Newspaper Page Text
SHU PACIFIC COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, HONOLULU, JUNE 11, 1903.
.-If you want to know what smartly dressed men will wear,
this season, ask to see Stein-Bloch Smart Clothes."
STEIN-BLOCH SMART SUITS AND SPRING OVER
COATS, $15.00 to $35--
EVI. WIcIMERWY, Ltd.
IFcart aaadL ZMIercHazit Streets
J", iiBiiDI Prop.
pjfl Beretania Street. Phone Blue 3552. Opposite Hawaiian Hotel.
Opening of New Hat Store
SATURDAY, JUNE 6.
Asada's old Stand, Hotel Street. A complete and new
line of straw and felt hats, also fine line of ladies' hats in latest
PANAMA HATS A SPECIALTY.
Everything new. 28 Hotel St. Everything new.
Castfe & Cooke, Ltd.
The Ewa Plantation Co.
The Walalua Agricultural Co., Ltd.
The Kohala Sugar Co.
The Waimea Sugar Mill Co.
The Fulton Iron Works. St. Louis.
The Standard Oil Co.
The George F. Blake Steam Pump.
The New England Mutual Life Insur
ance Co. of Boston.
The. Aetna Fire Insurance Co. of
The Alliance Assurance Co. of Lon
don. HOUSES MOVED
NEW HOUSES BUILT
Stores and Offices Repaired.
& W. T. PATY
Contractor and Builder
Office 1048 Alakea street,
between King and Hotel.
'Phone Blue 1801.
Union Oil Co.
Office of Hawaiian Department,
room 307 Stangemvald Bldg.
C. C. PERKINS, Supt.
Main office, Mills Building, San
JXO. BAKER. Jr., Mgr.
The Red Front is the only place in
town to buy Woolen Goods reasonably.
A lark rrv A full line of
a a n n
Skill f - -
Cor. Queen and JCuuanu.
$20 Belt for $5.
Frv'ltov Nohun.hu. It cure
Wt- :- c" . '.. V - - .int nl Y
lA.-iVT Trv Electricity. SoApenU.
can.be found between the ex
clusive high-priced custom-tailored
except in the price, which is
about one-half less, and just a
trifle more than you would pay
for the ordinary "ready-made."
In Stein-Bloch Smart Clothes
you will find all the virtues of
the most artistic custom tailor
ing, because they are custom
made (though ready-to-put-on)
by expert journeymen tailors.
A guarantee of "clothes-perfection"
is to be found sewn be
Hap of every
look for it
it stands for all that is good
We are agents for this cele
brated make of men's correct
Rush and Leather
Seated Chairs Mission
Furniture Picture Fram
ing Objects of Art.
Orders taken for miniature
CONTRACTOR AND BUILDER.
Repairing and Home Moving.
Wharf and Bridge Building; alio Re
Telephone Blue 113L Residency HIT
Oahu Ice &
lee Delivered to ny Prt of the city. Island
order promptly filled. Tel. Blue 8151.
i : .. i mm
Labor Tells of
Fair Review of the
Situation as It
Porto Ricans Far Better Off in
Hawaii Than They Were
The Porto Ricans, when they arrived,
gave the least promise, either as citi
zens or as laborers, of any immigrants
that ever disembarked at Honolulu.
The men had been carelessly recruited
at a time when the laboring popula
tion of Porto Ilico was in a condition
of acute distress. It is probable that
few of th?m were in a physical condi
tion to make a long voyage when they
went on shipboard. They were mostly
people from the coffee country of their
own island, who had been starved out
of the mountains when that region was
devastated by the hurricane of 1899.
This was followed by a year of idle-
nes, semidependence, and mendicancy j
in the coast country before they left
for Hawaii. They were half starved,
anaemic, and, in sime cases, diseased.
A considerable number of petty crim-
inals, wharf rats, and prostitutes from
Ponce and other coast towns accom
panied them. They were not so much
representatives of the people of Porto
Rico as of famine and misery in the
abstract when they arrived in Hono
lulu. Numbers of men afflicted with
hydrocele and others diseases, and wi.u
were manifestly incapable of working,
found their way among the immi
grants. But this was hardly the fault
of the Hawaiian planters, who spent
nearly $565,000 to get these men, or
more than $192 passage money and
recruiting expenses for every adult
male arriving, and who were practical
ly interested In their physical well-be
The Porto Ricans appear to have
been well treated during their passage
from Porto Rico to Hawaii, and to
have been provided with as many com
forts as are usually enjoyed by volun
tary immigrants from Europe to the
United States. But their food, while
wholesome and abundant, was not al
ways the kind to which they were ac
customed, and they had been made
ravenous by long starvation. The first
three expeditions passed through San
Francisco in the winter, and, although
they were brought across the country
by the southern route, the lightly clad
,c , ,
bers were subjected to the nele-
,es of what was to them almost
. ,. .
an arctic cnmuie iUl mere ere i w
i iw: i: i
. Lid tri i i , j
vemea any recuperat.on rrom ieae-
10ItOlt? I.UI?HJili lOIIUHIUIl 111 "llltll
they had left their homes. When they
reached the plantations where they
were to be employed, many especially
of the first expeditions, which arrived
in the worst condition were taken
new surroundines. They were morally
upset by their longr travels and chang
ed environment, and many could iv
acquire the new habits of life necessa
ry to their new condition. So a con
siderable nomber became strollers and
vagabonds, and. wherever possible,
flocked into the towns.
The social regimen of the islands is
strict. There is no extreme poverty,
and begging Is unknown. Any indus
trious and able-bodied man can always
find employment in the country, and
planters act upon the theory that a
man who doesn't work Is bound to
steal. So a person . without visible
means of support Is not allowed to re
main on a plantation, and as the plan
tations cover nearly all the settled por
tion of the islands, it is exceedingly
difficult for a man to follow a life of
vagrancy with comfort. A certain
number of Asiatics contrive to do so.
but they live a sort of parasite exist-
ence upon their fellows, visiting from
plantation to plantation among their
more Industrious brothers, and do not
. . I i T IT . w
methods of tramps or public beggars,
Therefore Porto Ricans so disposed did
not find conditions favorable to the
.1 ,i a . f ir- nianta PTtcnno r rommon
dirertlv to the honitals Which ome wrsfnerauy uunw... na..-.. hJ employ were good men, Dut h-i.uiu.il .pu.i "i me x t .w.j..
of S neve left al ve The did no naturally seem a hardship to those ac- 1 P Japanese, while a man immigration was the moral effect that
know how tc , cre r hem" e They:?tomecl.to the somew at.eaSy18' tnff lager Kauai and another on Hawaii their arrival had upon the Japanese
know how to care for themselves. The Rjean niethods. other planta- t. ot nftmnlls m0rp The latter had begun to fancy that
nan to oe taucnt now to live in inru
among their own country population, and w ithout exception they were satis- ,
They were confronted with the neces- fied with their present condition. There ,
sity of constant labor, and this was a are 539 Porto Rican children in the .
new situation to most of them. A fair schools of Hawaii, enjoying education
number are meeting the emergency al facilities that are exceedingly rare
with credit, and are acquiring ha .-.ts in their own country. Some of the bet
of persistent industry that thev might ter educated men are employed in posi
never have gained in their own coun- tions of responsibility, as overseers.
trv P.ut a certain proportion nave
faii.i tr a adnnt themselves to any
sort of an industrious life, and these
LV(1 drifted from the plantations in-
th, tmvns nr their immediate vicini-
tv and form a class of malcontents and
The Porto Ricans arrived in Hawaii
in 11 expeditions, beginning in Decem
ber 19'X. and continuing until October
io ir01 There were about 4.".0 in
partv. the total number of immigrants
being about 5.000. of whom 2.9:J w-ere
men and the remainder women and chil
dren. The exact cost of recruiting and
bringing them to Honolulu was S"04.-
191.6-5. or more tnan jiw per -
sum amply sufficient to assure
j comfortable transportation and enter
tainment while en route.
So far as a personal visit to every
plantation in the islands save one (and
that a place where no Porto Ricans
were or had been employed) was able
to show, the planters appear to have
fully kept their side of this agreement.
In most cases, however, the men have j
left the plantations originally employ-
ing them and wandered from place to
place, taking such positions as their
fancy or necessity dictated, like other
free agricultural laborers. On nearly
every plantation they are given In ad
dition to the wages agreed upon in the
"contract" a bonus of 50 cents a week
for every week in which they work the
full six days. They receive special
consideration in many ways that is not
shown laborers of other nationalities.
One plantation employs a physician
for Porto Ricans exclusively, others
that do not run plantation stoies buy
rice and similar supplies at wholesale
which they sell at cost to these em
ployees; a planter on the island of Ha
waii gives his Porto Ricans a sack of
flour In addition to their weekly bonus
whenever they work a full month of
26 days, and at an another place, where
there are nearly 100 employed, they are
served with a free luncheon of hard
tack and coffee in the field. Among
about 100 Porto Ricans interviewed
there was not a sinele man who com
plained that he had rot receive J full
compensation for his services.
The quarters provided for the Porto
Ricans were In many cases new snd
were usually modeled after those sup
plied the Portuguese, with whom it
was assumed they would associate,
and were superior to most of those oc
cupied by Asiatics. They were com
fortable cottages, equal to the better
class of plantation quarters in the
South or in Cuba, and considerably
superior to the dwellings of the coun
try laborers in Porto Rico. But com
plaint is made that, compared w'th
other workine neoDle in the islands.
i thp habits nf tho Porto Ricans ar.?
untidy, and. as a result, many were
transferred to poorer quarters, and
Asiatics and other laborers were put in
the homes that were originally built
for them. In these things they were
compared with the tidy Japanese and
other Asiatics employed in the islands,
who, as well as the native Hawaiians,
are clean about their persons, and this
fact reacts favorably upon their sur
roundings, even when they neglect san
itation and orderliness about their
PORTO RICANS UNPOPULAR.
This fact has DreJudiced plantation
manajfers and tne people of the islands
i against the Porto Ricans. They are
also unpopular on account of the num
ber of criminals who accompanied
them. Petty thieving was extremely
rare in the country districts of Hawaii
previous to their arrival. In this res
pect the native Hawaiians are almost
perfectly honest, unless corrupted by
city influences, and the Asiatics and oth
er laborers are not inclined to pilfer from
the whites or to commit any lawless
acts that will bring them into direct
relations with other than their own
people. Heretofore doors and windows
of private residences have seldom been
locked, and small articles of value and
other property have been left about
uncared for with perfect security. The
planters state that the arrival of the
I Porto Ricans changed all this and
bring in support of this statement offi
cial statistics- which show that the
commitments per thousand inhabitants
to Oahu Prison, Honolulu, during the
first 10 months of 1902 were, for the
Japanese, 1.1; Chinese, 3; whites, 5.3;
Hawaiians, 6.1; and Porto Ricans, 33.2.
The Porto' Ricans, on their part, have
not been uniformly contented with the
conditions they have encountered in
Hawaii. Complaints of ill usage and
injustice were made. It was claimed
that thev were charged exorbitant
i prices at the plantation stores, and
tQ be at work at unreas.
onab, ear, nourS- A careful mvesti-
'i r.l!int!illAn ctnrpq and
Uon faied to aigc.,ose any extortion
? .V "V"- V" '
in the pr
i stores or any discrimination as
of ,abon The cost of living i3
relatively mgner in "
Porto Rico, so that prices that seem
but normal to those fanuliar with t the
islands might well appear exorbitant
to the new arrivals. The hours of la -
tion laborers work rainy days as a
. i -i v. 1 t. TToii'oil lvnnlrt ciiuo. . i -i ..i. e l T. rls.r.
matter of course, but over this Pntiind nearly as muoh as a Portuguese
considerable trouble with the Porto European Two cases were actu-
Ricans in Hawaii occurred. Especially c0.0f1 wh(irB T'orto Rican and
bere complaints made by those work-
ing in the Hilo and Hamakua districts.
and it is in this country that there is
the most rainfall. As a result of this
climate condition there has been a
gradual movement of the Porto Ricans
toward the dryer sections of the isl
ands, and in those regions they are
more contented and give better satis
faction as laborers
i as laborers. To repeat f state-
already made, the industrial re-
of the islands is a strict one.
nauii ir m uuiin.
couragem?nt is given to idlers. It Is
probably the most energetic tropical
country in the world.
SOME GOOD ONES LEFT.
But the condition of the Porto Ric
ans in Hawaii has another and a pleas
anter side. The hopelessly ill have
died, some of tne uisconteniea nae
left for California, and the criminal
element has been largely weeded out
if t hi - u-nrtini- nnnnl.ntinn in the COUn-
try. There remains upon the planta- (
tions a considerable body of fairly effi-
cient laborers. Representatives of these
were interviewed ur-on all the islands. ,
piuipm-pi'ci.'. .m-cr n....
lcs. lntemeenv iireuiui
wholesome diet, and steady labor have
improved both their physical condition
and their morale
They have lost the
Rejected, drooping walk that cnarac-
terized them on their arrival, and step
out as freely and vigorously as the
jaunty little Japanese. Some of- them
are saving money. One field hand from
Peepeekeo plantation left the lsianus
with $2."0. Another, the head or a lam
ily in the Kohala district, has $110 de
posited with a physician in Honolulu,
and another informed the writer that
he and his family were earning $75 a
month, besides house, fuel, and medi-
cal attendance, and tnat ne inannei
T 1 9
We call your attention that an additional large stock of
white dress Shirt Waists has just been opened, the newest of
styles from the largest New York manufacturers. Now is the
time to make your selection.
Latest style Ladies' Belts at 25 cents.
APPLIQUE EMBROIDERIES AND INSERTION
Just opened a large stock of Swiss Applique Embroideries, Insertion and
Beadings. Excellent values at 12Y2c, 15c. and 16c. yd.
LARGE SHIPMENT OF HOSIERY
Our own Importation direct from the manufacturer,
HERMSDORF DYE FAST BLACK
"We have the best values In Ladies', Misees and Children's Hosiery.
Have you seen our School Hose for Boys and Girls? Fast black, no bet
ter values anywhere.
Dry Goods Remnants in short and dress lengths, much below the regu
PACIFIC IMPORT COMPANY, Ltd.
MODEL BLOCK, FORT STREET,
God he had come to Hawaii." In a
number of instances men had smaller
sums than those mentioned deposited
with their employers.
Many of the Porto Ricans had re
course to Dr. L. C. Alvarez, the Span
ish vice-consul in Honolulu, as a friend
ly adviser during the difficulties and
misunderstandings attending their ar
rival, and have remained in correspon
dence with him since. He has received
complaints of haish treatment from but
3 of the 55 plantations, and when some
rumor was circulated through the isl
ands to the effect that the Washing
ton Government would send a trans
port to take the men back to Porto
Rico some of them wrote to protest
against this gross injustice, as they
considered it, of being deprived of their
present opportunities and forced to re
turn to their own country. Of course
many of the men are homesick, and
probably a very large majority of them
-. . t -1 1 n . . . . n : . .
would welcome an opportunity to re
turn to Porto Rico. They suffer from
the same nostalgia that affects Euro
pean immigrants to the United States.
OPINIONS OF MANAGERS.
The opinions of managers as to the
efficiency of Porto Rican laborers differ,
but most of those interviewed thought
that sifted men, who had remained
steadily on the plantations, were sat
isfactory. From 40 to 60 per cent of
the laborers originally received were
reported good. A few managers, in
cluding one or two wth the longest pay
rolls In the islands, prefer not to have a
Porto Rican in their employ, while
others retain in their, service all who
apply for work. The manager of the
Kohala Sugar Company says in his
report for 1901: "The Porto Ricans
have turned out well and are among
the best laborers on the plantation,
and are improving greatly."
The annual report of Olaa plantation
for the same year contains the follow
ng statement by the manager:
We have on the plantation 23 Porto
Ricans. including women and children. But slightly more than half of
Although there is among them a good ' those imported still remain in planta
deal of poor material, the majority of ; "on work. Of these 539 are accounted
them are fair workers and we have lit- J for by the school children. 166 had been
tie trouble with them. I think the one rommltted to Oahu Prison, and the re
prime reason for this is that we have ainng 2.300 represent minors too
continuously maintained in our employ
a thoroughly competent interpreter, so
that there has been no misunderstand- i
ing between laborers and manager as
'"I One manager states that the Porto ;
'Ricans in his force constantly improve,
I to what was wanted on tunt-r ,
l. .. . . 1 . IVnir hgva t- taiint to
I eat sufficient and wholesome food. A1"
mogt opinion was recently ex-
, seJ b a larg.e employer of native
in Cuba The manager at Wa!.
, .v,- Tnrtn Ricans remain-
U& lGb HIVUQ - .
chanced to be work-
Ing in the same field, in one Instance
cutting cane and in the other distrib-
uting fertilizer, and on both occasions
the Porto Ricans were covering ground
much faster than the Orientals. There
was complaint that Porto Ricans work
"ds -ouiL)itniiL umi i ....
irregularly, but this is only partiany
borne out bv the figures taken from
"ie m - are fol.
a iiv a ti - - f
Average number of men employ
Average days worked per month 22
Days worked 21.34
" , " ,
It should be said of the Chinese, how
ever, that since the exclusion law went
into effect with annexation most of
the younger and most vigorous work
ers have gone back to China, leaving
behind the gamblers and opium smok
ers, and those who. on account of age
funds to return to their own country.
The best workers among the Chinese
are also drafted off to the rice fields
by employers of their own nat onanty.
PO that altogether only a remnant of
the poorest hands remain as day la
borers on the plantation. The Porto
Ricans are incited to regular work by
a special bonus of "0 cents a wek for
every full week of labor, which induce
ment is not offered to Asiatics.
There has been practically no change
in the number of Porto Ricans work
ing on the plantations during the year
1:"'2. though there was a rapid decrc-ae
previous to that time, which would
tend to show that after the naturally
vagrant and criminal classes were once
eliminated the remainder form a reas
onably steady class of employees. The
figures of the total number, of both,
sexes, employed at different dates, as
given by the Planters' Association, are
October, 1901 2.0S5
February, 1902 1,851
September 30, 1902 1,852
Of the 55 plantations in Hawaii, 34
had Porto Ricans on their pay rolls .
in the autumn of 1902. One thousand
seven hundred men,- or lightly more
than 58 per cent of the whole number
of men Imported, were then employed,
and were earning an average monthly
wage, without bonus, of $17.52. Includ
ing the weekly bonus of 50 cents paid
to a very large majority of them for
regular work, their possible wages were
1 nearly $2 a month more than this, and
I .wn 1 . 1 1. 1 : 1 i
their real monthly earnings probably
averaging between $18 and $19. On one
plantation, where the actual wages paid
54 Porto Rican employees were aver
aged for the month of August, 1902, It
was found that they earned $18.85 each,
or 51 cents a month more than the
Japanese. There were also 172 Porto
Rican women employed, at an average
wage of $11.13 a month, and 164 minors,
whose average wages were $10.20. The
occupations of the men were distrib
uted as follows: Four held clerical
positions, paying an average of $35.32
a month; 11 were overseers, receiving
$30.29 a month; 18 mechanics and me
chanics' helpers received $21.57; 29
teamsters received $20.61; 15 wharf
men received $19.77? 15 railway laborers
received $20; 9 mill hands received
$18.20; and 1.734 field hands and com
mon laborers received, without in
cluding the bonus, an average of $16.13
a month. The average wages of the
Porto Ricans employed on the planta
tions are therefore higher than those
promised them when they left Porto
. ...w.. j-
ed off of the plantations, and the vag-
collected in Honolulu Some also have
U aiU cx lew iiavu v v 1 mc v- warn.
Twenty-three Porto Ricans are also
engaged in cultivating on contracts
and are earning about $26 a month
besides quarters, fuel, and medical at
tendance. These are not included
among the plantation wage earners
From the planters' point of view an
with the enforcement of the Federal
Chinese exclusion and contract laws
after annexation they were complete
masters of the labor situation in Ha
waii. They formed temporary combln
or tic-al periods of the Ranting and
grinding season, and In this way had
succeeded in forcing up wages. This
is sufficiently shown by the rise Jn
the average wage of field hands from
ca TC s.nc a -7:i- or nn nrrfflse
. - -- - - -
of over 2, per cent, during the year
ending June 30. 1901-the first 12 months
following annexation. The regular ar-
riVal of monthly expeditions of Porto
Rican laboring people throughout an
i entire year largely disabused them of
! this sense of monopoly and made them
much more reasonable in their relations
with their employers.
"" '4. THE ULTIMATE EFFECT.
32 ' The ultimate effect of the Porto Rican
21.95 immigration upon the islands will prob
ably be unimportant. Those who re
main will doubtless amalgamate more
or less with the Portuguese during
their transition into Hawaiian-Americans.
They and their descendants
will in all probability be vastly better
off than they had any prospect of be
ing in their own country. They have
brought with them a criminal element
which it may take time to eliminate,
but which will find the islands a de
cidedly discouraging field for opera
tions, and they have faults and weak
nesses which it may require a genera
tion or two fully to correct. They are
somewhat given to drinking, gambling,
and carrying concealed weapons, and
are more quarrelsome and vindictive
than the other inhabitant?. Difficulties
sometimes arise between them and the
Japanese. The latter are seldom the
aggressors and rather fear the porto
Ricans in individual disagreements, but
on one or two occasions, when their
blood was up. it required prompt and
energetic police interference to pre
vent a sudden extermination of the
local Porto Rican population. The
customs of the two people are so dif
ferent that trouble is apt to result if
they are placed in neighboring quar
ters. The Japanese, for instance, have
(Continued on page 4.)
is '.Wj: Strict, he 0BS. B- T
P. O. Box 600-