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AUSTIN'S HAWAIIAN WEEKLY.
such agreements in nearly every State and city, they have been compelled to withdraw from fur ther business in Arkansas and to let the people there bear their own fire losses. Business in terests are suffering and mass-meetings have been held to protest against the severity of this law. These laws are similar to those of our fore fathers which were intended to regulate values, prices and trade. They prevent the free and bene ficial exchange of products and interfere with progress." The magnitude of the trust agitation in the United States can be appreciated when the Amer ican Rcvicio of Reviews has seen fit in the June number to give more than one-half of its valu able editorial space to articles on the subject. It says, in part : "If the organization of labor, even to the ex tent of the complete and monopolistic control of a great many important trades, is defensible and is a part of the natural and unavoidable move ment of economic society in our age, it may be none the less true that the combination of capital engaged in a given line of industry is also in the main trend of our economic development, and therefore not to be prevented either by denuncia tion or by enactments. Up to a certain point the old-fashioned competitive system was not waste ful, but, on the contrary, afforded a useful regula tion of production and of price. The whole tendency, however, of business progress espe cially in a country like ours where vastness of natural resources and the rapid growth of popula tion promote the growth of small businesses into enterprises conducted on a large scale seemed to render the competitive system inadequate and wasteful." "The word trust as applied to this new method of amalgamation in industrial production is not accurate or well chosen. Some years ago. it is true, the name fairly applied to several combina tions. Their plan was not to consolidate what had been competing properties, but to escape the wastefulness of the competitive methods and gain numerous advantages that would accrue from union and harmony. The respective owners did not give up the ownership of their properties, but they assigned their holdings of stock to a com mon board of trustees, which was authorized to operate the plants as one system, although sepa rate corporations were nominally maintained. This arrangement, which constituted a trust in the literal sense, was assailed on legal grounds and was abandoned." It is quite true that the magnitude of the oper ations in the United States make large combina tions necessary for the economic handling of the vast and diversified products", and it is an open question whether the saving of wasted energy is not a benefit to the nation at large in putting the American people on a basis which enables them to compete in commerce with foreign nations. It certainly must have been something of a surprise to American labor organizations to note the Eng lish view of their brother workmen across the At lantic upon the subject of trust combinations. In speaking of the ease with which American firms are obtaining English orders in competition with established concerns at home Mr. George N. Barnes, Secretary of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers, is quoted as saying that: "The great advantage enjoyed by American producers arises from the centralization of indus try. American combines, whatever temporary result to the status of workmen, have certainly resulted in a more economical use of labor. Centralization and specialization are giving an enormous advantage to American firms, and inas much as they are entirely on the line of progress, we would welcome them here." It is probable that the question which is now agitating the American people will solve itself. Twenty years ago the Spreckels' interest here Developments constituted a veritable trust but in that short time the combination has gradually changed hands and is dominated by a host of small investors. If the American people will see to it that the great com binations of capital do not use their power to destroy individual rights trust corporations may be made the means of advancing prosperity by conserving and concentrating the energies of the nation. m H f Most of the South American States have in creased their population South American s.everal fld. sine ti)c? threw on the Spanish yoke. Only in a few btates has foreign im migration been an important factor in the in crease, though all the republics promote immigra tion by all means in their power. Even Paraguay, which is commonly regarded as the least enter prising among them, pays the passage of immi grants from Buenos Ayres and supplies oxen and farming tools, to be paid for in produce or labor. All the republics have vast, unoccupied spaces that some clay will contribute largely to the national wealth. But at present there are not enough hands to till the soil or start the wheels of man ufacture. Even in Chili, one of the most pros perous States, there is no densely peopled region except in the provinces around Valparaiso and Santiago. If any part of the civilized world has reason to declare that the human race is not equitably and rationally distributed, it is South America. With Europe overcrowded, and the United States no longer clamoring for foreign labor, there is no more inviting field than South America, and the coming century is certain to witness such a vast addition to the producing and consuming elements of the continent as to give it a high place in the world's industry. This fact is now undoubted, and it affirms the wisdom of those nations who are now laying broadly the foundations for the future development of their commercial relations with South America. V The situation in the Philippines is growing more serious as time Situation Growing wears on. The san guine expectation of the Ser,ous McKinley administra tion, that the complete pacification of the Philippines could be announced in a few weeks, is not being realized. On the contrary orders have been sent to all the recruit ing stations to hasten the enlistment of men. It has been decided to increase General Otis' force to 35,000. The possibility of the necessity for a call for volunteers to serve in the Philippines is hinted at, while the very close censorship of news dispatches at Manila is very ominous. There must be something wrong. It cannot be sun posed that our valiant men are being whipped and that the news is being suppressed. The Ameri can troops are certainly fighting at a very great disadvantage, and until enough men are sent Gen eral Otis to garrison points captured permanent success mav not be looked for. Mr. Schimmerhorn, well-known here, who en listed with the California regiment, has iust re turned from Manila. He savs that it is the pre vailing opinion in the armv that it will take 6s. oon to too.ooo fighting men to pacify and occmy the islands. Tf so. win not send enough m" over to quell the rebellion and have done with the disgraceful episode. Tt mierht be suggested that another General he sent, who is a little les prhitrorv and has a better grasp of the local situa tion. Would it not have been better to have granted Aguinaldo an armistice pendincr th ar rangement of a form of government satisfaetor" to the Fi1ini"os than to have arbitrarily demnl") "'"conditional surrender, which they are evidently in no mood to grant. At the Hague we are acjvo. Round About eating the settling of difficulties by arbitration while in the Philippines in action we decline to arbitrate. It seems just a little bit inconsistent. Vt K Major C. J. Younghusband's book under this title is attracting con- The Philippines and siderable attention. Il lustrative 01 vumirai Dewey's promptness and grasp of situation, Major Younghusband mentions this minor inci dent: A letter was received one evening from Agui naldo, saying that he had attempted to land on a certain small island in the bay and to take pos session of it, together with some Spanish prison ers who had been left there, but had been pre vented from carrying out the operation by the German man-of-war, the Irene, the captain of which ship appears to have been a singularly in discreet person. The admira' -European com plications or no complications very naturally resented this second infraction of "sea manners," and calling on board the captains of the Rakish and Boston, gave them explicit orders to proceed at once to the scene of dispute, and to land troops on the island at all hazards. These instructions were literally and promptly executed. The two American war-vessels cleared for action, run up their fighting pennants, and bore down in all earnestness upon the good German. The local emblem of the "mailed fist" had hardly bargained for this exceedingly prompt and robust action, and cleared out with more haste than decency, some say slipping his cable in his hurry, and left Aguinaldo and the Americans to effect the neces sary capture. Tn the extraordinary and unwarrantable be havior of the Germans lay the chief danger to the general peace, but German bluster was met with ouiet dignity by the American commander, who showed the most undaunted front and clearlv declared that if the Germans did not as neutrals adhere to the laws of neutrals he would fire on them: "But that, sir, would mean war with Ger man v." said the horror-stricken German admiral. "I am perfectly aware of the fact," was the suave replv of Admiral Dewey. When the aucstion of the bombardment of Manila was tinder discus sion, a matter which lay entirely between the bel ligerents, and which remained for them, and them alone, to decide, the German admiral was again on the point of exceeding his rights as a neutral in interfering, and with a view to ascer taining whether the British squadron would sup port him. he visited Sir Edward Chichester, and asked what action he proposed taking in the event of the Americans bombarding the town. "That, sir, is known only to Admiral Dewev and myself," was Sir Edward Chichester's polite but crushing reply. "Army officers at the seat of war." says the writer, "appear to be almost unanimous in depre cating the annexation of the Philippines on mili tary grounds, while the naval opinion seems to be in favor of it on the ground that increasing commerce in Eastern Asia needs the fostering influence which the display of power in any quarter is supposed to bring." He adds: Tt may perhaps be prophesied that when the cold fit which will in due course follow the warmth of the present enthusiasm, falls on the nation, America will discover the true parting of the ways was not in the actual act of annexation, but in having allowed Admiral Dewey to do more than defeat the Spanish fleet and exact a heavy indemnity from the city before sailing away, thus leaving the Philippine problem for the Spaniards and their friends to solve. The new masters of the islands have, in fact, been faced by two separate and distinct problems, the one connected with the external bearings of an-