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THE PACIFIC COMMERCIAL ADVEETISEE, HONOLULU, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 30, 1910.
! j :;) IK t : 4 m 1 M'm" IT BIS TO TUT INSECTS but Hedges With Certain Reservations. THE DANGERS OF IMPORTING .an,! Nsi frail's woodpecker i Iryobate- . uuttail; s. hut a of which birds might be id. rained ih California and both are ' cry useful. Sri i;ir as yi-a-e :iwi-t a i con- i'enit"i. and other Miial! ine;t pots. can i:!ireervcd!y r uninMid anv of ; the cinekadees. as the plain tit;nou-e i 1 taeninjiiiii-i Uiornutus iuru;itu ', mountain ri,U-k;td-e ' IVnthestes gam- Prof. Hcnshaw Gives Advice,:"1;11 i.mh). a.funm chu-kadee tnsh-ri? ( I'.-ai? rijiarus Mi a iiinisrn ini !!!is. aisii the wren-tit (Chairmen fas eiata i'-is.:i;itu. ) Both the latter species aboui. 1 p.i'iir San .Francisco. 1 should in it l.f-!T:t to recommend also any of the i t-atchci . or j In 1 . like Say's ilyeatilicr (Sayornis s-tyus). the black fl catcher ( Sayornis nigricans) of "al i fornia. and the ash-throated flycatcher i M via I '-'nas cineraseens 1. These three spe.dc ar it is trut. migratory, and it is bv no !!;' ans obtain that they would forego the migratory instinct and efi.sout to remain in the Islands, (in tl account it would be better to select tropical nonniigratory llycatch crs. a- -pedes of the genus Myiarehus. 1'itana and Myiozetetes, all of Mex ico. The vermilion flycatcher of Tex as. Aiizona and Mexico, besides being very beautiful, is an active flycatcher Ihing much in rather open fields and is nonmitrrafory over much of its rar.go. The little Australian tl- -tchcr von mention might also jirovc . very desirable inlialdtanf of the Islan.ls. and it is very likely to thrive there, as the little tlycatchcr, or elepaio. now Jis tversed over the uplands of several of' Successful Australian Methods for Dealing With Similar Insect Pests. "I can unreservedly recommend ' IJaeolophus inoriiatiis inornatus. I'en thestes gambeli gaml.ieli. l'enthestes: rufescens neglect as. 1's.altrijiarus Mini-, niusminimus and hamaea fas ciata fasciata." These are not more Filipinos coming to join the last batch of cripples, neither are they Egyptian heirogylphies. No, they are merely names, just ordinary common names., tuch as are used in the every day bird life of the mainland. The longer the name the shorter and smaller the bird.' For instance the last spasm but one is what the men who wander round the. earth with a big net and long hair call ; the poor and iuoif'-n-ive little bush-tit. ' These names occur ia a letter written to Entomology Superintendent Ehrhorn : by II. W. Henshav,- .if the bureau of; biological survey at Washington, and; was read at the meeting of the board j of agriculture on Wednesday. At a meeting of the board held on Novem ber 21 'he matter of the introduction of useful birds into Hawaii was brought up and Mr. Ehrhorn appointed to look into the matter. The letter of Professor Henshaw was: "Mr. Edward M. Ehrhorn. Superin tendent of Entomology, Honolulu. ''Dear sir: Your letter of Novem-j ber 22 requesting information as to the; desirability of importing foreign birds; intn the Hawaiian Islands for the pur pose of destroying noxious insects is ' received. In reply I have to state that! the habits and standing of a bird in j its native home never afford absolutely1 safe criteria from which to judge what : it may do in a foreign country where' its habits may change considerably ; hence, the importation of any species : must always be regarded as an experi- ment to be carefully watched till the: bird has become well established in its j new home and its habits there thor-; oughlv known. "It may be set down as an axiom ; that the introduction of birds, in large j part seed' and fruit eaters, into any ; agricultural country is to be avoided,, since such birds are almost sure to! prove a nuisance by attacking f ruit j and grain crops., The English sparrow j is a well known instance of the harm ; that may come from the introduction; of a natural seed eater, only to a com-i parativelv small extent insectivorous,; into the "United States. Although in-1 troduced also into the Islands, this bird) has apparently not thriven an,I in-' ereased there as it does in a colder j climate, and hence so far has done com-i parativelv ;ittle harm. Much the same statement applies to the California house finch now domiciled in several , of the Islands. It is a serious nuisance i in parts of California because it de-j stroys large quantities of small fruits,; and' in time it may become a nuisance in the Island?. "Neither the bobolink nor any spe- eies of blackbird should be considered for a moment as a candidate for intro duction. The former is a pest to the rice planter. In lSO when the rice crop of South Carolina was valued at, upward? of six millions of dollars, this bird it was estimated destroyed at least one-third of the crop, to the value of two millions of dollars. "The I'.rt-wer's blackbird might pos sibly prof an exception to the rule, but it is exceedingly gregarious in fall and winter, ami any birds that assem ble in larger flocks are to be regarded with suspicion as they are capable of, indicting great damage on crops when they turn their attention to them. "I can ve no harm' likely to result from the introduction into the I!and of any of the small spotted woodpeck ers, as for instance. Gardner's wood pecker (Iryobates putneo. irairdr.eri). the Islands was probably derived orig inally from Australian stocrt. "Anv species of swallow or night hawk could be introduced with perfect ; safety and with the certainty of yield- ing valuable service, since these birds- ' live almost exclusively on insects. Fn- j fortunately our American species are ! migratory, but the purple martin of j northern Mexico is nonmigratory, is a ; greedy insect eater, and could be rather! easily obtained and transported, cspe- .'ially when young. The same statement j may be made of a tropical swallow liv- i ing on the coast of Mex:eo (Taehyri-j neta albilimea). I should personally : like to see an attempt made to intro-1 duee one or more of the several species i of California humming-birds into the j Islands, although the desirability of. doing this rests more upon esthetic than economic grounds. Thev live tn '' considerable extent upon minute in-! sects, which they find within the corol- : las of flowers, and also upon the nectar j of flowers. I do not doubt for a mo- ; ment that they would thrive wonder- j fullv well in the gardens about llono- i lulu.' and also in the mountain districts ! where the ohia abounds, the flowers of I which would furnish them an abundance of food. Xor do I see any difficulty j in "the way of transporting them by ! steamer to Honolulu, as they could be I fed upon water sweetened with sugar! during the six or seven days of the ! voyage. j "An attempt to acclimatize the; moi king-bird in the Islands would be : sure to arouse popular interest, would ! probably be successful, and would be at- j tended with comparatively little risk, i It is almost exclusively insectivorous ; during the breeding season and largely! so the year round. The mocking-bird ; would be a fine addition to the Island j avifauna, though it can not be roeom-j mended unreservedly. ; "There is another bird which Ij think worthy of trial, about the size of a bluebird, and known to dealers as the "Peking nightingale" or "Japa nese robin.'" Its .scientific name is Liothrix lutea. and it is somewhat re lated to the thrushes, but is probably nearer the flycatchers. It lives to; some extent on small fruits and on in- i sects. It would be easy to obtain this ! bird from San Francisco bird dealers. . Tiiere are a good manv wild berries in ; the Islands, including the native black-;' berry or akala. the introduced Jamaica ! raspberry, the introduced mulberry and j the native species, together with a 1 numhf r of berry-bearing trees the j names of which I have forgotten. ; These should furnish abundant food for! such berry eaters as the ones just men- i tioned. and would greatly lessen the chances of their attacking cultivated ones. 'The game birds, like the turkey. tdieasants and quail, so far introduced into the Islands have suffered from the j mongoose, since thy nest on the ground, and. together with the native ' Hawaiian goose, are likely to ultimately undergo practical extermination. Should ; further introduction of game birds into ! the Islands be contemplated, I would suggest trial of the following, all in-; habitant of Mexico: Chachalaea (Or- : talis i. gxinn (Penelope) and eurassow ('.rax). These gallinaceous birds are I to a considerable extent forest inhabit--' ers, would furnish excellent sport and Ti e eurassow would ! best in humid regions, j in d ryer part. A'l : readily, and in Mrxi-o aboot the houses of rg freely with tie1 do- : i: ey r e'd on v ! ; i i 1 or- 1 ries and insects, and nest well up in j manner. All orchards where there were forest trees. This latter fact makes j old and neglected trees must, be cleared them particularly good snhiects fori nf tin i,,mlT.ii...M K,. .!; n o ,;.t.M ... C liiw mi.uui'.illlll.J.Ji AM UIUL V'-U Vi 1 " uI inspection the pest was Kept nniler and has now practically been cheeked. The idea of the regulations was based on the life history of the fly. The female1 ily has an ovipositor with which she! punctures the fruit. There the young larvae eats away at the heart of the fruit until he turns it rotten and it drops to the ground. He then crawls out and burrows into the soil at the foot of the tree unil it is time for him to again come into the world in the form of a fly. By destroying all the affected fruit many thousands of these insects are killed off and the iest thus held in check. Another method which was also found to be a decided success was the hanging about the tree of flat tins of kerosene. The smell of this has i great attraction for all insects and they swarm round it until overcome by he fumes. These are methods followed by the departments there and have proved to be a great success and this should make if worth while attempt ing something of the same sort here. If the study of the life history of an ;.n sects are made, then some scheme of stopping their breeding can generally be evolved, but if they are allowed to breed at their own sweet will and only the chance of imported birds taking to them be tried-then the insects must win out every time. The whole scheme is one that will need a groat deal of thought before anv definite action is taken: for al though Piofessor Henshaw 's- letter ad vises certain birds which may safely be tried, he does so with reservations and says that, although they may be safe as far as he knows, he can not guarantee them. Other methods should he followed out which are absolutely careful overhauling of trees and killing I out. of all borers found in them, and, ' more than anything else, the proper j supervision of all places where fruit is : grown, whether privately or not. espe cial care being taken that all trees, ' which at the present time are being allowed to grow rs.t random, should either have proper care given them or be roofed out holus-bolus. L'CtS trial m the Islands, as thev would b largely exempt from attacks by the mongoose. 'It is impossible to predict before hand the probable results of an attempt to establish the foregoing species in the Islands, though I see no reason whv any of them, except the migratory spe . eies, which are doubtful, may not thrive there. Sometimes, however, two or three attempts to establish a species in a foreign country have to be made before the bird is finally acclimatized, it may be said that the general historv of efforts to acclimatize birds in for ; eign parts shows many more failures ; than successes. It has always unfor tunately proved easier to secure and ! import the hardy seed eaters, which ; '-an be bought in almost any bird store, than the more delicately organized in sertivores, which explains largely win so many disastrous importations' have been made in different parts of the world. The introduction of really use ful species, on the other hand, can not ; be attempted without entailing e.onsid ; erabie expense and trouble. Hence the rarity of properly conducted experi ments. "Should attempts be made to import into the Islands any birds from Cali fornia. I would suggest that you can probably obtain all necessary informa tion as to where they can best be se cured from .Joseph (irinnell of the Mu seum of Vertebrate Zoology Cniversity ixt' i'.. l e..i. ..i r . " ' i-i. ueiheiey. j nave no I ooui.t that Miss Annie M. Alexander. Oakland. California, through whose generosity the museum has been estab lished, would take great interest in the matter. T shall be slad to supply anv 1 miner niiormaiion on the SUbieet r. : i ! .... ' io aiu 1 1 1 any way within mv erv trim- vours. "II. Y. HENSHAW. "chief. Biological Survey." Advisability of the Scheme. While the idea of introducing insec tivorous birds into the Islands is"a "ood or i power very danger- j one, in some ways, it is a ous experiment in others. It is a meth od which has been tried in many coun tries, more especially in the fruit grow ing ones, and with very mixed success. Professor Henshaw, in the opening paragraph of his letter, points out the weak spot in the whole scheme. He says, "In reply I have to state that the habits and standing of a bird in its native home never afford absolute ly safe criteria from which to judge what it may do in a foreign country, where its habits may change consider ably; hence, the importation of any species must always be regarded as an experiment to be carefully watched until the bird has become well estab lished in its new home and its habits there become thoroughly known." With birds, as with all other living things, food is all a matter of environ ment. When a new species of bird is introduced into a country its natural food may be indigenous or it may not. Where the latter is the case, then the bird has to look around for some other food and in many cases through some freak of nature picks out just the op posite to what it has been accustomed to in the ordinary course of events. Thus an insectivorous bird on the mainland mav become a fruit Oi grain Consumption The time was when consumption was! ii. 1 1 i- -, rnougnt to ie an lncuraoie disease, dut today this dreaded White Plague is known to be curable under the enlight ened care of the doctors of all schools, when accompanied in the treatment by that wonderful remedv Duffy's Pure Malt Whiskey It corrects the de fective digestion of the food, increases the appetite, strengthens the heart, gives force to the circulation, cures insomnia, and brings restfulness to the brain and nervous forces. We have thousands tients who write us of grateful pa- thev have been danger lies. In Australia a case of this sort has lately come under notice in eonnection with the English star lings. From the time these birds were brought into the country they were pro tected as it was thought they were a pretty and harmless addition to the avifauna. During the last few years, however, their habits have altogether changed and thev have become ramnant fruit eaters. Whether this has been hastened along by their gregarious habits, mention of which is also made by Professor Henshaw. or not. is only a matter of guesswork but the fact that they are now classed among the worst of the fruit eaters and are also the worst enemies of orchardisfs. This is o'iy one of the cases in which birds hive been known to change their habits, but what perhaps is the worst feature in if is, that their natural foci is round them in plenty but they uow refuse to touch it. Australian Methods. Tn Australia they have been faced with an insect which at one time threatened to practically put a stop to fruit growing. The damage was being eater when imported into these Islands j t.Ured after thev were given up by the and this is where the whole of the . .loetors If you wish to keep young, strong and vigorous and have on your cheeks the glow of perfect health, take Duffy's : Pure Malt Whiskey regularly, accord j ing to directions. It tones and strength , ens the heart action and gives vigor to 'the entire system. It is recognized as! a family medicine everywhere. It is,; invaluable for overworked men, delicate ! women and sickly children. It is a pro- j moter of health and longevity. j Refuse substitutes and imitaiions; they are impure and dangerous. Send for free medical booklet and advice. ) The Duffv Malt Whiskev Co.. Rochester, ! i X. Y., U. S. A. j Arts and Crafts Shop j j Exquisite Articles in High Art. ! ; Artistic Framing. Kodak Developing. Printing. Alex. Young Building. i. bv the birds were pest but a re pro the t 'it f r re-' tiTie eat:ng. ably thrive ehaciiaiaca tamed v e ming Wis. ' h e are liter; ! v .lefts' fruit flv and imported to ' cope with th without success. 1 ho department ot agriculture then adopted another scheme which' has proved successful. They appointed fruit inspectors to each district whose duty was to inspect ev ery orchard and see that the conditions as laid down were faithfully carried o'.-t. The main regulations were as fol low: All fruit lying round the foot s was to be picked up and wenty minutes or else lv rnt. hich showed anv sign of the o to be treated in a similar oi the tree boiled for All fntir w flv wa- ai.- We will give you the Best and the Quickest Laundry Service In the city. Sanitary Steam Laundry Phone 1973. Gatton, Neil & Company, Ltd ENGINEERS AND MACHINISTS Second and South Sts.. Kakaako. Boilers-retubed with charcoal iron or steel tubes. General ship work. If it is correct, Mclnerny has it IT'S TIME TO THINK Your wardrobe may need attention in order that you . may appear on the street and at functions in correct attire. 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