS & CO., Wholesale and Retail Grocers 111 FORT STREET, Telephone 240. F. O. Box '49 S. T. ALKJLAH D&it, II. r. BALDWIN. ALEXAXDEK BALDWIN, Commission Merchants No. 3 California St., San Francisco. Island orders promptly filled . A. PERRY, ATTORNEY AT LAW And Notry Public. Office: Over Bishop's Barf. WILLIAM C. PARKE, ATTORNEY - AT - I.AW gUt to tJB.4r.fe AcknowdgMOt. Ornoa No. 13 Kaahumanu Street, Houo- Inln XX T 1UIU, U. X . GONSALVES & CO, Wholesale Grocers and Wine Merchants. 225 Queen Street, Honolulu, H. I. H. MAY & CO., Wholesale and Retail Grocers 98 FORT STREET. Telephones 22. P. O. Box 470. HAWAIIAN HARDWARE CO., T A TITO WARE. Cutlery and Glassware 3Q7 Fort Street. BEAVER SALOON, POBT 8TEEET, OPPOSITB WILDEB 4 CO.'S H. J. NOLTE, Aroiprietor. First-class Lnnches served with Tea, Cof fee, Soda Water, Ginger Ale or Milk. J3TOPEI FROM 3 A. M. TILL 10 P. M. Smokers' Requisites a specialty. WM. F. THRUM, SURVEYOR. Room No. 11, Spreckels Block. C. J. WHITNEY, Teacher of Elocution, ana Dra matic Art, Arlington Hotel. G. E. SMITHIES, Accountant, Collector and Copyist. Office : With O. D. Chase, Safe Depo si t Building. Telephone 1S4. The collection of Government Bills a specialty. 3931 6m M. W. McCHESNEY k SONS WHOLESALE GROCERS ASD DEALEBS IN Leather and Shoe Findings HONOLULU. AfCNTQ Honolulu Poap Works Co., AUfllllO Honolulu Tannery. H. HACKFELD CO., General Commission Agents Cor. Fort and Qneen sts., Honolnln. Imperial Flour Is the only blended flour ever offered on these Islands. It is a new ' Patent Proceed" of blending together the Best Known varieties of whsat for strength and color, thereby prodncin g a flour that will give tiu beet possible baking results for the housekeeper JjflT Ask your grocer for a trial sack it will cost you no-more. A. L. MORKIS & CO., 3937-6ra Wholesale Agents. INDUSTRY IN HAWAII, A. C. Lovekin Discusses its Pro duction in the Islands. V IJEST KATT M GAi; IN THE WUSLD. Without Amerit an Reciprocity 1'lanter Could Not Raise Sugar at a l'rofit. Favors an Armed Protectorate by the Inited States -Contract L,abr Rest. Mr. A Charles Lovekin, Just arrived from Honolulu, is in the city on a brief visit, and when seen at the Im perial last evening, talked very enter tainly for an hour on the Hawaiian situation, and the sugar industry at the Islands, says the Portland Oregon iau of April 19th. He is thoroughly familiar with both subjects, being connected for years with one of the largest sugar-growing and refining concerns there. Mr. Lovekin came up on the Alameda's last trip, and reports everything quiet in Hawaiian politics since the discovery and frus tration of the recent plot against the Government. Referring to the sugar industry, he said: "Like all the great staple products of the world, at the present time, sugar is far from profitable, generally speaking. All the profit derived from this great product of the Islands is practically in the half-cent allowance by our reciprocal relations with this country. Without it, we could not do more than to just manage to keep even, ine planters in sugar produc ing countries, such as Cuba, that have no such advantage, are making noth ing, if indeed they are avoiding loss. But the half-cent secured by the treaty of reciprocity with the United States enables the Islands to he fairly pros perous The last crop was large, and the yield of the refineries is up to the average. As you are doubtless aware, th American sugar trust bycoutract takes The totai piouui, ui u'v for the five years from 1S93 to 1898. Most of the sugar comes through San Francisco, although the trust has been shipping 25 per cent, of the product in clipper-ships around the horn during the past year. "The Islands produce the best sugar in the world in the raw state. We make a grade that polarizes at 9S, the standard for the best refined sugar be ing 100. The average throughout the country polarizes at 96. It is practic ally the only developed industry there, and in importance and amount of cap ital invested, it far overshadows any other industry. "The Islands are as undeveloped in other respects as the Pacific States. The sugar plantations merely occupy a narrow fringe along the coast, while an immense stretch of territory inland is practically untouched, and affords splendid opportunities for settlers with a little capital. These lands will pro duce fruits and grains of ail kinds and in the greatest abundance. All the products of the temperate zone, as well as those of the tropics, can be raised with success in the proper loca tions. This is owing to the topogra phy ofjthe country, making a variety of climates at different elevations. At 13,000 feet the climate is frigid. The country needs a large number of small farmers, those who can handle from 25 to 30 acres each, working their planta tions themselves. The coffee industry offers great inducements to settlers, as very many are engagiug in it. We raise the finest coffee in the world. It brings now in the London market 2 cents more than any other, not accept ing the Mochas and Javas. There are already thirty coffee-growTers to one sugar-planter at the Islands, but it should be remembered that it takes at least $500,000 capital to engage in the sugar industry. It requires a large tract of land, and everything must be done on an immense scale in order to make it pay. You will understand this when 1 explain that it costs ?l'UO, 000 to put in a mill and appliances for refining, and then a large corps of skilled men, including a competent manager, engineers, operators, etc., have to be employed. This equipment can handle an output of 10,000 tons as easily as an output of 3008 tons, conse quently the more extensive the plan tation, or larger the product, the less comparative expense. The tendency recently has been to combine as much as possible. For instauce, the com pany with which I am connected owns several plantations, and is capitalized wiih a stock of $600,000. Almost every enterprise at the Islands is on a joint stock basis. All the tugar con cerns are capitalized at from $250,000 to $2,000,000 The average is from $250,000 to $750,000. By this method, you see, the man of small means Is en abled to make his pro rata profit with the millionaire. A man may invest $1000, and his percentage of profit is just as great as that of the man who invests $100,000. We have no stock gambling there. A great deal of the t-tock is very valuable, some of it steady at from 150 to 175 Our concern cleared Inet yer a little over 26 per cent, on its capital stock, which is up to 200. "Of course, annexation to this coun try is the great desire of the influen SUGAR tial element at the Hawaiian Islands. It means absolute freedom of trade and stability of government, and sim ply guarantees the future prosperity of the territory. "But there is one great problem which is likely to be seriously affected by annexation conditions. Tke sugar industry is dependent upon cheap labor. We are obliged to have con tract labor, as the native population is hopelessly insufficient. We are compelled to keep importing more laborers. This is contrary to the present laws of the United States, but it would seem that the question could be settled by the passage of a law pro hibiting such contract laborers from entering the states. Japan furnishes by far the greater number of laborers. We have a treaty with that govern ment by which it attends to all the details of shipping its subjects to us. But we realize the danger of getting too many of any one nationality, and try to get as great a variety as possi ble. Portuguese and natives of the Azores have been imported in large numbers of late. A vessel arrived at Honolulu with 900 Portuguese on board the day I sailed. "The islands have a population of about 100,000, less than one-tenth of which are whites, exclusive of 12,000 Portuguese. The natives number about i.0,000, Japs, 30,000, and Chinese 20,000. The Portuguese and natives are allowed the full rights of citizen ship, but the franchise is denied the Asiatics. Our contracts with laborers allow them $12 per month w7ages for men and $9 per month for women who wish to work. In addition to this we provide them with suitable dwellings, fuel, water and medical attendance in case of sickness. This MAP OF SEAS CONNECTED is really better than the sugar plant get nkkhYJibSIn sia.tesdoand we figures. They are glad to come, in fact, as the work is steady and they do much better than in their own countries. Of course, when we have fulfilled our part of the contract and a laborer is not sick, yet refuses to work he can be locked up. This might be thought to savor of slavery, but it does not, as the laborer has re course to the courts if he considers his treatment unjust. The contract lab orer is never abused at the islands, and when an occasion comes up that brings him before a court, he is gen erally favored. He is never worked severely, and he appears to enjoy life about as well as laborers do any where. "I have already mentioned annexa tion. Personally speaking, I should prefer an armed protectorate by this country. The mere presence of the flag is all that would be required to insure an absolute stable government, and the element in power at the isl lands, which is thoroughly American, naturally turns to this couutry for security. The island trade with the United States is immense. San Fran Cisco's exports to Honolulu are larger than to any other country, and this trade is bound to grow with the de velopment of the islands unless the United States chooses to turn the cold shoulder upon us, in which case we must turn to England. The present Government holds its position by force of arms against the will of the ma jority of the islands' inhabitants; but this is a case where the minority must rule, and we intend the government shall stand as it is until we are under the flag of a powerful nation. No country so small as Hawaii can ever hope to amount to anything as an in dependent government." Hawaiian Life in Burlesque. Edward Dekum writes from Port land, Oregon, that extensive pre parations are being made by the Multnomah Club there to produce in burlesque "The Hawaiian King Pro Tern," at the Marquam Grand opera house on May 16th, 17th and 18th, with a matinee. The libretto is said to be exceed ingly clever and catchy, and the piece excellently mounted. The familiar airs of "Hawaii Ponoi," "Aloha Oe" and "Lilioukalani March"' will be introduced. The play has a strong plot and during its progress a genuine hula dance will b8 given, together with a popu lar topical song on annexation. Glimpses of the burlesque and characters will be shown in this City later. J v. A Samoan paper suggests that a Scottish memorial of R. L. Steven eon should take the form of an obe lisk on the western summit of the Braid Hills, which could be seen from the region where the author spent his youth. I NORTH tc3 U I jrtf HEW WATERWAY OF GERMANY. Great Baltic Canal Engineering En terprise Finally Completed KKillT VfcAKw IN COftSTKt TIO IHatinguiahlng f eature of the Work. Its Hyatem of Look ami the Method Employed lu Building -A Herniation In Shipping Trade of Hamburg. The week of celebrations with which the great Baltic and North Sea Ship Canal is to be opened In June next will mark the consummation of by far the greatest piece of canal en gineering since the Suez Canal was finished in 1869. A noteworthy feat ure of its construction is the fact that it will reach completion within the eight years allotted and that the orig inal estimate for building it, amount ing to $37,440,000, has not been ex ceeded. The work was begun on June 3, 1 887, and its progress since then has been perfectly systematic. During the summer months 8000 men BY THE BALTIC CANAI-. were employed upon it, and in winter 470O. The canal will be of the great est HUpOI UlUl'e, in; i uu ijf UJ tuPuicr chant marine, but to the German navy as well, running as it doeH through the most north erly part of the empire. The German men-of war can pass from one sea to the other without traversing foreign waters, and will be enabled to concentrate rapidly on either the north or Um west coast. It is expected that fully 18,000 merchant ships will pass through the canal yearly. The saving in time will be considerable. Ships plying between the Baltic and points south of Hull will save 298 miles, while Bremen ships will save 392 miles and Hamburg ships 424 miles. LA still more important gain will be made in regard to sarety. The pas sage between Jutland and the Scandi navian peninsula is considered one of the most dangerous in Europe, and yearly about 200 vessels are lost on these ooasts. The Baltic Sea Canal differs in many ways from the Suez Canal and from the projected Panama Canal. The Suez Canal is without lock, since the the mean levels of the lied Sea and the Mediterranean are exactly the same. The Baltio Canal has two locks, one at either end. It 1h also crosseu by two immense railroad bridge Its length is 61 miles, while that of the Suez Canal is 100 miles, including about 75 miles of actual canals and 25 miles of lakes. The general width of the Baltic Canal is 229 feet, but in places it widens out 428 feet, allowing vessels to pass one another. The width of the Suez Canal at the surface is S25 feet. The course of the canal is from Kiel on the Baltic, across the Prussian pro vince of Holstein to a point on the Elbe, near Brunsbuttel. The latter is below Hamburg on the Elbe, and not far from where the river empties into the North Sea. The nature of the soil is in many ways favorable to canal building, although in places the bogs and marshes made the formation of a good bed difficult, and necessitated the use of original methods in dealing with the difficulties. No such abnor mal land formations, rushing torrents or mountains of rock as have inter fered with and delayed the completion of the Panama Canal were met with by the German engineers. There is no land along the course more than eighty feet above sea level, and the soil is for the most part sandy or marshy. For the illustrations the Sun is in debted to the Illustrirte-Zeitung. A distinguishing feature of the Bal tic Canal is its two immense locks. There is seldom any considerable dif ference between the flood tide and tin ebb in the Baltic, usually not oftener than twenty-five times a year. The Baltic lock will, therefore, be used in frequently, and rao.-t of the time will stand open. On the extraordinary occasions mentioned it will be a nec essity for the prevention of irreKUlar currents in the canal. The lock at the Elbe end, on the other hand, will have t he kept closed nearly all the time. The difference of tide tin re so great that the depth of water var ies from ten feet to twenty seven and a half feet. The two locks are the